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Full text of "Microcomputing Magazine (January 1982)"

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A WAYNE GREEN PUBUCATIO 



January 1982 USA $2.95 . 




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Percom's Double-Density Disk Controller. 
You Even Get a Bonus 
Parallel Printer Port. 

$249.95 



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Expect more from Percom. You won't be disappointed. 



Percom's double-density Z Controller for the H-89 is 
now available. Besides its many outstanding drive 
control features, the Z Controller includes a bonus 
parallel port that lets you directly connect your com- 
puter to a standard, off-the-shelf Epson MX-80, Oki- 
data Microline 80 or other low-cost printer. 

• Controls up to four single- or double-headed mini-disk drives. 

• Handles 35-, 40-, 77- and 80-track drives, and other standard 
track densities. • Formatted data storage capacity of 80-track dis- 
kettes is over 368 Kbytes. Forty-track diskettes store over 184 
Kbytes. Capacities for other track densities are proportional. A Z 
system with four double-headed, 80-track drives provides almost 
3 megabytes of on-line data. • The Z Controller co-resides with 
your H-89 disk drive controller. Your software can select either, 
and you don't have to move drives around when switching be- 
tween systems. • The Z Controller includes Percom's proven dig- 
ital data separator circuit and a dependable write -precompensation 
circuit. Expect reliable disk operation for a long, long time under 'Z' 
control. • The Percom Z Controller is priced at only $249.95, com- 
plete with HDOS-compatible disk drivers on diskette, internal inter- 
connecting cable and comprehensive users manual. 

System requirements — H-89 Computer with 24 Kbytes memo- 
ry (min), Replacement ROM Kit H-88-7 and HDOS 2.0. 



PERGOM 



PERCOM DATA COMPANY, INC. 

1 1220 PAGEMILL RD. DALLAS. TX 75243 
(214) 340-7081 

Toll-Free Order Number: 1-800-527-1222 

C 1981 PERCOM DATA COMPANY. Inc. 

PERCOM, ZFD 40 and ZFD 80 are trademarks of Percom Data Company 

CP/M is a trademark of Digital Research Corporation. 



Add-On Z Drives for H-89, H-8 Computers 

• Forty- and eighty-track densities in either 1- or 2-drive modules. 

• All drives are rated for single- and double -density operation. With 
a Z Controller, an 80-track drive can store over 364 Kbytes (for- 
matted, one-side), a 40-track drive can store over 184 Kbytes. 

• Some models permit "flippy" storage, letting you flip a diskette 
and store files on the second side. • Z drives are fully tested, includ- 
ing a 48-hour operating burn -in to prevent shipment of drives with 
latent defects. • Assembled and tested one-drive units from only 
$399, two-drive units from only $795. 

System requirements - H-89 or H-8 computer with 16-Kbyte 
RAM, Heath first-drive floppy disk system, HDOS and drives inter- 
connecting cable. (Two-drive interconnecting cable optionally 
available from Percom) 

PRICES AND SPECIFICATIONS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. 

Watch for announcement of 'Z' CP/M. 



Yes ... I'd like to know more about Percom Z drives and the 
Z Controller. Rush me free literature. 

Send to 

PERCOM DATA COMPANY, Inc., Dcpt. 26KI 

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Most small system users think all micro- 
I computers are created equal. And they're 
right. If you want performance, convenience, 
styling, high technology and reliability (and 
who doesn't?) your micro usually has a price 
tag that looks more like a mini. It seems big 
performance always means big bucks. But 
not so with the SuperBrain! 

Standard SuperBrain features include: twin 
[double-density 5 1 / 4 " drives which boast nearly 
|350,000 bytes of disk storage - expandable 
to 10 megabytes. A full 64K of dynamic 
IAM. A CP/M* Disk Operating System to 
pnsure compatibility to literally hundreds of 
ipplication packages presently available. And, 

12" non-glare, 24 line by 80 column screen. 



You'll also get a full ASCII keyboard with 
an 18 key numeric pad and individual cursor 
control keys. Twin RS232C serial ports for 
fast and easy connection to a modem or 
printer. Dual Z80 processors which operate 
at 4 MHZ to insure lightning-fast program 
execution. And the list goes on! Feature after 
feature after feature. 

Better yet, the SuperBrain boasts modular 
design to make servicing a snap. A common 
screwdriver is about the only service tool 
you'll ever need. And with the money you'll 
save on purchasing and maintaining the 
SuperBrain, you could almost buy another one. 
For under $3,500, it is truly one of the most 
remarkable microcomputers available anywhere. 



Whether your application is small 
business, scientific, educational or just word 
processing, the SuperBrain is certainly an 
exciting solution to the small computer 
problem. And since you can easily expand it, 
you'll probably never outgrow it. 

Call or write us today for a complimentary 
copy of our "SuperBrain Buyer's Guide." We'll 
show you how you can get big system per- 
formance without having to spend big bucks. 



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MICROCOMPUTING 



PUBLISHER/EDITOR 

Wayne Green 

EXECUTIVE VICE PRESIDENT 

Sherry Smythe 

EDITORIAL MANAGER 

Jeff DeTray 

PUBLICATIONS MANAGER 

Edward Ferman 

MANAGING EDITOR 

Dennis Brisson 

ASSISTANT MANAGING EDITOR 

Susan Gross 
COPY EDITOR 

Eric Moloney 

TECHNICAL EDITORS 

Harold Nelson 

G. Michael Vose 

EDITORIAL ASSISTANTS 

Lise Markus. Linda Stephenson 

ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANTS 

Pat Graham. Nancy Noyd 
ASSOCIATE EDITORS 

Robert Baker, Ken Barbier, Frank Derfler. Jr.. Rod 
Hallen. Peter Stark. Sherm Wantz 

PRODUCTION MANAGER/PUBLICATIONS 

Nancy Salmon 
ASSISTANT PRODUCTION MANAGER 

Michael Murphy 

ADVERTISING GRAPHICS 

Steve Baldwin. Dennis Christensen. Robert Drew. 

Bruce Hedin. Jane Preston 

PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT 

Joan Ahern, Frances Benton. Fiona Davies. 

Linda Drew, Bob Dukette. Sandra Dukette. 

Kenneth Jackson. Pat Mackowsky. Theresa 

Ostebo. Sharon Phinney. Dianne Ritson. 

Deborah Stone. Susan Symonds. Anne 

Vadeboncoeur, Irene Vail, Judi Wimberly. 

Donna Wohlfarth 

PHOTOGRAPHY 

Terrie Anderson, Paul Babich 

William Heydolph, Thomas Villeneuve 

TYPESETTING 

Sara Bedell, Michele DesRochers, David 

Hayward. Stephen Jewett. Mary Kinzel, Kelly 

Smith, Karen Stewart 

DESIGN CONSULTANTS 

Invisible Inc. 

Elaine Cheever, Corporate Designer 

Denzel Dyer. Howard Happ, Laurie MacMHIan, 

Joyce Pillarella, Susan Stevens 



EXECUTIVE ASSISTANT 

Leatrice O'Neil 
ACCOUNTING MANAGER 

Knud Keller 

DIRECTOR OF MARKETING 
603-924-7296 

Debra Boudrieau 

CIRCULATION 

Doris Day, Pauline Johnstone. 

Dion Owens, designer 

BULK SALES MANAGER 

Ginnie Boudrieau 

ASSISTANT TO THE PRESIDENT 

Matthew Smith 

ADVERTISING 

603-924-7138 

Louise Caron, John Gancarz, Susan Martin. 

Hal Stephens. 

Marcia Stone. Office Mgr. 



APPUCATIONS 

28 Rubik'S Cube Demystified Curtis and Lillian Cooper 
With practice, you can master this puzzle. 

32 First Aid for Cuber's Thumb Paul Turviii 

For Z-80 puzzle buffs to reduce the risk of thumb-joint injury. 



Apple 



DATA COMMUNICATIONS 

118 Expand Your Horizon Patrick Corry 
Reach out and touch another computer. 



North Star 



GENERAL INTEREST 

145 Bag It Kenneth Reid 

Now there's no need to cry over spilled milk. 

145 Hex Table F.LaPointe 

A handy reference for hex addition and subtraction. 



HARDWARE MODIFICATIONS AND CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS 
102 Computer/Video Disk Combo That Really Works! p. Anderson, e. can- 

PET and Pioneer give you computer-aided video disk instruction. 

HO Upgrade Your IDS Printer Peter Noeth 

TRS-80 and IP-225 get together with this simple interface. 
152 Power Jump for the 1802 BrianMcCorkle 

Give your keyboard, and your fingers, a rest with this simple circuit. 



PET 



REVIEWS 

96 Changing Chips in Midstream Michael wolf 

A look at Radio Shack's full-featured, low-cost Color Computer. 
112 Spotlight On the Starwriter Mark Borgerson 
The first of two articles on C. Itoh's printer. 

114 Letter-Quality Printer for the Budget-Minded wiiiiam coisher 

If s a lotta printer for the money. 




4 Microcomputing, January 1982 



Contents: January 1 982 



Apple 
Apple 
Heath 



Apple 



SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS 

FredJGunther Uncovering the Earth's History 60 

A program to gather data and analyze geologic research. 

Paul ward Red Hot Computing 

Recording graphic data that's too hot to handle. 

Robert Bradley Tapping into the Brain 

Neurophysiologists crack the "last frontier of biology." 

Susannah west Planetarium Shows with a Difference 

Ever wonder what puts the twinkle in those little stars? 

Gurba, Deininger, Berger The Toxic Apple 

A perfect lab assistant to measure toxic health hazards. 



68 



72 



80 



86 



Sorcerer 

PET 

North Star 

TRS-80 

North Star 

PET 

Heath 



SOFTWARE 

c Kevin McCabe The Sorcerer Reveals Hidden Commands 128 

Use monitor commands in BASIC programs. 

Charles Trahan The Revealing Truth about PET's Memory 132 

A BASIC text disassembler that opens up your PET for inspection. 

John Bryant Backslashes to Co I ons 136 

Takes the tedium out of changing delimiters. 

Louis Graue Which Way Is Best? 140 

Write a program to solve optimization problems. 

Stephen Lewis Treat Your File Directory as Data 142 

Takes the guesswork out of disk file identification. 

Garoid stone Putting PET to the Test 146 

Cook's memory test is adapted for the PET. 

ChariesCohn Heath's Hidden Time-Saver 150 

Give your printouts that up-to-date look. 



Publisher's Remarks-6 

PET-pourri-9 

Dial-up Directory-14 

Computer Blackboard-20 

Micro Quiz-22 

Micro-Scope-24 

Editor's Notes-58 

Classifieds- 153 



DEPARTMENTS 

Dealer Directory-153 

Calendar-154 

Letters to the Editor- 179 

Book Reviews- 182 

New Products- 184 

New Software- 194 

Conversions-198 

Software Reviews-210 



Page 96. 





Page 102. 



Volume VI 
No. 1 



Manuscripts 

Contributions in the form of manuscripts 
with drawings and/or photographs are wel- 
come and will be considered for possible 
publication. We can assume no responsi- 
bility for loss or damage to any material. 
Please enclose a self-addressed, stamped 
envelope with each submission. Payment 
for the use of any unsolicited material will 
be made upon acceptance. All contribu- 
tions should be directed to the Microcom- 
puting editorial offices. "How to Write for 
Microcomputing" guidelines are available 
upon request. 

Editorial Offices 

Pine Street 

Peterborough. NH 03458 

Phone: 603-924-3873, 924-3874 

Advertising Offices 

Elm Street 

Peterborough, NH 03458 

Phone: 603-924-7 138 

Circulation Offices 

Elm Street 

Peterborough, NH 03458 

Phone: 603-924-7296 

To subscribe, renew 
or change an address 

Write to Microcomputing, Subscription 
Department, PO Box 997, Farmingdale, 
NY 1 1737. For renewals and changes of ad- 
dress, include the address label from your 
most recent issue of Microcomputing. For 
gift subscriptions, include your name and 
address as well as those of gift recipients. 
Postmaster: Send form #3579 to Micro- 
computing, Subscription Services, PO Box 
997, Farmingdale, NY 11737. 

Subscription 
problem or question 

Write to Microcomputing, Subscription 
Department, PO Box 997, Farmingdale, 
NY 1 1 737. Please include an address label. 

This month's cover: 

Illustration by Alex Stevens. 



Kilobaud Microcomputing (ISSN 0192-4575) is published 
monthly by Wayne Green, Inc., 80 Pine St., Peterborough 
NH 03458. Subscription rates in U.S. are $25 for one year 
and $53 for three years. In Canada: $27 for one year only, 
U.S. funds. Foreign subscriptions (surface mail)— $35 for 
one year only, U.S. funds. Foreign air mail subscriptions 
—please inquire. Canadian Distributor: Micron Distribut- 
ing, 409 Queen St. West, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5V 
2A5. In Europe, contact Monika Nedela, Markstr. 3, 
D-7778 Markdorf, W. Germany. South African Distributor: 
KB Microcomputing, PO Box 782815, Sandton, South 
Africa 2146. Second-class postage paid at Peterborough 
NH 03458 and at additional mailing offices. Phone: 
603-924-3873. Entire contents copyright 1981 by Wayne 
Green, Inc. No part of this publication may be reprinted 
or otherwise reproduced without written permission 
from the publisher. 



Microcomputing, January 1982 5 



PUBLISHER'S REMARKS 



By Wayne Green 



Computer Games 
Wear Thin 



When Will 

The Industry 

Grow Up? 



The Arcade 
Misunderstanding 

Arcade games are a lot of fun. Even the 
early pong games were a ball. I remem- 
ber spending hours slipping quarters into 
an Atari tank war game in Atlantic City 
during the first computer show there. 
But somehow the fun of the pong games 
didn't seem to carry over into playing 
them on my home television. Something 
got lost in the translation. The novelty 
and excitement of even the advanced col- 
or pong, with a half dozen different (but 
similar) games, only lasted a week or so. 

Early computer hobbyists, remember- 
ing the fun of arcade games and having 
played Star Trek on a big computer, 
spent hundreds of dollars and hundreds of 
hours building a computer so they could 
play. . .only to become bored within a 
few days. Other hobbyists spent their 
time and money building a system to 
play the Game of Life, a real thriller— for 
an hour or two. 

Apparently not aware of this syn- 
drome, several firms have spent millions 
of dollars to bring computerized games to 
the public. The Mattel ads on television 
attempt to illustrate how much more 
wonderful their stick men playing base- 
ball are than the Atari stick men. After 
the debacle with pong and super pong, I 
wonder how many people are going to 
shell out from a few hundred to a thou- 
sand dollars to play games. Is it really 
worth several hundred dollars to play 
computer hangman? 

Games are still selling well for most 
systems, though even the best of the 
adventure games seem to wear thin 
after a few hours. Simulations seem to 
hold one's interest better than plain 
games, so I suspect that these will be im- 
proved and eventually replace most of to- 
day's games. 

I don't have the fun playing against the 
computer (as in Star Trek) that I do 

6 Microcomputing, January 1982 



against people. I enjoy winning against 
people and get no particular thrill out of 
winning or losing to a computer. It isn't 
the same . . . any more than playing the 
tank game on my Atari at home is as 
much fun as shooting 'em up in an ar- 
cade — even at a quarter for a few minutes. 

I'm much more interested and enthusi- 
astic about computer applications. I en- 
joy seeing the sales curves of the various 
publications we put out, and like to keep 
track of the couple hundred projects 
which are moving along. I enjoy using 
the computer where it is doing work for 
me, but it gets switched off when it comes 
to games. Besides, how do I know that it 
really is choosing random numbers 
when it plays against me? Damned thing 
probably cheats. I don't trust 'em. 

I get the same feeling in Vegas when I 
come up against a computerized one- 
armed bandit. With the old mechanical 
ones you could sort of forget that they, 
too, were programmed to screw you. 
With the computer bandits I don't ever 
forget that the screwing is inevitable. 

The rage for those handheld computer- 
ized games is dying down. We'll get a bet- 
ter idea of where that is going when we 
see the Christmas sales reports. The 
manufacturers were griping last Christ- 
mas that the fad for these miniature 
games was fading. 

Where will this leave Mattel, Bally, 
APF, Atari and the other computer firms 
which went for the game approach? Per- 
haps my own experience is not in the 
mainstream and there really are millions 
to be made selling expensive game com- 
puters as a continuing business. I would 
suggest that the firms in this part of the 
industry keep their sales research de- 
partments up to strength, watching for 
changes and keeping options open. 

If / were on the board of directors of one 
of these firms I'd be pushing for business 
and educational applications just in case 
the system turned out not to be able to re- 



place cards as an adult game. Me? I'll take 
a good game of Cribbage or Pitch anytime. 



Show Births and Deaths 

Was it only five years ago that we saw 
the first microcomputer show in the 
country? It seems like ages. It was in 
Atlantic City, then, as now, a tacky, run- 
down place to go. But everyone went, with 
chartered flights for hobbyists coming in 
from San Francisco. That was in August 
1976. . .and it was there, incidentally, 
where Microcomputing was first an- 
nounced. We had a booth at the show and 
sold over a thousand subscriptions. 

Most of the firms which exhibited there 
are now long gone. They were, for the 
most part, run by hobbyists and suc- 
cumbed to either too much or too little 
success. Apple, which had a table right 
across from our subscription booth, is 
still around. It was the first public show- 
ing of the Apple I, and Steve Jobs picked 
up about 20 orders from dealers . . . and 
was on his way. 

The chap who put on the show tried it 
again the next year at Atlantic City, but 
it didn't do as well. Then he moved it 
to Philadelphia for three years, where it 
ran down even more. He didn't bother 
this year. 

Most of the early computer shows have 
faded away as the interest moved from 
eager hobbyists to more sophisticated 
business and educational buyers. Now 
the shows are almost all local in nature, 
with a small group of computer stores 
and software firms exhibiting. The re- 
cent ones in Chicago and Washington 
were about typical . . . running perhaps 
50-60 booths and pulling a fair crowd on 
Saturday. 

Frantic show promoters have recruited 
all sorts of weird firms to flesh out their 
shows. We see condominium sales from 
Florida, encyclopedia sales, eyeglass 



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with HOW TO information with details, examples 
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TRS-80TM DISK $19.95 



"OTHER MYSTERIES" 
VOLUME II 

by James Farvour 

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A primer for cassette and disk BASIC on the 
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MICROSOFTTM BASIC DECODED . $24.95 

"OTHER MYSTERIES" 
VOLUME III 

by Dennis Kitsz 

THE CUSTOM TRS-80TM $29.00 

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VOLUME IV 

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If you program in BASIC, you want this book! 
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These are factory fresh, absolutely first 
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HUB RING KIT for 5 1 /* disks $10.95 

HUB RING KIT for 8" disks $12.95 

REFILLS (50 Hub Rings) $ 5.95 

CLEANING KIT for 5W' drives $24.95 

5 Winch diskette case $3.50 

8-inch diskette case $3.95 

5 1 /»inch File Box for 

50 diskettes $24.95 

8-inch File Box for 

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TRS-80 is a trademark of the 

Radio Shack Division of Tandy 

Corporation. DATALIFE is a 

trademark of VERBATIM. PLAIN 

JANE, PARAGON MAGNETICS. 

are trademarks of MTC. 

1981 by Metatech oologies 

Corporation. Inc. 



MOST ORDERS 

SHIPPED WITHIN 

ONE BUSINESS DAY 

Products damaged in 
transit will be exchanged. 



PRICES IN EFFECT 

Jan. 1,1982 THRU 

January 31, 1982 

Prices, Specifications, 

and Offerings subject to 

change without notice. 



WE ACCEPT 

• VISA 

• MASTER CHARGE 

• CHECKS 

• MONEY ORDERS 

• COD 



•Add S3 00 for shipping 
& handling 
•$3 00 EXTRA for COD. 

•Ohio residents add 6.6% 
sales tax. 



cleaner chemicals, telephones, inter- 
coms, office copiers, car gadgets, and so 
on. . with the computer stores inter- 
mixed. We also see fewer and fewer of the 
larger firms bothering to exhibit at these 
shows. They've found that other forms of 
promotion are far more efficient in selling 
the product. Indeed, unless you have an 
extraordinary amount of profit in your 
product — and it is relatively low in price 
— shows can lose for you. Local dealers 
are often able to pick up customers, so 
they find shows pay off. 

To you. the show goer, this means that 
you are not likely to see much more than 
you would visiting your local dealer, yet 
you'll be out around $5 for the entry fee. 
Of course, if you are anxious to buy an en- 
cyclopedia at retail price, you're all set. 
I've found very few real bargains at 
shows in the last year or so. With booths 
costing around $600 to $1000 each, plus 
the cost of the exhibit and the people to 
man the booth, you can understand why 
bargains are not likely. They have to sell 
a bundle of stuff just to break even. 

The word seems to have gotten around 
that shows can make the promoter rich, 
hence the proliferation of shows. A recent 
one in New York, run by a new show entre- 
preneur, was a disaster. Just about every 
major city has a show scheduled for this 
fall and next spring. It will be interesting 
to see if this settles in . . .or dies out. 



Clive Alive! 

One of the more interesting cultural 
micro events in recent times was the visit 
of Clive Sinclair to Boston, where he did a 
show and tell of his ZX-8 1 system. 

At $100 for the kit and $150 for the 
assembled model, people have been buy- 
ing the ZX-81 just for the hell of it. After 
all, outside of a lunch in New York, ten 
lunches in Peterborough or a hundred 



One of the more interesting 

cultural micro events 

in recent times 

was the visit 

of Clive Sinclair to Boston. 



lunches at home, what can you get for 
$100 any more? So people have been 
buying these computers . . . mostly for 
fun. Some say they're for their kids. 

This new micro-micro is selling like 
fish and chips in England. Clive said that 
he'd sold 30,000 of them there in August 
and 40,000 in September. They're being 
made by the Timex people for him, so he 
doesn't even have to cope with a factory 
and strikes. 

The finished model has accounted for 
85 percent of their sales in the U.K., so 
not many buyers are getting the experi- 
ence of putting the kit together. Presum- 
ably they want to use it for something 
rather than learn about its construction. 

Schools have been big purchasers, 
with over 2900 schools in the U.K. buy- 
ing them so far . . . that's over half of the 
secondary schools in the country. Well, it 
is an economical way for a school to 
advertise that it has a microcomputer for 
the kids so they will become computer 
literate. 

Clive showed a prototype of a printer 
which is in the works. It will type at about 
50 characters per second, he says, and 
cost under $ 100. It will print out the com- 
plete screen for you or list your data. 

In the U.S. they are selling by mail on- 
ly. The ads have already hit— two-page- 
spread color ads almost everywhere! 
They're looking to sell about 20,000 a 
month in the U.S. I don't think they wUl 
have any problem with that goal. 



Microcomputing is interested in arti- 
cles and programs on the ZX-81 .... 
Let's get busy with this one. 



Women and the Future 

As the invasion of offices by microcom- 
puters continues to expand, what have 
been considered women'sjobs in the past 
will be hardest hit. Computerized data in- 
put will eliminate the need for rows of 
women doing data input typing. As word 
processors and electronic mail grow, the 
typing pool will dry up and even the sec- 
retary's responsibilities will diminish, 
leaving the women in that role either out 
of work or else needing retraining for 
some other position. 

Will women cope with this by entering 
business in much the same way that men 
do, either by starting with a relatively 
menial job and working upward, or by 
getting a business education and starting 
in the middle? Perhaps we will be seeing 
more women in sales, marketing, adver- 
tising, PR, collections and other jobs 
which will be of increasing importance as 
computers take over the boring, repeti- 
tive work. 

Just because people will not have to 
spend their lives doing boring work is 
no reason for them to drop out of work 
entirely. 



Investing 

Why should the banks be the only ones 
to get the gravy? Every now and then an 
investment opportunity comes up where 
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shame to have the banks making all the 
money. If you've got some extra money 
which you'd prefer to have working for 
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along to where it might do some good.D 



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DET-POURRI 



By Robert W. Baker 



Good News 
For Old PETs 



Execom's 

80-Column 

Adapter 



80-Column Adapter 

Execom Corp. of Racine, WI, has an- 
nounced an 80-column adapter upgrade 
for older 40-column PET/CBM systems. 
It can only be added on 2000, 3000 or 
4000 series models that do not have the 
CRT display controller chip used in the 
newer systems. The upgrade consists of 
one two-inch-square logic board for both 
the 40- and 80-column screen editor 
ROMs, a 4x5 inch logic board that 
replaces the original screen RAMs and a 
separate 80-column reference ROM that 
can be located in any of the normal ex- 
pansion sockets. 

The circuit board and the ROM com- 
bination allows you to switch between 
the original 40-column display and a new 
80-column display. The display selection 
can be made from the keyboard or 
through program control with two sim- 
ple POKE commands. All utility soft- 



ware, like Toolkit, DOS Support (Wedge), 
Extra- Mon, etc., is compatible in both 
modes of operation. 

Price of the modification is $275 plus 
installation. The actual installation in- 
volves cutting circuit traces on the main 
PET/CBM logic board, soldering addi- 
tional wires to the circuit board and in- 
stalling four new sockets. The installa- 
tion should only be done by your local 
dealer or a qualified technician. 

Execom Corp. will be offering the in- 
stallation for $75 (plus shipping), but you 
must remove your main logic board and 
return it to Execom Corp. Factory 
modifications must be prearranged 
before you can ship the board to them. 
Also, be aware that this installation may 
void Commodore's 90-day warranties on 
new systems. All Execom boards will 
have a one-year warranty. 

Unfortunately, I haven't had the oppor- 
tunity to see this installed in a system as 



lie 

123 
136 
140 
150 
160 
170 
180 
190 

200 

210 
220 
230 
240 
250 
260 
270 
280 
290 

300 

310 
326 
330 
340 
350 
360 
370 
READY 



Ktn ****************************** 

REM 

REM UTILITY PROGRAM FOR PRINTING 

REM FORMATTED OUTPUT DISK FILES 

REM CREATED BY WORD PRO 3. 

REM 

REM BY: ROBERT BAKER 

REM 15 WINDSOR DRIVE, ATCO, NJ 

REM 

REM ******************************* 

INPUT ".-FILENAME"; F* 

F$=LEFT$ < Ff > 1 6 > S$= " " 

IF LEFT*<F$,2> O "0" AND LEFT*<F$,2> <> "|:« THEN F*="0:"+F* 

OPEN 15,8,15 

OPEN 8,S,8,F$+",S,R" 

INPUT* 15, EN 

PRINT: if EN=0 THEN 300 

IF EN=62 THEN PRINT"SFILE NOT FOUND": GOTO 370 

PRINT"ERROR" 'SEN: GOTO 370 

PRINT"0K, READING FILE..." 

OPEN 7,4,7- PRINT#7 CLOSE 7 : REM PUT PRINTER IN UPPER/LOWER CASE MODE 

OPEN 4,4 

GET#8,C$ SS=ST 

IF ASC<C$>=13 THEN PRINT#4,MID*<S$,2> : S$= H " : GOTO 360 

S*=S*+C* 

IF SS=0 THEN 330 

CLOSE 4 CLOSE 8 : CLOSE 15 



Listing 1. Utility program for printing formatted output disk files created by Word 
Pro 3. 



yet, so I can only pass on what informa- 
tion I have. For more information, see 
your local dealer or write Execom Corp., 
1901 Polaris Ave., Racine, WI 53404. 



Formatted Disk Files From 
Word Pro 

I recently came across a Word Pro 3 
feature that is hinted at in the manual but 
not fully explained. For those of you who 
are currently using Word Pro 3, there is a 
way to save the formatted output on disk 
in a sequential data file. There is another 
option to the output (Control-0) com- 
mand that is not documented anywhere 
in the manual. The only options covered 
are the C for continuous output, G for 
global and X for multiple copies. The 
manual does explain how the formatted 
output will be written on the disk, but not 
how to generate the disk file. 

All you have to do is enter a D option to 
the normal output command. Word Pro 3 
will ask for a drive number and file name, 
and then write the formatted output to the 
specified file on disk. The file created will 
be a sequential data file that you can then 
use for input to other programs or utilities. 
Each formatted line is stored on disk as a 
single data record with a leading quote 
character. The normal carriage return is 
used to terminate the line. If multiple 
blank lines are generated using the LN or 
FP commands within Word Pro, then 
multiple carriage return characters will 
appear at the end of the last printed line. 

I've included a program that will read 
and print the formatted data files created 
by Word Pro (see Listing 1). This pro- 
gram will handle all page formatting and 
line spacing correctly but it does not sup- 
port expanded printing. Any expanded 
print output will be printed in reverse 



Address correspondence to Robert W. 
Baker, 15 Windsor Dr., Atco, N J 08004. 






Microcomputing, January 1982 9 



(normal size) on a Commodore printer. 
This may or may not cause problems. 

When you run the program it simply 
asks for the filename of the file to be 
printed. A default drive number of zero is 
automatically assigned. You can indicate 
a specific drive number by preceding the 
filename by the drive number and a sepa- 
rating colon. You must, however, enclose 
the entire string within quotes when 
specifying the drive number. The pro- 
gram checks that the file exists and then 
proceeds to start printing each line from 
the data file. There is a short delay be- 
tween printing each line, because a GET # 
command is used to read and check each 
character of the line. This allows check- 
ing for the multiple carriage returns that 
may exist at the end of any line. 

If you think about the possibilities, this 
Word Pro feature is really valuable. You 
could create a software package with 
complete documentation, all formatted 
by Word Pro, but the user wouldn't need 
Word Pro to print his own manuals from 
disk. Actually, this is better than getting 
printed manuals since you can print as 
many copies as you want, as often as you 
want and you don't have to worry about 
losing your only copy. 

Once you've gotten the formatted doc- 
umentation onto disk as a sequential 
data file, you can easily copy it onto cas- 
sette tape. I've included a copy of my util- 
ity program for copying data files from 
disk to tape (see Listing 2). If you remem- 
ber back in the Feb. 1981 column, I pre- 
sented a program for copying tape data 
files onto disk. Well, this is the other pro- 
gram I mentioned in that column for 
copying data files back onto disk. It will 
work for any data file, not just the Word 
Pro formatted output files. 

Once you've gotten the formatted out- 
put files on tape, you have to make a few 
changes to the first printing utility to 
read the data from tape instead of disk. 
I've included a copy of the print utility for 
printing from tape files (see Listing 3). 
Now you can get first-class formatted 
documentation without a disk or Word 
Pro, as long as you have a printer. Ac- 
tually, you could modify the printing pro- 
gram to just display the information and 
you wouldn't even need a printer. 

If you are writing a program that inter- 
faces with Word Pro files, it may be easier 
to read these formatted output files in- 
stead of Word Pro source (input) files. 
Word Pro's source files use a special 
character encoding and have numerous 
commands within the text. Also, the 
source files are actually program files in- 
stead of sequential data files. The format- 
ted output files have all the format com- 
mands removed and only contain the ac- 
tual data. Everything is in the correct for- 
mat and the data is now true ASCII 
coding. This should make the formatted 
output files easier to deal with. 

This Word Pro output option opens a 
number of applications that many people 



Now you can get 

first-class formatted 

documentation without a 

disk or Word Pro. 



may not have been aware of before. It 
might be interesting to see what we can 
do with it. 



Jump Vectors 

I thought it might be useful to list the 
jump vectors located at the top of mem- 
ory in the VIC-20. The corresponding op- 
erating-system subroutines can be called 
by user-written machine-language pro- 
grams or even from BASIC. I've included 
a brief description of the operation of 
each routine and the registers used. 
Many of these routines are the same as 
those used in PET/CBM machines, but 
the addresses may be slightly different. 
As such, this information should be of 
general interest. Note that addresses are 
shown in hexadecimal. 
SFF8A— Restore Old I/O Vectors. Restores 
default vector values for system subrou- 



tines and interrupts. 
8FF8D— Read/Set Vectored I/O. If carry 
is set, the current contents of the RAM 
vectors are placed in a list pointed at by 
the X and Y registers. If carry is clear, the 
user list pointed at by the X and Y regis- 
ters is transferred to the system RAM 
vectors. 

$FF90— Control Operating System 
Messages. Bits 6 and 7 of the ac- 
cumulator enable the printing of control 
and error messages, respectively. If the 
bit is set then the messages will appear. 
$FF93— Transmit Secondary Com- 
mand. Transmits the value in the ac- 
cumulator as a secondary IEEE address. 
This routine can only be called after com- 
manding an IEEE to listen. 
$FF96— Send Secondary After Talk. 
Transmits the value in the accumulator 
as a secondary IEEE address. This 
routine can only be called after com- 
manding an IEEE device to TALK. 
$FF99— Read/Set Top of Memory. If 
carry is set, the top of RAM memory 
pointer is returned in the X and Y regis- 
ters. If carry is clear, the contents of the X 
and Y registers are transferred to the top 
of memory pointer. 

$FF9C— Read/Set Bottom of Memory. 
Same as the previous command except 
for the bottom of memory pointer. 
$FF9F — Scan Keyboard. Same routine 
as called by the interrupt handler to scan 



166 
118 
123 
139 
140 
150 
160 
170 
180 
190 

200 

210 
220 
230 
240 
250 
260 
270 
280 
296 
380 
310 
320 
330 
340 
350 
360 
370 
REflDV 



REM 

REM 

REM DISK-TO-TfiPE DATA FILE COPV 

REM 

REM BV = ROBERT BRKER 

REM 15 WINDSOR DRIVE, ATCO, HJ 

REM 

REM 



PRINT'TJINSERT BLANK TAPE IN TflPEttl" 

PRINT"*: DEPRESS ANY KEY WHEN READY" 

GET R*: IF R$="" THEN 210 

PR I NT "OK": PRINT 

OPEN 15,8,15 

INPUT" DISK FILE NAME";FL$ 

PR I NT" DRIVES OR 1= "; 

GET D$: IF D$ O "0" AND D* O 

PRINT D* 

OPEN 2 , 8 , 2 , D*+ " : » +FL*+ " , S , R " 

INPUT#15,EN,EM$: IF EN<>8 THEN 

PR I NT " OK " : OPEN 1 , 1 , 1 , FL* 

PRINT: PR I NT" COPYING DATA 

r<ET# -•' • C$ • S = fiT 

INPUT#15,EN,EM*: IF ENO0 THEN 360 

PRINT#1,C*.; : IF S=0 THEN 320 

PRINT: PR I NT "DONE COPY": G0T0378 

PRINT: PRINT":-© I SK ERROR": PRINT EN,EM$ 

CLOSE 1= CLOSE 2: CLOSE 15 



Listing 2. Disk-to-tape data file copy. 



"1" THEN 268 



368 



II 



10 Microcomputing, January 1982 



the keyboard. If a key is down, its ASCII 
value is placed in the keyboard queue. 
8FFA2— Set Timeout on IEEE. A in bit 
7 of the accumulator enables timeouts, 
while a 1 disables timeouts on the IEEE 
bus. Timeouts are normally used to avoid 
hanging in a handshake sequence be- 
tween devices on the bus. 

SFFA5— Input Byte from IEEE Bus. 
Handshakes a byte from the IEEE bus 
and returns the data in the accumulator. 
It is assumed that the device has been 
toWUoTALK. 

$FFA8— Output Byte to IEEE Bus. One 
byte of data is taken from the accumula- 
tor to handshake as data on the IEEE bus. 
A device must be listening or status will 
reflect a timeout. One character is always 
buffered by this routine. When the 
Unlisten subroutine is called, the buf- 
fered character is sent followed by the 
UNLISTEN command. 
$FFAB— Command IEEE Bus to Untalk. 
$FFAE — Command IEEE Bus to 
Unlisten. 

$FFB1— Command IEEE Device to 
Listen. The device number from the ac- 
cumulator is ORed with bits to convert 
this device number to a listen address 
and then transmits the data as a com- 
mand on the IEEE bus. 
$FFB4— Command IEEE Device to Talk. 
The device number from the accumu- 
lator is ORed with bits to convert this 
device number to a talk address, and it 
then transmits the data as a command on 
the IEEE bus. 

$FFB7— Read I/O Status Word. Returns 
the current I/O status in the accu- 
mulator. Values are the same as listed for 
ST in the Commodore manuals. 
$FFBA— Set Logical First, Second Ad- 
dress. The accumulator contains the 



logical file number used by the system to 
access data stored in a table by the open 
file subroutine. The X register contains 
the device number, while the Y register 
contains the command. The command is 
sent as a secondary address on the IEEE 
bus following the device number during 
an attention sequence. If no secondary 
address is to be sent, set Y to $FF. 
$FFBD— Set File Name Information. 
Load the accumulator with the length of 
the file name, if opening a file without a 
file name. The X and Y registers then 
contain the address of the actual charac- 
ter string corresponding to the file name. 
$FFCO— Open Logical File. Previous two 
subroutines must be called first ($FFBA 
& $FFBD). 

$FFC3— Close Logical File. Accumulator 
contains the logical file number of the file 
to be closed. 

$FFC6— Open Channel for Input. Opens 
a channel for input after being opened by 
the Open subroutine. This subroutine 
must be executed before attempting to 
read data from any device except the 
keyboard. This call may be omitted for 
keyboard input with no logical file 
number association. 
$FFC9— Open Channel for Output. 
Opens a channel for output after being 
opened by the Open subroutine. This 
subroutine must be executed before at- 
tempting to write data to any device ex- 
cept the display. This call may be omit- 
ted for output to the display with no logi- 
cal file number association. 
$FFCC— Close Input and Output Chan- 
nel. Closes all open channels and re- 
stores the default channels, input device 
and output device 3. 
$FFCF— Input Character from Channel. 
Returns a character of data from the open 



BY = ROBERT BRKER 
15 WINDSOR DRIVE, ATCO, NJ 



106 REM Mt» » »»»»»»»»»»»» »» »»»» » »»»» |HMi 

119 REM 

120 REM UTILITY PROGRAM FOR PRINTING 
136 REM FORMATTED OUTPUT DISK FILES 
140 REM CREATED BV WORD PRO 3 
150 REM THAT ARE COPIED TO TAPE 
160 REM 
170 REM 
180 REM 
190 REM 

200 REM *******#**********************# 

210 : 

220 PRINT"3INSERT TAPE & DEPRESS flNV KEV WHEN REflDV" 
230 GET C*: IF C$= ,,M THEN 238 
240 OPEN 1,1 

250 PRINT: PR I NT "READING FILE..." 
260 OPEN 7,4,7: RRINT#7: CLOSE 7 
270 OPEN 4,4 
280 GET#1,C$- SS=ST 

29Q IF ASC<C$>=13 THEN PRINT#4,MID$<S$,2> : St-""- GOTO 310 
300 S*=S*+C* 
310 IF SS=0 THEN 280 
320 CLOSE 1 • CLOSE 4 
REflDV . 



Listing 3. Utility program for printing formatted output disk files created by Word 
Pro 3 that are copied to tape. 



Note that addresses are 
shown in hexadecimal. 



or default channel. The data is returned 
in the accumulator and the channel re- 
mains open after the call. For keyboard 
input, the cursor is turned on and con- 
tinues to blink until carriage return is 
typed. Characters on the line are re- 
turned one by one by calls to this routine. 
$FFD2— Output Character to Channel. 
Sends a character of data to the open or 
default channel. The data is taken from 
the accumulator and may be transmitted 
to multiple devices on the IEEE bus. 
$FFD5— Load RAM from Device. Per- 
forms a load from a device if the accumu- 
lator is 0, a verify if a 1 . The X and Y regis- 
ters contain the starting address for the 
load if a secondary address of 3 is used. 
Otherwise, the block will load into mem- 
ory starting at where the header has 
specified. On return the X and Y registers 
indicate the highest RAM address loaded. 
$FFD8— Save RAM to Device. Saves 
memory to a logical device from the bot- 
tom of memory pointer to the address 
pointed to by the X and Y registers. 
$FFDB— Set Real-Time Clock. The accu- 
mulator and the X and Y registers are 
loaded into the three-byte system clock. 
$FFDE— Read Real- Time Clock. Returns 
the current three-byte system clock val- 
ue in the accumulator and the X and Y 
registers. 

$FFE1— Check Stop Key. Sets the Z flag 
if the stop key is pressed while the rou- 
tine is called, and all other flags are main- 
tained. If the stop key is not pressed, the 
accumulator will indicate the last row of 
the keyboard scan. This can be used to 
check for other key closures. 
$FFE4— Get Character from Keyboard 
Queue. Removes one character from the 
keyboard queue and returns as ASCII 
value in the accumulator. A is returned 
if the queue is empty. 
$FFE7— Close All Files. The pointers in- 
to the open file table are reset, closing all 
files. All I/O channels are also reset. 
$FFEA— Increment Real-Time Clock. 
This routine is normally called every 
l/60th of a second to update the system 
clock. If may be necessary to call this 
routine from a user's program if it pro- 
cesses its own interrupts. 
$FFED— Return X,Y Organization of 
Screen. Returns the organization of the 
screen with columns in X register and 
lines in Y register. 

$FFF0— Read/Set X, Y Cursor Position.lf 
carry is set, the current cursor position is 
returned in the X and Y registers. If carry 
is clear, the cursor is moved to the posi- 
tion indicated by the X and Y registers. 
$FFF3— Return Base Address of I/O. 
Returns the address of the page contain- 
ing I/O in the X and Y registers. □ 

Microcomputing, January 1982 11 



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DIAL-UP DIRECTOR/ 



By Frank J. Derfler, Jr. 



Midnight 

Messenger 



Unattended 

Transmission 

From Microcom 



This edition of Dial-Up Directory marks 
the second anniversary of the column. 
Microcomputer-based data communica- 
tions systems have evolved in a pretty 
straight line over those two years, but 
now we are starting to see some branch- 
ing in the evolutionary tree. This month 
we'll look at a slightly different kind of 
electronic mail package, the first com- 
mercial adaption of an old idea. 

Micro-Courier by Microcom 

Micro-Courier is truly an electronic 
mail package. It provides the Apple II 
microcomputer with the ability to "wake 
up" in the middle of the night, dial a 
phone number, establish contact with 
another Micro-Courier-equipped Apple II 
and transfer messages. 

In the June 1980 issue of Kilobaud 
Microcomputing. I described a program 
with similar capabilities called PAN. PAN 
is still available and costs about $12 on 
cassette. PAN has never really been com- 
mercially marketed. It exists as a project 
of the Personal Computer Network 
(PCNET) in Menlo Park, CA. Micro-Cour- 
ier sells for $250 per copy (you need a 
separate copy at each end) and it is being 
heavily marketed. 

This idea of unattended message trans- 
fer is as old as electronic communica- 
tions. Before World War II, amateur radio 
operators developed radioTeletype sys- 
tems using autostart tones. In response 
to a clock mechanism, a mechanical tele- 
printer would key up a radio transmitter, 
broadcast tones to wake up the tele- 
printer at the other end and transmit a 
prepunched message tape. 

This kind of message transfer fits well 
into my concept of electronic communi- 
cations systems that can break down the 
Time Tyranny of Telecommunications. 
Unattended message transfer lets people 
break away from the need to monitor a 
telephone or terminal to get a message. 
Several software firms are developing 
packages with slightly different unat- 
tended transfer capabilities, but Micro- 
Courier is the first one to be marketed on 

14 Microcomputing, January 1982 



a commercial basis. 

Microcom has a very businesslike ap- 
proach to their product. They are appeal- 
ing to the corporate Apple rather than the 
Apple at home. Technically, the Micro- 
Courier package is a series of programs 
on an Apple II disk in DOS 3.3 format. 
The programs are in assembly language, 
and Microcom cautions that the disk is 
uncopyable. They also caution that at- 
tempts to copy the disk may result in its 
destruction. (A real mission impossible?) 
If you should set your coffee cup on the 
disk within 90 days of purchase, they will 
replace it for free. If the disk falls on the 
floor and you roll your chair over it on the 
91st day, it costs you $35 to replace. 

The program selection is done through 
a series of menus which gradually lead 
you to the operating level. The program 
asks the user some questions the first 
time it is run so it knows where to look for 
the modem, clock and printer cards. It is 
easy to step down and up the menus to 
select the function you want. As you step 
through the menus, the selections you 
have made are displayed at the top of the 
screen (rather like a self-documenting 
game of adventure). 

The manual stresses that all you have 
to do if you get into a problem is hit 
escape and you'll return to the next high- 
er menu. This works — most of the time. 

The program works well doing what it 
is advertised to do: dropping off messages 
in the middle of the night when the rates 
are low. It will do this only with another 
Micro-Courier-equipped Apple II. Each 
system should have an Apple II + or Ap- 
ple II with Applesoft in ROM. 48K of 
RAM, a disk system with DOS 3.3 and a 
Hayes Microcomputer Products Micro- 
modem II. A clock card and two disks are 
really needed for practical operation. The 
Micro-Courier disk is nearly full and a 
separate data disk is needed. 

In a typical application, the user cre- 
ates a message with the Micro-Courier 
text editor or any editor that will create 
DOS 3.3 files. Messages can be up to 4000 
characters in length. A separate address 



file tells the system when and where to 
send specifically named messages. The 
"where" direction is given as a name or 
other easilv-remembered term. 

A separate mailbox ID file matches 
names to telephone numbers. It is possi- 
ble to create distribution lists in which 
many phone numbers are collected 
under one ID. At the assigned time, the 
Apple II dials the number and transmits 
the specified message. It transmits one 
file per call. The program is not smart 
enough to ask if the called station has any 
mail coming back. The program will re- 
peat unsuccessful attempts to deliver a 
message, and logs of outgoing and in- 
coming messages are maintained. 

Micro-Courier does have an interactive 
terminal mode, but this mode is quite dif- 
ficult to use. The terminal mode has 22 
lines available for the display of received 
data. The screen displays modem and file 
status in five lines at the top, and three 
lines of special commands you need to 
know are displayed at the bottom. 

Unfortunately, the incoming data over- 
writes the first line of commands on the 
bottom of the screen and the rest of the 
information loses meaning. 

This is particularly tricky because in 
this program ESCAPE does not work. 
You could pound the escape key all day 
and not get to a higher menu. It also 
doesn't help that when two Micro- 
Courier-equipped Apples are in the ter- 
minal mode, neither one echoes the 
other. That means you can't see what 
you are typing, unless you both work 
your way back up through two menus 
and select the full duplex mode. You are 
much better off dumping the Micro-Cour- 
ier software and just using the Micro- 
modem II ROM program if you simply 
want to operate in the terminal mode 
without exchanging files. 

Micro-Courier has been heavily adver- 
tised and its slick packaging matches its 
advertising. The manual contains 164 
pages of text with a very good index and a 
small glossary. It contains illustrations of 
the keyboard and screen displays. The 

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The Prentice V2X2C is a microprocessor- 
controlled modem capable of 300- or 
1200-bits-per-second operation. The 
first button on the right selects high- or 
low-speed operation. The other buttons 
select various test modes. Extensive 
diagnostics are built into this well- 
engineered device. 

discussion in the manual is done at the 
most elementary level. In fact, the entire 
packaging concept of the program, from 
the multiple menus through to the lan- 
guage of the manual, is aimed at the 
novice user. 

That's acceptable, but experienced 
users can get pretty exasperated with 
rigid menu structures and the need to 



wade through lines of explanation to find 
a specific command. In Microcom's de- 
fense, they did provide a stick-on guide to 
the commands used in the editor pro- 
gram, but a separate instruction card 
summarizing all the commands would 
be valuable. 

I believe that if Microcom is going to be 
successful in the corporate market, they 
have some work to do. One disk I received 
for evaluation had a bad sector and would 
not load the editor. The other package 
had an instruction manual with many of 
the pages uncut. But primarily, I feel the 
program needs some way of performing a 
quality-control check on the messages it 
transmits. Not all long-distance phone 
lines are created equal, and it is often 
worse to transmit garble than never to 
have transmitted at all. 

Significantly, microcomputer pro- 
grams exist which perform very nice line 
testing and transmission validation. The 
ST-80 software series written by Lance 
Micklus has a line-testing and character 
echo-check feature. Many programs like 
Crosstalk provide a protocol file transfer 
which ensures accurate transmission. 
Micro-Courier has none of these features. 
It is an expensive program with limited 
applications. 

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have never mentioned the Dow-Jones In- 
formation Service (DJIS), which is avail- 
able to microcomputer data communica- 
tions users. This service has a higher 
hourly rate than either The Source or 
CompuServe, but if you are a serious 
stock investor it provides lots of useful in- 
formation. DJIS provides information on 
over 6000 stocks and securities listed on 
the New York, American, Midwest and 
Pacific stock exchanges and the over-the- 
counter market. If you live in a part of the 
country without a good newspaper, or if 
you like to follow "penny stocks" or over- 
the-counter stocks, this feature could be 
handy. All listings are delayed 15 min- 
utes, but for 99.99 percent of us that 
represents real-time information. 

DJIS has an involved pricing structure 
that depends on both the time of day and 
the kind of service used. During non- 
prime hours, using the price quote func- 
tion can cost 15 cents per minute. Use of 
the historical Media General information 
file costs $1 per minute during any time 
period. (Obviously, you don't want to 
browse too long.) The non-prime hours 
change with the time zones. The Pacific 
time zone is only non-prime from 8 pm 
until midnight. The Eastern time zone 
gets the low rates from 8 pm to 3 am. 

I find the historical information the 
most valuable feature of the DJIS. You 
can get good information on price-earn- 
ings ratios, price performance vs market 
performance and many other features. In 
addition, news stories and financial infor- 
mation are available from the Wall Street 
Journal and Barron's. Most people 
would find it more economical to get the 
general news from the financial journals 
and just use the DJIS for research on spe- 
cific issues. The news stories do have a 
subject search capability and can present 
a summary of the article. 

Anyone interested in the Dow-Jones 
Information Service should note that 
Radio Shack is offering one hour of DJIS 
time in their CompuServe membership 
packages. You get a binder with system 
information, membership on Compu- 
Serve and an hour of user time on both 
CompuServe and DJIS for $19.95 (order 
catalog no. 260-2224). 

You don't have to use a TRS-80 com- 
puter to take advantage of this package: 
any computer or terminal with com- 
munications capability can be used. 

Videotex software packages for the 
TRS-80 Model I. Model II, Model III and 
Color Computer are available for $29.95 
at Radio Shack. These packages also in- 
clude one hour on CompuServe and DJIS. 
The cassette-based Vidtex programs (the 
program name is slightly different from 
the package name) are easy to use and 
nicely integrated into the CompuServe 
and DJIS formats. They all allow inter- 
facing with a printer to provide hard copy 
of the received information, but of course 
they don't let you create data files. You'll 



16 Microcomputing, January 1982 



need a more advanced terminal program 
to save the received data in files. 

The Dow-Jones Information Service 
isn't for everyone but those who can use 
it will find it invaluable. The Radio Shack 
CompuServe membership package gives 
many folks the opportunity to try the 
DJIS at a reasonable price. 

The Prentice P212C 

You can lease a 2 1 2 A 1 200 bits per sec- 
ond modem from your local telephone 
company. It will cost you about $40 a 
month plus an installation charge of $80 
or more. This installation usually in- 
cludes an improved line from your loca- 
tion to the telephone office and a tele- 
phone instrument with a modem/voice 
switching arrangement. 

Alternatively, you can buy your own 
212A modem. You might do this if you 
are in a business and want to depreciate 
the equipment, or if you simply want to 
avoid the monthly payments. Let's take a 
look at the state of the art in 2 12 modems. 
I want to introduce you to one of the most 
sophisticated 212A modems, the Pren- 
tice P212C. 

The P212C is a microprocessor-con- 
trolled device which will operate at 300 
bits per second as a Bell 103 standard 
device and at 1200 bits per second using 
the 212 standard. It connects to the com- 
puter or terminal through a standard RS- 



232C cable. It will auto-answer and ad- 
just itself to the speed of the calling party. 

This is a commercial-quality device 
built in a heavy metal cabinet with a 
husky power supply. It has a commercial 
retail price of about $800. The P2 12C will 
do many nice things for its user. It fea- 
tures five different types of loopback cir- 
cuitry including separate local tests of 
the analog and digital sections of the 
modem and tests which show the quality 
of the telephone circuit with the cooper- 
ation of the modem at the other end. 

A 212 standard modem can be used 
over average telephone lines, but you get 
more reliable operation if you ensure that 
the signal levels transmitted and re- 
ceived by the modem fall within certain 
limits. Signals with levels too high or too 
low can easily cause errors in the four- 
level phase-shifted keying scheme used 
by 212 modems. 

Proper installation requires a padding 
resistor in the telephone coupler or con- 
necting cable to fine tune the audio level 
with the telephone office. Prentice can 
provide various cables to connect the 
P212C to the telephone system. A "per- 
missive" cable lets you plug the modem 
directly into any standard voice jack. But 
the use of a standard jack is the easiest 
(and cheapest) method of installation. It 
will usually work, but the error rate de- 
pends upon the conditions between your 



telephone and the central office. 

Marketing Advice 

Prentice has obviously targeted the 
commercial market with this high-quali- 
ty device, but with a few changes they 
could open the small computer market 
too. A plastic cabinet and elimination of 
the fancy test features would be the first 
step. I would reassign the five buttons on 
the front as on/off. 300/1200 bits per sec- 
ond, orig/ans. half/full duplex and in/out. 

If they could sell the consumer model 
P212XX at $400 they would have a big 
place in the market. In the meantime, if 
you want to put some zip in your data 
communications, the Prentice P212C 
provides a well-engineered and reliable 
way to do it. Contact the Prentice Corpo- 
ration. 266 Caspian Drive, Sunnyvale, 
CA 94086. 

Your Help 

This column would be much harder to 
write without the tidbits and tantrums I 
receive from readers. If you want to help 
make the third year of Dial-Up Directory 
even better than the first two, your news 
and views are needed. Send paper mail to 
PO Box 691, Herndon, VA 22070. Include 
a stamped envelope for replies. Send 
electronic mail to TCB967 on The 
Source, 70003,455 on CompuServe, or 
the AMRAD CBBS, 703-734- 1387. □ 





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Microcomputing, January 1982 17 




Business Is 



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COMPUTER BLACKBOARD 



Poor Marks 

For Software 



By Walter Koetke 



Hardware Is 
A Terrible Thing 

To Waste 



The entrance of microcomputers into 
the country's classrooms has grown from 
a trickle to a roar. Will we soon see a 
flood? Is the microcomputer a soon-to-be- 
forgotten technological fad? Is it an ideal 
instructional tool? I'll discuss these and 
other questions as this column assesses 
the microcomputer's impact on instruc- 
tion and then projects that impact into 
the near future. 

What's Happening Right Now? 

As in so many application areas, the 
gap between the potential and the reality 
of microcomputer software is enormous. 
This gap reminds me of the story about 
the German poet who was asked where 
he would choose to live if he knew the 
world was about to end. After very little 
deliberation, he responded that he would 
live only in England. Many were sur- 
prised by his rapid, decisive response. 
When his decision was questioned, he 
responded that England was a perfect 
choice because England has always been 
100 years behind the rest of the world. 

While the analogy is not perfect, the 
state of today's software does indeed trail 
the potential of today's hardware by 
many years. This is not news to those in 
the computer industry, but it is both 
news and a huge disappointment to 
educators who've only read of the com- 
puter's potential before finding a 
microcomputer in their classroom. 

Colleges and universities are not yet in 
a position to help educators with their 
current and short-term needs for 
assistance. While there are certainly a 
few exceptions to such a general state- 
ment, the number of colleges able to offer 
teachers no more than FORTRAN. 
COBOL, assembly-language program- 
ming, or something equally inappropriate 
is distressing. The number of well- 
publicized but rarely open or accessible 
microcomputer laboratories and well- 




Walter Koetke. Putnam/Northern West- 
chester BOCES. Yorktown Heights. NY 
1 0598. 



funded software evaluation centers that 
just can't manage to produce evaluations 
is also distressing. 

Perhaps such situations are 
unavoidable aberrations of rapidly 
changing technologies and honest inten- 
tions that badly underestimate the 
magnitude of the task at hand. Although 
the situation will eventually evolve into a 
more acceptable state, it is unfortunate 
that the vast majority of colleges and 
universities have been unable to respond 
to a readily definable, nationwide need. 

Educators have become increasingly 
receptive to the idea of using microcom- 
puters for instruction. The lack of sup- 
port materials coupled with the ideas 
already discussed has often resulted in 
frustration. However, many educators 
have also become more sophisticated in 
their evaluation of microcomputer soft- 
ware and hardware. While they readily 
admit their knowledge is inadequate, 
there is movement in the right direction. 

Part of this movement is the result of 
the evolving technology. Now that 
several microcomputers popularly used 
for instruction have been replaced by 
newer, only somewhat compatible 
models, educators find themselves in a 



20 Microcomputing, January 1982 



position of defending earlier purchases of 
what is now being incorrectly called 
"outmoded" equipment. For those who 
properly prepared for their initial pur- 
chase, this defense is trivial. For those 
who were not so well prepared, the 
defense has necessitated an overdue 
crash course in computer literacy. 

Educators are beginning to realize the 
disadvantages of basing their local pro- 
grams on a single brand of microcom- 
puter. The advantages of a single-brand 
commitment are far outweighed by the 
disadvantages. For example, my choice 
for the ten best pieces of instructional 
microcomputer software involves four 
different microcomputers. Having only 
one brand available is a major restriction. 
Microcomputers are big business, and 
vendor stability cannot be assumed. 
Many sales and a few good products are 
not a guarantee that there will be a 
tomorrow. Explaining to a school board 
that the company who sold you all the 
microcomputers is out of business and 
the machines can no longer be serviced is 
not an enviable position, yet I suspect 
that is where many responsible for one- 
brand commitments will find 
themselves. For these and other reasons, 
educators seem to be broadening the 
base on which they're developing in- 
structional programs. 

IBM and Education 

A look at today's role of micro- 
computers in instruction would be in- 
complete without acknowledging that in- 
dustry continues to call many shots for 
education. Although clever advertising 
agencies would have us think otherwise, 
improving instruction is foremost in 
almost no one's mind as new products 
are conceived and developed. This is ac- 
tually quite reasonable, just unfortunate. 
When you compare the size and available 
cash in the marketplaces, small 
business, education and home educators 
always finish last. When the cost of deal- 
ing with the marketplaces is also con- 
sidered, the spectators have lost interest 



and gone home before educators finish 
the race. 

Some months ago I had the oppor- 
tunity to hear a discussion of research 
regarding reading comprehension. I liked 
many aspects of this presentation, in- 
cluding the fact that a microcomputer 
was only one of several tools being devel- 
oped for the classroom teacher who must 
teach reading comprehension. An ex- 
perienced, thoughtful researcher from 
IBM's Watson Research Laboratories, 
New York, made the point that research 
indicates two essential features for in- 
structional microcomputers are voice 
output and touch-sensitive screens. The 
importance of color was unclear, since 
the research presented did not indicate 
that color would or would not significant- 
ly enhance instruction. 

Shortly after this presentation, IBM an- 
nounced its new Personal Computer, a 
machine with a very impressive list of 
features, including excellent color, but 
without voice output and a touch-sensi- 
tive screen. IBM has produced an ex- 
cellent product, but the education 
marketplace was not high on its list of 
development priorities. The Personal 
Computer does not provide those fea- 
tures which IBM's own research considers 
essential for instruction. 

Next time you hear someone moan 
that education should make as effective 
use of microcomputers as does small 
business, remember that the small 
businessman can select hardware and 
software packages designed with the 
needs of small business in mind, while 
educators are often faced with the task of 
selecting the best of what was designed 
for someone else. 

As a final general observation, the in- 
structional use of microcomputers seems 
to be moving away from the "local hero'' 
doing his or her thing to a more struc- 
tured system- wide approach. This fol- 
lows quite naturally as administrators 
become uncomfortable with a prolifera- 
tion of hardware without someone pro- 
viding coordination and direction for its 
use. The same phenomenon is happen- 
ing at the state level. With at least one 
state reporting that 95 percent of its 
public schools provide computing facili- 
ties, there are several states attempting 
to form minimum standards, create com- 
puter literacy objectives, set microcom- 
puter standards and offer other evidence 
that they're on top of things. 

It's significant that 12-18 months ago 
you could survey microcomputer use by 
calling a school district's central office for 
information. That is not often the case at 
present. Now such a survey would re- 
quire a call to each building. Whatever 
the reason, I believe the growth of local 
"computer coordinators" should assist 
other educators as they too begin to use 
the computer to support instruction. 

Let's focus on the evolution of 
microcomputer hardware as it pertains 
to instruction. As already mentioned. 



IBM has entered the marketplace 
with a well-designed personal computer 
system. It has done so in a manner that il- 
lustrates the rapid change of the in- 
dustry.The new IBM Personal Computer 
is its first "integrated" system, which 
means IBM has put its name on products 
produced by others. The IBM Personal 
Computer will be offered with software 
developed by others and marketed 
through Sears and other nontraditional 
outlets. The point is that the rapidly 
changing technology has put an industry 
leader in a position of catching up. I sus- 
pect it will do just that, since the IBM Per- 
sonal Computer seems to have all the 
good features of the competition plus sev- 
eral terrific extras, an excellent service 
plan and a name that won't do any harm. 

The IBM Personal Computer will have 
little direct impact in the education 
marketplace. Too many schools still pur- 
chase the least expensive machine and 
then later worry about software and 
other forms of support. The chances of 
large numbers of schools adopting one of 
the most expensive machines is extreme- 
ly remote. 

On the other hand, I suggest that IBM's 



Educators are often faced 

with selecting the best 

of what was designed 

for someone else. 



Personal Computer will have a signifi- 
cant indirect impact on instructional 
microcomputers. As IBM establishes 
itself in the business market, it will do so 
partly by expanding that market, but 
also at the expense of current entries in 
that market. Should IBM seriously affect 
the market share of Tandy. Apple or 
Commodore, that impact is bound to be 
reflected in the educational market- 
place. The next 12 months should be 
very interesting. 

Why BASIC? 

There are well-known and respected 
educators, including Seymour Papert, 
who contend that BASIC is not just a poor 
choice, but an impossible choice for 
many children. We don't use BASIC as 
the result of any research on learning or 
instruction. We use BASIC because 
that's what the computer industry chose 
to provide. 

Logo is now available for the Texas In- 
struments 99/4A personal computer 
(versions for the Apple and Atari are 
expected to be released soon). If you're 
concerned with computer use in grades 
K through 3, you can do no better 
than Logo. If you don't have a TI com- 
I puter already— an extremely likely 



possibility— then here's your opportuni- I 
ty to demonstrate some of the merits of 
having more than one brand of 
microcomputer. 

Try the following on your micro or 
even minicomputer. 

10 FOR C = 1 TO 100 STEP . 1 
20 PRINT I 
30 NEXT I 

I've run this on a great many computers 
of all sizes, and the TI 99/4 A is only one of 
two computers that properly execute the 
program. There are several other stan- 
dard examples of annoying round-off er- 
ror that can be executed without error on 
the TI 99/4A. The ability to avoid such er- 
rors is a strong plus when dealing with 
younger children. 

Another piece of hardware that seems 
to be slow getting off the ground is the 
Radio Shack Color Computer. With a 
16K memory and Extended BASIC, this 
is a very nice instructional machine that 
hasn't found its way into many class- 
rooms. That might be attributed to the 
huge lack of instructional software. As of 
this writing, even Radio Shack was offer- 
ing only three packages that might be 
considered useful for instruction. A 
significant step for this computer is the 
availability of a disk drive. A complete 
system with disk costs about $ 1 500. This 
configuration has nearly all the ingre- 
dients for becoming a winner in the 
education market. I suspect, however, 
that this will not be the case. 

Two of the reasons for my suspicion are 
the Atari 400 and 800 coupled with 
Atari's somewhat recent decision to ac- 
tively pursue the educational market- 
place. While other vendors are certainly 
interested in the educational market- 
place. Atari is the only major hardware 
vendor that has targeted school and 
home applications as a primary rather 
than secondary objective. 

That Atari is serious in this commit- 
ment is evidenced by their recently being 
awarded the MECC (Minnesota Educa- 
tional Computing Consortium) micro- 
computer contract for the next three 
years. This contract was awarded to Ap- 
ple for the preceding three years, and 
that contract and ramifications of it went 
a long way toward establishing Apple's 
niche in the education market. As the 
MECC contract includes the translation 
of nearly 100 programs to the Atari, this 
newcomer will have a very sound soft- 
ware base of interest to many schools. 

An assessment of today's educational 
hardware would be incomplete without 
mentioning the Apple II and TRS-80 
Model Ill/Model I. Certainly these ma- 
chines are the dominant factors in 
today's educational market, and there is 
some excellent software available for 
each of them. Dollar for dollar, the disk- 
based Model III is hard to beat for a gener- 
al-purpose application at home or school. 
Should Radio Shack lower the price of 
the disk and/or disk controller for the 
Model III. they may well continue their 

Microcomputing, January 1982 21 



dominance In the market. 

Where does all this hardware leave the 
teacher? Are there some elear. unchal- 
lengeable choices of hardware? You 
must carefully evaluate how your appli- 
cation would be best implemented on the 
personal computers discussed. Just be 
sure that if your application includes the 
use of prepackaged software, then use 
that software once or twice before buying 
the hardware. Most dealers are more 
than happy to accommodate a reason- 
able request such as this il your decision 
to purchase hardware really does ride on 
the outcome. 

As schools consider additional hard- 
ware purchases, I suggest they carefully 
consider the experience of others. Bar- 
gains are not always what they seem. For 
example, in which marketplace do you 
find cassette-based systems? The answer 
is in the hobbyist and school market. 
Business has never taken a cassette- 
based system seriously. 

As educators have become familiar 
with the advantages and disadvantages 
of various microcomputers and peripher- 
als, they've realized that the disadvan- 
tage of initial cost of a disk may well be 
offset by the many user advantages. Cas- 
sette-based systems really aren't appro- 
priate for other than beginning program- 
ming classes. There are certainly some 
successful applications in other circum- 



Cassette-based systems 

really aren't appropriate 

for other than beginning 

programming classes. 



stances, but I suggest such success is 
achieved in spite of. rather than with help 
of, the hardware. You can't help but 
notice that as the market is becoming 
saturated with cassette-based systems, 
at least two major manufacturers have 
announced notably lower-priced disk 
systems. 

Educators should reconsider any deci- 
sion to purchase other than disk-based 
microcomputers for instruction. If you've 
just a small amount of money, add a disk 
to your present cassette system. The only 
exception would be the TRS-80 Model I. 
That is best left alone, since the newer 
disk systems are vastly improved on the 
Model III as well as on other brands. 

The rapid proliferation of microcom- 
puter hardware in schools continues at a 
rate that parallels or exceeds the prolifer- 
ation in other areas. Whether this prolif- 
eration is good or bad may be debatable, 
but its existence is fact. There is a statis- 
tic somewhere that says 80 percent of the 
scientists that ever lived in the world 



were alive in 1960. In a similar manner. I 
believe more computers were sold during 
1 98 1 than were sold in all previous years. 
There is every reason to believe that this 
same outrageous rate of growth will con- 
tinue. The impact on education will cer- 
tainly be even 'arger. but the nature of 
that impact has yet to be well defined. 

Next month I'll continue to explore the 
current state and near future of instruc- 
tional microcomputing, with the empha- 
sis on software and advice regarding 
future planning. □ 




What Does This Program Do? 

If the following program is executed 
with L$ = "you," what will be the final 
value of P? (An underscore represents a 
blank.) 
S$ = "ask not what your country 

can do for y ou , ' ' 

S$ = S$ + "ask what you can do 

for your country" 

P = 

for J = 1 to (len(S$)-len(L$)) 

if mid$(S$. J,len(L$)) = L$ then P = J 
next J 

(answer on page 153) 



Z8 BASIC 
COMPUTER/CONTROLLER 




As featured in 
Byte Magazine, July and August 1981 

• On board tiny BASIC Interpreter. 

• 2 on board parallel ports. 

• Serial I/O port 

• 6 interrupts. 

• Just attach a CRT terminal and 
immediately write control programs 
in BASIC. 

• BAUD RATES 110-9600 BPS. 

• Data and address buses available for 
124K memory and I/O expansion. 

• 4K RAM, 2716 or 2732 EPROM 
operation. 

• Consumes only 1 Vi WATTS 

Z8 Basic Microcomputer/Controller 

Assembled & Tested $195.00 

Complete Kit $165.00 

Universal Power Supply 

( + 5, + 12, &-12v) $ 35.00 

Z8 is a trademark of Zilog Inc. 



SWEET-TALKER, 

IT GIVES YOUR COMPUTER 

AN UNLIMITED VOCABULARY. 




As Featured In 
Byte Magazine, September 1981 

•Utilizes VORTRAX SC-01A speech 
synthesizer chip. 

• Unlimited vocabulary. 
•Contains 64 different phonemes 

which are accessed by an 8-bit code. 
•Text is automatically translated into 
electrically synthesized speech. 

• Parallel port driven or 

Plug-in compatible with APPLE II. 

• On board audio amplifier. 
•Sample Program for APPLE II on 

cassette 
SWEET-TALKER 
Assembled and Tested 

Parallel Port Circuit Card $139 

APPLE II Plug-in Card $149 

VORTRAX is a trademark of Federal Screw Works 



To Order: Call Toll Free • 1-800-645-3479 
(In N.Y. State Call: 1-516-374-6793) 
For Information Call: 1-516-374-6793 



DISK-80 

EXPANSION INTERFACE 

FOR THE 

TRS-80 MODEL I 




4 s Featured In 
Byte Magazine, March 1981 

• Disk controller (4 drives) 

• Hardware data separator 
•Buffered TRS-bus connector 

• Real-time clock 

• Printer port (optional) 

DISK 80-ASSEMBLED & TESTED 

with 32K RAM $329.95 

Centronics Printer 

Port add L $ 50.00 

DISK-80 pc board . . . \ $ 48.00 

Printer/Power Supply 

pc board $ 16.00 

Complete Kit with 32K 

RAM and Printer Port $275.00 

TRS-80 is trademark of Tandy Corp. 



MICROMINTINC. 
917 Midway 
Woodmere, N.Y. 11598 




22 Microcomputing, January 1982 



DUAL 



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• Requires 48K Apple* 
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$260.00 

If your dealer doesn't 
have it, call or write us. 

*TM of Apple Computer, Inc 



ARMADILLO 

COMPUTER 
COMMUTER 




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• Letter quality daisywheel printer 

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distributor with 30 day warranty 



PRINTERS 




VIDEO MONITORS 


NEC 5510 






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."See List of Advertisers on page 178 




Microcomputing, January 1982 23 



MICRO-SCOPE 



Compiled by Eric Maloney 



Old MacDonald 
Had a Micro 



And He's Using It 

To Call Up 
Videotext Services 



Harvesting Data 

Farmers, agriculturists and extension 
agents in the U.S. and Canada are mak- 
ing use of several specialized videotext 
services now on-line. 

These services can provide a wide 
range of information, from current mar- 




ket statistics to encyclopedic data on 
crop pests. They include the Kentucky 
Cooperative Extension Service's Green 
Thumb project, Instant Update from Pro- 
fessional Farmers of America in Cedar 
Rapids, I A, Elanco's Agrivision, Project 
Grassroots in Manitoba and SCAMP in 
New Hampshire and New York. 

While they vary in size and scope, all 
use videotext technology, transmitting 
data via telephone line to a terminal or 
microcomputer. 

The most popular type of videotext ser- 
vice so far is based on the Green Thumb 
project at the University of Kentucky . For 
that pilot test, Radio Shack developed a 
keypad which eventually evolved into 
the Radio Shack Videotex terminal. The 
project now also uses a TRS-80 Model II 
to collect and transmit data. The system 
has been adapted for use by Instant Up- 
date and Agrivision. 

The initial phase of the Green Thumb 
project ran from March 1980 to Decem- 
ber 1981. In January the Kentucky Ex- 
tension Service moved into phase two, 
which was to establish Green Thumb as 
a permanent service. At first, some 200 
farmers in two counties were able to ac- 
cess the service. In phase two, the service 
has been opened to the entire state. 

Users can retrieve information in 17 
categories, which include weather, mar- 
ket news, county news, pest manage- 
ment, agriculture economics, animal sci- 
ences, entomology, forestry, horticulture, 
plant sciences and veterinary medicine. 
The market and weather information is 
updated automatically: other categories 
are updated weekly or monthly. 

The system consists of a TRS-80 Model 
II and an eight-line multiplexer. The ser- 
vice is free, except for phone charges. 
Eventually, different parts of the state 
will have their own store-and-forward 



units, thus allowing farmers in each area 
to access the service with a local call. 

While the Cooperative Extension Ser- 
vice provided the keypads for the pilot, 
farmers will now have to buy their own 
terminals or microcomputers. John Rag- 
land, assistant to the director, says that 
software is available for the TRS-80s, the 
Apple and the TI 99/4. 

Ragland expects that about one-third 
of the initial users will stay with the sys- 
tem, with perhaps a total of 200 users by 
next July. That number could multiply 
two or three times by mid- 1983. 

Instant Update 

Instant Update is modeled closely after 
the Green Thumb project, and is the first 
commercial pay-as-you-go farmers' 
videotext service. It serves largely the 
Midwestern farm states, although it has 
subscribers in nearly all 50 states. 

The core of Instant Update is an elec- 
tronic newsletter that provides such 
ephemeral information as market news, 
commodity prices, marketing tips and 
the weather. Its features include: 

• current future prices for grains, 
livestock, cotton and gold; 

• a cash market scan that tracks the dif- 
ference between cash and futures at key 
points for major crops: 

• price chart trends; 

• Washington Watch, for news from Pro 
Farmers' Washington bureau; 

• a commodity-by-commodity summary 
of Pro Farmers' marketing plan; 

• current recommendations on market 
tactics; 

• local, national and world weather. 
Instant Update currently has some 600 

subscribers. "We consider that to be 
pretty good, even though it's not what 
we'd hoped for," says Marketing Manag- 
er Stewart Cross. Subscribers pay $95 
per month, plus toll charges. Cross says 



24 Microcomputing, January 1982 



the average subscriber calls twice a day 
and spends about $30 a month on phone 
calls. 

Instant Update subscribers originally 
were able to access the service only 
with a Radio Shack terminal. Pro Farmer 
has since developed software for the 
Apple, and is working on software for 
the TRS-80s. 

Similar to Instant Update— in fact, Pro 
Farmer provides the editorial material- 
is Agri vision. Agri vision is provided by 
Elanco as a service to buyers of its herbi- 
cide treflan. Farmers who buy at least 
250 gallons a year receive a terminal 
similar to the one used by Instant Up- 
date. The information, while similar to 
Instant Update's, is geared toward soy 
bean and cotton farmers in the South. So 
far, some 2000 units have been installed. 

Except for phone charges, the service 
is free. Elanco provides the database 
partly to support its image as a "leader in 
innovation," says Roger Benson, man- 
ager of managerial services. 

"Hopefully we'll gain a certain amount 
of market loyalty," he says. 

Canada's Telidon system made its ag- 
ricultural debut in mid- 1981 with Project 
Grassroots in Manitoba. Growing out of 
the Project Ida field trial in South Head- 
ingley, near Winnipeg, Project Grass- 
roots is a joint undertaking of InfoMart 
and the Manitoba Telephone System. 

The project started off with 25 termi- 
nals in such public places as the offices of 
grain elevator operators, crop insurance 
agents and agricultural agents. It has 
since expanded to include 25 farm 
homes and 25-30 commercial subscrib- 
ers, and InfoMart Branch Manager Bruno 
Leps hopes for 500 more terminals by 
early 1982 and 1500 more during the 
year after that. 

Project Grassroots includes some 3500 
pages of agricultural information. Includ- 
ed are the Winnipeg Commodity Ex- 
change; the World Weatherwatch; infor- 
mation on home economics and farm 
safety; Current Focus, a service to pro- 
vide regular updates on the market out- 
look for grain, livestock, dairy and poul- 
try producers; the Herald Grain Newslet- 
ter, on grain industry activities for the 
week; statistical reports from the Canadi- 
an Grain Commission on the supply and 
movement of Canadian grain; and infor- 
mation on livestock markets. 

To access Project Grassroots, the user 
needs a Telidon keypad, developed by 
Norpak, and the Telidon terminal from 
InfoMart. The user pays $47 a month for 
the terminal on a two-year lease, and 

I pays five cents a minute for telephone 
charges. Leps says that the average user 
spends ten to 20 minutes a day on the 
system, with monthly charges coming to 
about $80. 

One of the outstanding characteristics 
of Project Grassroots is its graphics dis- 
plays. Grassroots pages often include col- 
orful illustrations, charts and maps. 



The SCAMP system differs from the 
others in that it is currently geared pri- 
marily toward extension agents, agricul- 
turists and foresters. It provides pest and 
crop management information, which is 
routed through the state extension agen- 
cies to the farmers. 

The New Hampshire SCAMP program 
has some 60 users, most of whom are ex- 
tension agents, University of New Hamp- 
shire personnel and foresters. But, says 
UNH Extension entomologist James S. 
Bowman, the long-range plans are to in- 
clude individual farmers. 

"There's no reason why a farmer 
couldn't hook up to the system if he had a 
coupler and terminal," he says. 

The two most important features of 
SCAMP are its electronics bulletin board 
system and its library. The bulletin board 
includes field reports from SCAMP users 
on current pest problems and recom- 
mendations on how to deal with them. 
The library includes the life histories of a 
variety of crop pests, and information on 
their control. 

Bowman is pleased so far with the 
system's development. 

"The mechanics are good, and the soft- 
ware is fine," he says. "We just have to 
get people to use it more. The younger 
extension agents are embracing it, but 
some of the older agents are a little 
hesitant." 

Market Strategies 

To whom are these systems geared, 
and what is the potential market? 

So far, the commercial services are ap- 
pealing to owners of larger farms. The av- 



erage Instant Update subscriber, for in- 
stance, runs a 700-800 acre farm, sub- 
stantially above the national average of 
430 acres, and spends about $125 a 
month on the service. Elanco subscribers 
receive the service free, but the 250 gal- 
lons of treflan they buy costs over $6000 
and is enough to treat 1000 acres. Bruno 
Leps says that Project Grassroots, too, is 
geared toward the larger farmer. 

This is not to say that there's not a 
market for others," he adds. "But we're 
going to have to bring the price down 
first." 

The cost, however, is not the major fac- 
tor, says Green Thumb's John Ragland. 
The costs for a terminal are within the 
reach of even the small farmer. "But you 
have to have some size before you start 
trading grain and livestock," he says, 
noting that marketing information is the 
most-used service of Green Thumb. 

"It doesn't have to be the case that 
we're used only by larger farms," he con- 
tinues. "If we get a bulletin board system, 
if we're imaginative and aggressive, we 
could come up with a service of value to 
small farmers, too." 

Nevertheless, it is true that many small 
farmers are currently struggling for sur- 
vival. According to figures from the U.S. 
Department of Agriculture, 102,000 
farms have shut down in the U.S. since 
1975, though the average size has in- 
creased from 420 to 430 acres. Many 
small farmers might not be willing to pay 
for a service like Instant Update, when 
they can get much of the same informa- 
tion in periodicals, on the radio and 
through the local extension agent. 



Infomart 






HIN TEHP 
MAY 13 



♦20 
♦ 13 
+ 10 




-10 
-13 
-20 
-25 
-30 



Amer i ca da » I y pr 

2 N. America seasonal 

3 N. America index 



cip 
precip 



A page from Project Grassroots, an agricultural videotext service in Manitoba, 
Canada. 

Microcomputing, January 1982 25 



We should look at 

alternative means 

of providing the information 

without charging the farmer 

a user's fee. 



A recent survey by Successful Farm- 
ing magazine of its readership shows that 
3 1 percent of those questioned are not in- 
terested in a videotext service. Some 41 
percent said they are somewhat interest- 
ed. Only 27 percent said they are inter- 
ested or very interested. While this figure 
translates into some 650,000 potential 
subscribers — more than enough to make 
services like Instant Update commercial- 
ly viable — it indicates that the majority of 
farmers will continue as they have for a 
while longer. 

Bringing down the costs of videotext 
services will no doubt help. As Ragland 
points out: 

"Farmers have traditionally had tech- 
nology and information provided in fairly 
good quality and quantity for low cost, 
through extension agencies and the fed- 
eral government. It's a fact that leads 
me to believe that we should look at 
alternative means of providing the infor- 
mation without charging the farmer a 
user's fee." 

Several ways of doing this present 
themselves. Some companies could go 
the route of Elanco, offering videotext 
services as premiums to customers. An- 
other possibility is sponsorship of data- 
bases by commercial businesses, an op- 
tion Green Thumb is considering. 

"For example, it might be a local coun- 
ty bank," Ragland says. "They may sup- 
port a service in exchange for a page of in- 
formation on their interest rates or ser- 
vices. It may be that there might have to 
be advertising, or at least recognition of 
sponsorship." 

«> VEGETABLE 

HOW MANY DAYS TO REPORT? 
«>7 

08/ 12/ 81 FROM: NEWSLETTER 
TO: FIELD 

FROM 8/11/81 INSECT NOTES 

VEGETABLES 
( Bowman , Eaton) 

Cole Crops: Cabbage looper MOTH CATCHES IN PHER0M0NE TRAPS ARE STILL 
ZERO ON DOVER POINT BUT ARE INCREASING TO ABOUT ONE PER DAY IN 
STRATHAM. STILL NO APPARENT BUILD UP OF LARVAE, SCOUTING HAS 
DEMONSTRATED AS HIGH AS 56% OF THE PLANTS WITH AT LEAST ONE WORM 
WHICH IS PREDOMINANTLY THE Imported cabbage worm. AN UNEXPECTED 
ATTACK BY Japanese beetles ON COLE CROPS OCCURRED ON DOVER POINT 
THIS WEEK. 

Potatoes: Colorado Potato beetle HAS BEEN SLOW BUILDING UP IN 
COMMERCIAL PLANTINGS SO FAR. PYDRIN HAS ELIMINATED MOST OF THE 
PROBLEM BUT WE HAVE NOTICED A SLOW BUILD UP IN UNTREATED AREAS 
ALSO. THIS IS PROBABLY DUE TO THE EXCELLENT GROWING CONDITIONS 
THIS YEAR. NO PROBLEMS WITH aphids or potato leafhopper SO FAR. 

Sweet corm: SINCE OUR INITIAL CATCHES OF corn earworm and fall 
armyworm MOTHS REPORTED LAST WEEK, WE HAVE FOUND NO MORE OF EITHER 
SPECIES. A COUPLE OF EARWORMS WERE TRAPPED AT THE SUBURBAN 
EXPERIMENT STATION (WALTHAM, MASS.) THIS WEEKEND. GROWERS WITH 
LIGHT TRAPS MUST BE SURE THAT THE TRAPS ARE KEPT CLOSE TO FRESH 
SILKING CORN, IF EARWORM CATCHES ARE TO BE RELIABLE. European 
corn borer CATCHES ARE STILL HIGH. WE STILL RECOMMEND ABOUT A 
6-DAY SCHEDULE FOR SILKING CORN, BUT THAT CAN CHANGE IF earworm 
or fall armyworm COUNTS INCREASE. 

END 

From the electronic bulletin board of the University of New Hampshire's SCAMP 
system. 



Finally, extension agencies might act 
as clearinghouses for farmers in their 
area, as is the case with SCAMP. Farmers 
would call their local agent with ques- 
tions, and the agent would access the in- 
formation from the host computer. 

Until the costs decline and services be- 
come accessible to a broader range of 
farmers, videotext services will be scram- 
bling to convince their potential market 
that they have a valuable product. 

"Videotext is limited by how good the 
information is," Roger Benson of Elanco 
says. "As long as it's expensive to access 
the information, it has to be worth the 
customer's while." 

— Eric Maloney 

More on Woman 
Computerists 

Microcomputing and the Association 
of Women in Computing have received a 
number of queries concerning an article 
on that organization (see "Women, 



Unite!" on p. 28 of the October issue). Fol- 
lowing is a list of chartered or provisional 
AWC chapters: 

Washington, DC area 

Linda Zenker 

4905 Americana Drive, # 1 1 1 

Annandale, VA 22003 

232-797-5338 

Twin Cities 

Bonnie Swierzbin 
PO Box 14605 
University Station 
Minneapolis, MN 55414 
612-482-1657 

Greater Boston 

Marcia J. Weston, vice-president 

8 1 Leland Farm Road 

Ashland. MA 01721 

617-891-2226 

Call Mon.-Thurs. only 

Rome-Utica 

Linda A. Kane 
302 Hartford Place 
Utica, NY 13502 

Los Angeles 

Carol A. Grosvenor, president 

PO Box 43677 

Los Angeles, CA 90043 

213-673-0986 

New York Metropolitan 

Brenda Pena, president 

BoxB 

67-09 136th St. 

Flushing. NY 11367 

212-244-4270 

St. Louis 

Rita Sisul, acting president 

Box 12907 

St. Louis, MO 63141 

314-925-5291 

Puget Sound 

Susan Pietrowski 
16602 NE 18th St. 
Bellevue, WA 98008 

Women who are not near a chapter can 
get a list of members in their immediate 
areas by writing National President Lin- 
da Taylor, 3573 Greenfield Ave., Los 
Angeles, CA 90034 (213-557-8797). 

The AWC was formed to support wo- 
men in computer fields with career coun- 
seling and a network of job contacts, as 
well as seminars, workshops and 
scholarships. 

The Rich Get Richer 

The affluence of a school and its com- 
munity is the most important factor \n 
whether a school uses computers for in- 
struction, says a recent study by Market 
Data Retrieval of Westport, CT. 

The study says that 46 percent of those 
school districts spending over $75 per 
student for instructional materials have 
instructional computers as compared to 
20 percent of those spending under $30 
per student. Thirty percent of the schools 
in upper income areas use computers for 
instruction, as compared to 12 percent of 
low-income area schools. 



26 Microcomputing, January 1982 



The study also reports that of 15,442 
U.S. school districts, 6441, or 42 per- 
cent, use instructional computers. 
Also, 15,918 of 84,226 public school 
buildings— or 19 percent— have class- 
room computers. 

Grade level and size of the school 
are also factors. Some 43 percent of 
senior high schools, 26 percent of junior 
high schools and 12 percent of elemen- 
tary schools use computers. Almost 60 
percent of high schools with over 1000 
students have computer-aided instruc- 
tion, as compared to 24 percent of small 
high schools. 



World Book On Line 

The CompuServe Information Service 
will soon be offering an electronic version 
of the World Book Encyclopedia to its 
subscribers. 

The encyclopedia, which is still in the 
developmental stage, will offer the basic 
editorial content of the printed version, 
as well as several enhancements. 

"As the project develops I wouldn't be 
surprised if the encyclopedia includes ex- 
tras, in the form of customer feedback 
where they could ask questions," says 
Richard A. Baker, CompuServe's editori- 
al director. "Or World Book may break 
out certain sections of the Encyclopedia 
to be continually updated and revised." 



This latter feature, he says, could pro- 
vide current information on rapidly 
changing events in the world. 

Baker says that these possibilities are 
based on the kinds of services other infor- 
mation providers like to include. 

No date has been set for start-up of the 
encyclopedia. 



A Boost for Atari? 

Atari is going to give Apple and Tandy 
some stiff competition as a result of 
Sears' and IBM's decision to sell the 800 
in their business machine stores, says a 
recent report from International Re- 
source Development, Inc. 

The report says that Atari, a division of 
Warner Communications, has recog- 
nized the importance of reaching the 
business market, and will thus gain a sig- 
nificant market share. 



Throw That Kid an Atari 

Twenty-one outstanding freshmen at 
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, 
NY, have received Atari 800 computer 
systems as part of an academic scholar- 
ship program. 

The winners — 1 5 men and six women — 
were chosen on the basis of academic 
achievement and Scholastic Aptitude 



Test scores. Their SAT averages were 
732 out of 800 for verbal and 761 of 800 
for math. 

The students can use their micros for 
special projects and compete for a $1000 
prize to be awarded at the end of the 
academic year. 

The Ataris will become the students' 
personal property when they receive 
their undergraduate degrees. 

RPI has developed an extensive com- 
puter education program, which in- 
cludes an IBM 3033 mainframe and 400 
terminals on campus. 



New Mag for Big Blue 

IBM's new Personal Computer was 
barely on the loading docks when 
Software Communications, Inc., revealed 
plans to launch a magazine for the 
computer. 

PC, billed as "the independent guide to 
the IBM Personal Computer," will be pi- 
loted by David Bunnell. Bunnell, who 
most recently was managing editor at Os- 
borne/McGraw-Hill, was also editor at 
one time of Personal Computing maga- 
zine, and has coauthored a book with 
Adam Osborne called A Beginner's 
Guide to Microcomputers. 

Software Communications gave no date 
for publication of the new magazine. □ 



Introducing 





Mayday 



60 Cycle 

Sine Wave 

U.P.S. 

(Uninterruptibe Power Supply) 

• ••••••for those systems that 

need 60 cycle sine 
wave keeps computer & 
disk systems on when 
the power goes out 
»•••••• rated for 150, 250 and 

600 watts continuous 
operation * 

• ••••••provides up to 30 min- 

ute operation time for 
Model II TRS80with4 
disk drives 

* Standard MAYDAYS available 
starting at $195.00 for 150 Watt 




from, 




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(603)859-7110 TWX 510-297-4444 

^244 



sSee List of Advertisers on page 1 78 



Microcomputing, January 1982 27 



With practice, you can master Rubik's Cube with this Apple simulation program. 



Rubik's Cube Demystified 



By Curtis and Lillian J. Cooper 




Screen display of the Applesoft Rubik's Cube program. (Photo by Harold Nelson) 



Program listing. Rubik's Cube simulation in Applesoft BASIC. 




10 


PRINT "THIS PROGRAM SIMULATES RUBIK'S CUBE" 




20 


REM 




30 


REM INITIALIZE RUBIK'S CUBE 




40 


REM 




50 


DIM R(S,5,S> , Rl (5,5,5) , A (5, 5) , B(5,5) , C(5,5) , D(5,5) 




60 


FOR I « 1 TO 5i FOR J ' 1 TO Si FOR K « 1 TO 5 




70 R(I,J,K) = 




80 


NEXT Ki NEXT J: NEXT I 




90 


FOR I » 2 TO 4i FOR J = 2 TO 4 




100 


R(1,I,J> = 1:R(I,1,J) ■ 15:R(I,J,1) = 4 




110 


R(5,I,J) ■ 9:R(I,5,J) « 2:R(I,J,5) ■ 13 




120 


NEXT Jx NEXT I 




130 


REM 




140 


REM MIX RUBIK'S CUBE 




150 


REM 




140 


INPUT "INPUT NUMBER OF MIXES";N 




170 


Z* * ■" 




ISO 


FOR I = 1 TO N 




190 


X = INT (6 » RND (D)iY = INT <3 * RND (1)) 




200 


IF X < > O THEN 220 




210 


X* = -R": GOTO 310 




220 


IF X < > 1 THEN 240 


f "\ 


230 


X* ■ "F"i GOTO 310 


(More » 



This program, in Applesoft BASIC 
using low-resolution graphics, 
simulates Rubik's Cube. The prob- 
lem is to take any arrangement of the 
cube and restore it to its pristine 
state. 

In solving Rubik's Cube, each face 
on the cube can turn clockwise or 
counterclockwise. In addition, differ- 
ent views of the cube are obtained by 
rotating the cube about axes through 
the center squares of the top and bot- 
tom faces, right and left faces, and 
front and back faces. 

Program Notes 

The program uses an array R, di- 
mensioned to 5 by 5 by 5, as its repre- 
sentation for Rubik's Cube. Colors 
are stored numerically as follows: 

Magenta 1 
Orange 9 
Blue 2 
Green 4 
White 15 
Yellow 13. 

The F face (see photo for face iden- 
tification) is stored in the middle 3 by 
3 squares where x = 1 . The R face is 
stored in the middle 3 by 3 squares 
where y = 1. The D face is stored in 
the middle 3 by 3 squares where z = 1. 
Similarly, the B face is stored in the 
middle 3 by 3 squares where x = 5; 
the L face is stored in the middle 3 by 
3 squares where y = 5; and the U face 
is stored in the middle 3 by 3 squares 
where z = 5. 



Address correspondence to Curtis and Lillian J. 
Cooper, 803 E. Clark, Warrensburg, MO 64093. 



28 Microcomputing, January 1982 



The program contains two big sub- 
routines. One subroutine is used to 
rearrange the cube. The following no- 
tation, similar to that in James F. 
Nourse's The Simple Solution to 
Rubik's Cube, is used by the program 
to change the cube. 

Summary of Moves 

R + — Turn R face one quarter turn 
clockwise 

R Turn R face one quarter turn 

counterclockwise 

R2— Turn R face one half turn 

F + — Turn F face one quarter turn 

clockwise 

F Turn F face one quarter turn 

counterclockwise 

F2— Turn F face one half turn 

L + — Turn L face one quarter turn 

clockwise 

L Turn L face one quarter turn 

counterclockwise 

L2— Turn L face one half turn 

D + — Turn D face one quarter turn 

clockwise 

D Turn D face one quarter turn 

counterclockwise 

D2— Turn D face one half turn 

U + — Turn U face one quarter turn 

clockwise 

U Turn U face one quarter turn 

counterclockwise 

U2— Turn U face one half turn 

B + — Turn B face one quarter turn 

clockwise 

B Turn B face one quarter turn 

counterclockwise 

B2— Turn B face one half turn 

MFR# where # is 1, 2, or 3-Rotate 
the cube about the axis passing 
through the center squares of the up 
(top) and down (bottom) faces. Move 
F to R face 1, 2, or 3 times. 
MFU# where # is 1, 2, or 3— Rotate 
the cube about the axis passing 
through the center squares of the 
right and left faces. Move F to U face 
1, 2, or 3 times. 

MUR# where # is 1, 2, or 3— Rotate 
the cube about the axis passing 
through the center squares of the 
front and back faces. Move U to R 
face 1, 2, or 3 times. 

Several moves can be performed 
on the cube by concatenating to- 
gether any of the above moves. 

The second subroutine draws the 
cube. Two views are displayed on the 
screen. The first view shows the cor- 
ner formed by the up, right and front 
faces as the corner closest to the view- 
er. The second view has the opposite 
corner (formed by the down, left and 
back faces) closest to the viewer. The 
faces are each labeled (see photo). 



The program begins by initializing 
the cube and asking how many 
moves you want it to make to mix up 
the cube. It is then randomly mixed 
the number of times specified and the 
resulting cube is displayed. The pro- 
gram asks you to input your move or 
moves. Invalid move entries are re- 
jected and you are asked to reenter 
your move. If S is input, the program 
stops. Otherwise the resulting cube is 
displayed and another move is re- 



quested. 

Enjoy exploring this color-graphics 
version of Rubik's Cube.B 



References 

Nourse, James G. The Simple Solution 
to Rubik's Cube (New York: Bantom 
Books, 1981). 

Singmaster, David. Notes on Rubik's 
'Magic Cube' (Hillside, New Jersey: 
Enslow Publishers, 1980). 



Listing continued. 



240 

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lOOO 

1010 

1020 

1030 

1040 

1050 

1060 

1070 



< 

'L' 
< 
U' 

\ 

B' 

•D' 

< 



> 2 THEN 260 
: GOTO 310 

> 3 THEN 280 
GOTO 310 

> 4 THEN 300 
GOTO 310 

> O THEN 330 
GOTO 360 

> 1 THEN 350 
GOTO 360 



X* 



Y* 



Z% 



IF X 
X* = 

IF X 
X* = 

IF X 
X* = 
X* = 

IF Y 
Y* = ■♦■ 

IF Y < 
Y» = »-« 
Y* = "2" 
Z* = Z% 

NEXT I 

GOSUB 500 

GOSUB 2050 

REM 

REM CHANGE RUBIK'S CUBE 

REM 

INPUT "INPUT MOVE ■ 

GOSUB 500 

GOSUB 2050 

GOTO 430 

REM 

REM PERFORM MOVES 

REM 

FOR I = 1 TO 5: FOR 
Rl (I, J V K> - R(I,J,K) 

NEXT K: NEXT J: NEXT I 

IF Z« = "" THEN RETURN 
X* - MID* <Z*, l, 1) 

IF X* = "S" THEN 3100 

IF X$ = "M" THEN 1250 

REM 

REM MOVE FACES 

REM 
Y* = MID* <Z« f 2, 1) 

IF X* < > "R- THEN 710 

FOR I » 1 TO 5: FOR J = 1 
A(I,J) = R(I, 1,J):B(I,J) = 

NEXT J: NEXT I 

GOSUB 1720 

IF E = 1 THEN 1670 

FOR I = 1 TO 5: FOR J = 1 
R(I,1,J) = A(I,J) :R(I,2,J) 

NEXT J: NEXT I 

GOTO 1200 

IF X* < > "F" THEN 810 

FOR I = 1 TO 5: FOR J = 1 
Ad, J) = R(l, I,J):B(I,J) = 

NEXT J: NEXT I 

GOSUB 1800 

IF E = 1 THEN 1670 

FOR I = 1 TO 5: FOR J = 1 
R(1,I,J> = A(I, J) :R(2, I, J) 

NEXT J: NEXT I 

GOTO 1200 

IF X* < > "L" THEN 910 

FOR I = 1 TO 5: FOR J = 1 
A(I,J) = R(I,5, J> :B<I, J) = 

NEXT J: NEXT I 

GOSUB 1800 

IF E = 1 THEN 1670 

FOR I = 1 TO 5: FOR J = 1 
R(I,5,J) = A( I, J) :R( 1,4, J) 

NEXT J: NEXT I 

GOTO 1200 

IF X$ < > "B" THEN 1010 

FOR I = 1 TO 5: FOR J = 1 
A<I,J) = R(5, I, J) :B(I, J) = 

NEXT J: NEXT I 

GOSUB 1720 

IF E = 1 THEN 1670 

FOR I = 1 TO 5: FOR J = 1 
R(5,I,J) = A(I, J) :R(4, I, J) 

NEXT J: NEXT I 
GOTO 1200 

IF XI < > "U" THEN 1110 
FOR I = 1 TO 5: FOR J = 1 

A(I,J) = R(I,J,5):B(I,J) = 
NEXT J: NEXT I 
GOSUB 1720 
IF E = 1 THEN 1670 
FOR I = 1 TO 5s FOR J = 1 



J = 1 TO 5: FOR K ■ 1 TO 5 



TO 5 
R(I,2,J) 



TO 5 

= B(I,J) 



TO 5 
R<2, I, J) 



TO 5 

= B(I,J) 



TO 5 
R(I,4,J) 



TO 5 

■ B(I,J) 



TO 5 
R(4, I, J) 



TO 5 

= B<I,J) 



TO 5 
R(I, J, 4) 



TO 5 




More 






Microcomputing, January 1982 29 




Software 

at SUPER 
DISCOUNT PRICES 

the best available on the 
market today for 




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for the budget minded individual 

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We have all the latest 
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Listing continued. 



1080 

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llOO 

lllO 

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2010 

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:W4 = 

2090 

2100 

- I: 
2110 



R(I,J,5> = A(I, J):R(I, J, 4) = B(I,J) 



NEXT J: NEXT I 
GOTO 1200 

IF X* < > "D" THEN 
FOR I = 1 TO 5: FOR 
A(I.J) = 



1670 

J = 1 TO 5 
R(I, J, 1>:B(I,J) = Rd,J,2> 
NEXT J: NEXT I 
GOSUB 1800 
IF E = 1 THEN 1670 
FOR I = 1 TO 5: FOR J = 1 TO 5 
R(I,J,1) = A(I,J):R(I,J,2) = B(I,J) 
NEXT J: NEXT I 

MID* <Z*,3> 
530 



CHANGE VIEWING CORNERS 



Z* = 

GOTO 

REM 

REM 

REM 
X* = MID* d*,2,l):Y* = MID* 
S* - MID* (Z*,4, 1> 

IF S* < > "1" AND S* < > "2" 
N = VAL <S*> 

IF X* < > "F" THEN 1540 

IF Y* < > "R" THEN 1420 
Z* = MID* (Z*,5) 

FOR K = 1 TO N 
Z* = "U-D+" + Z* 

FOR I = 1 TO 5: FOR J = 1 TO 5 
A(I, J) = R(I, J, ,3) 

NEXT J: NEXT I 

FOR I = 1 TO 5: FOR 
R(6 - J, 1,3) = A(I, J) 

NEXT J: NEXT I 

NEXT K 

GOTO 530 

IF Y* < > "U" THEN 1670 
Z* = MID* (Z*,5) 

FOR K = 1 TO N 
Z* = "R+L-" + Z* 

FOR I = 1 TO 5: FOR 
A(I.J) = 



(Z*,3, 1) 
AND S* 



THEN 1670 



J = 1 TO 5 



J = 1 TO 5 



R(I,3, J) 

NEXT J: NEXT I 

FOR I = 1 TO 5: FOR 
R(J,3,6 - I) = A(I,J> 

NEXT J: NEXT I 

NEXT K 

GOTO 530 

IF X* < > "U" THEN 

IF Y* < > "R" THEN 
Z* = MID* (Z*,5) 

FOR K = 1 TO N 
Z* = "F+B-" + Z* 

FOR I = 1 TO 5: FOR 
Ad, J) = R<3, I, J) 

NEXT J: NEXT I 

FOR I = 1 TO 5: FOR 
R(3,6 - J, I) = Ad, J) 

NEXT J: NEXT I 

NEXT K 

GOTO 530 

PRINT "INVALID MOVE, 

FOR I = 1 TO 5: FOR 
R(I, J,K) = Rl (I, J,K> 

NEXT K: NEXT J: NEXT 

RETURN 
E = O 

IF Y* 

GOSUB 

IF Y* 

GOSUB 

IF Y* 

GOSUB 
E = 1: 
E = O 

IF Y* 

GOSUB 

IF Y* 

GOSUB 

IF Y* 

GOSUB 
E = 1: 

FOR I 



J = 1 TO 5 



1670 
1670 



J = 1 TO 5 



J = 1 TO 5 



TRY AGAIN. M 
J = 1 TO 5: FOR 



K = 1 TO 5 



< > 
1950: 

< > 
I88O: 

< > ■ 
I88O: GOSUB 
RETURN 



+" THEN 
RETURN 
-" THEN 
RETURN 
2 M THEN 



1750 



1770 



1790 



1880: RETURN 



< > 
I88O 

< > 
1950 

< > 
I88O 
RETURN 
= 1 TO 5: 

Cd, J) = Ad, J) : 
NEXT J: NEXT I 
FOR I = 1 TO 5: 

A(6 - J, I) = Cd 



+" THEN 
RETURN 
-" THEN 
RETURN 
2" THEN 



1830 



1850 



1870 



GOSUB I88O: RETURN 



FOR J = 1 TO 5 



Dd, J) 



= B(I,J) 



FOR J = 1 TO 5 
, J):B(6 - J, I) = Dd, J) 



NEXT J: 
RETURN 
FOR I = 



NEXT I 



Cd, J) = 
NEXT J: 
FOR I = 



A(J,6 



1 TO 5 
Ad, J) 
NEXT I 
1 TO 5: 
- I) = Cd, 

NEXT J: NEXT I 

RETURN 

REM 

REM PRINT RUBIK'S 

REM 

TEXT 

GR 

COLOR= O 
XI = 9:Y1 = 39:X2 = 

18 

FOR I = O TO 15 



FOR J = 



D(I.J) = 



1 TO 5 
B(I, J) 



FOR J = 1 TO 5 
J) :B(J,6 - I) = 



CUBE 



D(I,J) 



6:Y2 = 36: X3 = 3:Y3 = 33: X4 = Os Y4 = 30:W2 = 12:W3 = 15 



PLOT 
PLOT 
NEXT 



XI, Yl - 
W3,Y3 - 
I 



PLOT 
PLOT 



X2,Y2 - 
W4,Y4 - 



PLOT X3,Y3 - I: PLOT X4,Y4 - 1 




30 Microcomputing, January 1982 



2120 
21 30 
2140 

- I 
2150 

- I 
2160 
2170 
21 80 
21 90 
■ 36: 
2200 
2210 

- It 
2220 
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2240 
2250 

♦ I 
2260 

♦ I 
2270 
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2800 
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2820 
2830 
2840 
28SO 
2860 
2870 
2880 
2890 
2900 
2910 
2920 
2930 
2940 
2950 
2960 
2970 
29BO 
2990 
3000 
3010 
3020 
3030 
3040 
3050 
3060 
3070 
3080 
3090 
3100 
3HO 



XI = 9:Z1 = 39: Z2 = 34: Z3 = 29: Z4 = 24: Y2 = 21 : Y^ = 18: Y4 - 15 
FOR I = O TO 9 
PLOT XI + 1,21 - II PLOT XI ♦ I,Z2 - I: PLOT XI + I , Z3 - la PLOT XI ♦ I,Z4 

PLOT XI - 1,21 - la PLOT XI I,Z2 - I: PLOT XI - 1,23 - I: PLOT XI I , Z4 

PLOT X2 ♦ I,Y2 - I: PLOT X3 + I , Y3 - I: PLOT X4 + I , Y4 - I 
PLOT W2 - I,Y2 - I: PLOT W3 - I , Y3 - I: PLOT U4 - I , Y4 - I 
NEXT I 

XI = 30: X2 = 27: X3 = 24: X4 = 21.-Y1 = 21:Y2 = 24: Y3 = 27: Y4 - 30:W2 = ^3:W3 
W4 = 39 

FOR I = O TO 15 

PLOT XI, Yl - la PLOT X2,Y2 - I: PLOT X3,Y3 - I: PLOT X4,Y4 - I: PLOT W2,Y2 

PLOT W3,Y3 - I: PLOT W4.Y4 - I 

NEXT I 
*1 = 30-.Z1 = 6:Z2 = 11:Z3 = 16: Z4 = 21 

FOR I = O TO 9 

PLOT XI - 1,21 ♦ I: PLOT XI - I , Z2 ♦ I: PLOT XI - I , Z3 ♦ I: PLOT XI - I,Z4 

PLOT XI ♦ 1,21 + I: PLOT XI + I , Z2 + I: PLOT XI + I , Z3 + I: PLOT XI + I , Z4 

PLOT X2 ♦ I,Y2 ♦ I: PLOT X3 ♦ I , Y3 ♦ I: PLOT X4 + I , Y4 + I 
PLOT W2 - I.Y2 + la PLOT W3 - I , Y3 ♦ I: PLOT W4 - I , Y4 + I 
NEXT I 

PRINT " UP (TOP) BACK LEFT" 

PRINT ■ FRONT RIGHT DOWN (BOTTOM) " 

XI = 8:X2 ■ 7:Y1 = 37:Y2 = 36 

FOR J = 2 TO 4: FOR K = 2 TO 4 
I = 1 

GOSUB 2990 

FOR I = O TO 3 

PLOT XI - 3 • (J - 2),Y1 - I - 5 » (K - 2) - 3 * (J - 2) 

PLOT X2 - 3 » (J - 2) , Y2 - I - 5 • <K - 2) - 3 » (J - 2) 

NEXT I 

NEXT K: NEXT J 
XI ■ 10:X2 = 11:Y1 = 37:Y2 = 36 

FOR I = 2 TO 4: FOR K = 2 TO 4 
J = 1 

GOSUB 2990 

FOR J = O TO 3 

PLOT XI +3* <I-2),Yl-J-5» (K-2) -3* (1-2) 

PLOT X2+3* (I - 2),Y2 - J - 5 » (K-2) - 3 » (1-2) 

NEXT J 

NEXT Ks NEXT I 
XI = 32:X2 = 31 a VI = 22:Y2 = 21 

FOR I = 4 TO 2 STEP - 1: FOR K = 2 TO 4 
J = 5 

GOSUB 2990 

FOR J = O TO 3 

PLOT XI ♦ 3 * (4 - I),Y1 - J - 5 « (K-2) + 3 * (4-1) 

PLOT X2 ♦ 3 » (4 - I),Y2 - J - 5 I <K-2) + 3 » (4-1) 

NEXT J 

NEXT K: NEXT I 
XI = 28: X2 = 29: Yl = 22: Y2 = 21 

FOR J = 4 TO 2 STEP - 1: FOR K = 2 TO 4 
1=5 

GOSUB 2990 

FOR I = O TO 3 

PLOT XI - 3 * (4 - J),Y1 - I - 5 * (K - 2) + 3 * (4 - J) 

PLOT X2 - 3 $ (4 - J),Y2 - I - 5 * (K-2) ♦ 3 * (4 - J) 

NEXT I 

NEXT K: NEXT J 
XI = 7:X2 = 8:X3 = 9: X4 = 10: X5 = 11 
Yl = 21:Y2 = 22: Y3 = 23: Y4 = 22: Y5 = 21 

FOR I = 2 TO 4: FOR J = 2 TO 4 
K = 5 

GOSUB 2990 

PLOT XI ♦ 3 * (I - 2) - 3 » (J - 2),Y1 - 3 * (J - 2) - 3 « (1-2) 

PLOT X5 ♦ 3 * (1-2) - 3 * (J - 2), Y5 - 3 * (J - 2) - 3 » (1-2) 

FOR K = O TO 2 

PLOT X2 ♦ 3 * (1-2) -3t (J - 2),Y2 - K - 3 I (J -2) -3» (1-2) 

PLOT X4 ♦ 3 9 (1-2) -39 (J-2),Y4-K-39 (J -2) -39 (1-2) 

NEXT K 

FOR K = O TO 4 

PLOT X3+39 (1-2) -39 (J-2),Y3-K-39 (J -2) -39 (1-2) 

NEXT K 

NEXT J: NEXT I 
XI = 28: X2 = 29: X3 = 30: X4 = 31:X5 = 32 
Yl = 24: Y2 = 23: Y3 = 22: Y4 = 23: Y5 = 24 

FOR I = 4 TO 2 STEP - 1: FOR J = 4 TO 2 STEP - 1 
K = 1 

GOSUB 2990 

PLOT XI ♦ 3 9 (4 - I) - 3 9 (4 - J),Y1 +39 (4 - J) +39 (4-1) 

PLOT X5 ♦ 3 9 (4-1) - 3 9 (4 - J),Y5 +39 (4 - J) +39 (4-1) 

FOR K = O TO 2 

PLOT X2+39 (4-1) -39 (4-J),Y2+K+39 (4-J) +39 (4-1) 

PLOT X4 + 3 9 (4-1) - 3 9 (4 - J ) , Y4 + K + 3 9 (4-J) +39 (4-1) 

NEXT K 

FOR K = O TO 4 

PLOT X3 + 3 9 (4 - I) - 3 9 (4 - J ) , Y3 + K + 3 9 (4 - J) + 3 9 (4-1) 

NEXT K 

NEXT J: NEXT I 

RETURN 

IF R(I,J,K) < > 1 THEN 3010 

COLOR= 1: RETURN 

IF R(I,J,K) < > 15 THEN 3030 

COLOR= 15: RETURN 

IF R(I,J,K) < >4 THEN 3050 

COLOR= 4: RETURN 

IF R(I,J,K) < > 9 THEN 3070 
COLOR= 9: RETURN 

IF R(I,J,K> < >2 THEN 3090 
COLOR= 2t RETURN 

COLOR= 13: RETURN 

PRINT "THANK YOU FOR PLAYING." 

END 



Hello. 

This is the APPLE 
talking. The message 
is: Don't byte your 
APPLE. Use COGNIVOX 
to speak to it! 

I am now listening 
for your reply . . . 




Let's face it. Voice I/O is a fascinating and efficient way to 
communicate with computers. And now, thanks to 
VOICETEK, Voice I/O peripherals are easily available, easy 
to use and very affordable. 

If you own an APPLE II computer, COGNIVOX model 
VIO-1003 will enable your computer to understand your 
spoken commands and talk back with clear, natural soun- 
ding voice. 

COGNIVOX can be trained to recognize up to 32 words or 
short phrases chosen by the user. To train COGNIVOX to 
recognize a new word, you simply repeat the word three 
times under the prompting of the system. 

COGNIVOX will also talk with a vocabulary of 32 words or 
phrases chosen by the user. This vocabulary is independent 
of the recognition vocabulary, so a dialog with the computer 
is possible. The speech output is natural sounding since it is a 
digital recording of the user voice using a data compression 
algorithm. 

For applications requiring more than 32 words, you can have 
two or more vocabularies of 32 words and switch back and 
forth between them. Vocabularies can also be stored on disk. 

COGNIVOX VIO-1003 comes complete with microphone, 
power supply, software on cassette and extensive manual, 
ready to plug in and use. It plugs into the paddle connector 
and thus it leaves the valuable expansion slots free for other 
peripherals. 

Software provided with the unit includes demonstration pro- 
grams and two voice operated, talking video games! It is also 
very easy to incorporate voice in your own programs. A 
single statement from BASIC is all that is needed to either 
recognize or say a word. 

COGNIVOX can be used as an educational tool, a data entry 
device when hands and/or eyes are busy, an aid to the han- 
dicapped, a foreign language translator, a sound effects 
generator, an intelligent telephone answering maching, a 
talking calculator. Using an IEEE 488 interface card you can 
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COGNIVOX VIO-1003 costs $249 plus $5 shipping (CA res. 
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Goleta, CA93116 



Microcomputing, January 1982 31 



And for you Z-80 puzzle buffs, here's a program to simulate Rubik's Cube 

and thus reduce the risk of thumb-joint injury. 



First Aid 
For Cuber's Thumb 



By Paul A. Turvill 




Photo 1. The pristine Rubik's Cube. 



Rubik's Cube— also known as the 
Magic Cube, and a number of 
less complimentary names by nu- 
merous harried puzzle fans— is the 
current intellectual puzzle rage. The 
puzzle is especially intriguing to 
mathematics, engineering and sci- 
ence buffs, for a number of reasons. 
Mechanically, it does things that at 
first glance would seem impossible, 
even to many experienced mechani- 
cal engineers. Mathematically, it is 
fascinating, having the ability to be 
arranged and rearranged into 2 27 x 
3 14 x5 3 x7 2 xll configurations 
—more than 4.3 x 10 19 permutations! 



Address correspondence to Paul A. Turvill, 4733 
Bel Roma Road, Livermore, CA 94550. 

32 Microcomputing, January 1982 



Cube solvers around the world- 
known as cubists— have become so 
enthralled with Rubik's Cube that it 
now occupies much of the spare time 
of literally millions of Earth's citi- 
zens. So popular and so intriguing is it 
that it has received attention on page 
one of The Wall Street Journal and the 
front cover of Scientific American. 

Douglas Hofstadter's Scientific 
American article (March 1981, p. 20) 
is probably one of the best summaries 
of the cube's possibilities yet pub- 
lished. Hofstadter goes into mechani- 
cal construction, mathematical con- 
siderations and various approaches to 
developing solution algorithms. He 
also discusses in some detail a stan- 
dard system of notation designed to 
permit cubists to readily exchange in- 
formation about their solution efforts. 

While Hofstadter's article is high- 
ly recommended, the following de- 
scription should give a basic un- 
derstanding of the device and point 
out the usefulness of the listed com- 
puter programs. Notation and ter- 
minology are based on those intro- 
duced by Hofstadter. 

A Cube in the Hand 

Rubik's Cube rests nicely on the 
palm of the hand. Each of its six faces 
is subdivided into nine equal facelets. 
In the starting position, or pristine 
state, each of the cube's major faces is 
a different uniform color (see Photo 1). 

The cube is cut between facelets— 
in fact, it consists of 26 visible cubies 
(the centermost space is assumed to 



be unoccupied). Further, the 26 
cubies are interlocked so that the 
nine cubies that make up each of the 
six major faces may be rotated as a 
group (see Photo 2). 

By rotating any one face, you can 
partially rearrange the four adjacent 
faces. Thus, a series of 90-degree 
rotations of the various faces can 
quickly scramble the arrangement of 
the colored facelets. 

Most cubists have had great diffi- 
culty establishing even a few com- 
mon predetermined patterns, not to 
mention returning their cubes to the 
pristine state. A number of algo- 
rithms have been developed with 
varying degrees of success. 

The Programs 

These computer programs— one in 
BASIC (Listing 1), and one in Z-80 as- 
sembly language (Listing 2)— are in- 
tended to help you make sequences 
of moves to take the cube from one 
state to another. The programs oper- 





Rotation 




Face 


CW 


ccw 


Up (top) 


U 


u 


Down (bottom) 


D 


d 


Left side 


L 


1 


Right side 


R 


r 


Front 


F 


f 


Back 


B 

Table 1. 


b 



ate essentially identically, although it 
will be seen that the machine-lan- 
guage code generated by the assem- 
bly-language program is far more ef- 
ficient in memory requirements and 
operating speed. Because of their 
similarity, the following discussion 
applies equally to both. 

The notation used (based on the 
Hofstadter article) is as follows: the 
major faces are identified in accor- 
dance with their positions on a cube 
held stationary in relation to the 
viewer— Up, Down, Left, Right, 
Front and Back (see Fig. 1). 

For simplicity and ease of presenta- 
tion on a two-dimensional alphanu- 
meric display device (and printer), 
the cube is unfolded so that its six 
faces can be seen simultaneously (see 
Fig. 2). 

Once the program is loaded and 
running properly, the legend Move 
Sequence: will appear at the top of 
the screen, with a representation of 
the unfolded cube laid out below, in 
its pristine state (see Sample run in 
Fig. 3). Thereafter, keying any of the 
12 legal move commands will cause 
the appropriate face to be rotated by 
90 degrees, and the four adjacent 
faces to be rearranged accordingly. 
The Move Sequence will be updated 
and the display modified to reflect 
the cumulative effect of all move 
commands. 

Table 1 summarizes the 12 permis- 
sible move commands and their ef- 
fects; in the table, CW indicates 
clockwise, or "right" rotation, and 
CCW means counterclockwise, or 
"left.' The notation differs some- 
what from that of the Hofstadter arti- 
cle. To retain the simplicity afforded 
by single character commands, these 
programs use a combination of up- 




B" 



percase (for CW) and lowercase 
(CCW) characters. 

In addition to the 12 move com- 
mands, three additional commands 
are available: 

• P (Print) produces a hard copy of 
the current screen. 

• N (New) reinitializes the cube to 
the pristine state or starting position. 
•X(eXit) returns control to the sys- 
tem monitor (or the interpreter in the 
case of BASIC). 

Languages 

Some comments are in order re- 
garding programming languages and 
formats. Many differences exist 
among the various forms of BASIC. 
Cube is written to run in a modified 
form of Digital Group Business 
BASIC 1.0, which contains a number 
of shortcuts (the option to use # for 
PRINT, for example), and has its own 
approach to the handling of string 
variables. It should not be too dif- 
ficult for the moderately capable 
reader to make the necessary conver- 
sions to nearly any other form of 
BASIC having string capabilities. Ex- 
planatory REM statements are in- 
cluded in the BASIC program where 
they may be useful. 

Programs written for assembly lan- 




Photo 2. Rubik's Cube with one face partly 
rotated. 

guages, while usually considered 
more difficult to write and debug, are 
generally more universal since the 
machine- language codes they pro- 
duce can normally be made to run on 
just about any machine based on the 
same or similar microprocessor tech- 
nology. That is, any assembly pro- 
gram written for one Z-80 machine 
can generally be made to run on an- 
other Z-80 system, provided the I/O 
port assignments and peripheral 
driver routines are made compatible. 
Further, machine code is usually 
highly efficient as compared to the 



Fig. 1. Face-identification symbols. 



1000 
1010 
1020 
1030 
1040 
1050 
1060 
1070 
1080 
1090 
1100 
1110 
1120 
1130 
1140 
1150 
1160 
1170 
1180 
1190 
1200 
1210 
1220 
1230 
1240 
1250 
1260 
1270 
1280 
1290 
1300 
1310 
1320 
1330 
1340 
1350 
1360 
1370 



REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

DIM 

DIM 

Q$ = " 

FOR I 
U$ = 
L$ = 
F$ = 

Q$ = 
NEX 
REM * 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
GOSUB 
REM * 
REM * 
REM * 
#CHR$ 
REM * 
REM * 
REM * 
KEY IN 
IF A$ 



Listing 1. The BASIC listing of the Cube program. 
**************************************** 

RUBIK'S CUBE PUZZLE SIMULATOR PROGRAM * 

BASIC VERSION 1.00 BY PAUL A. TURVILL * 

************* MARCH, 1981 ************** 

**************************************** 



INITIALIZE VARIABLES 

$(9),D$(9),L$(9),R$(9),F$(9),B$(9) 

$ (9) ,Y$ (9) ,Q$ (113) ,A$ (1) 

" : N=0 

= 1 TO 9 

U $ + " U " 

L$+"L" 

F $ + " F " 

Q$+Q$ 
T I 



D$=D$+" D" 
R$=R$+" R" 
B$=B$+ H B" 



DISPLAY INITIAL SCREEN - NOTE THAT THE SYMBOL "#" 
IS USED THROUGHOUT THIS PROGRAM TO REPRESENT THE 
"PRINT" STATEMENT. 

1500 

OUTPUT CURSOR CHARACTER 

(8) ;CHR$ (95) ;CHR$ (8) ; 



GET COMMAND AND DECODE IT 



IF 
IF 
IF 
IF 
IF 
IF 



A$ 
A$ 
A$ 
A$ 
A$; 



A$ 

"U" 

" u " 

H D it 

" d " 

" L " 
ii -i it 

"R" 



#A$; 
THEN GOSUB 



THEN 
THEN 
THEN 
THEN 
THEN 
THEN 



GOSUB 
GOSUB 
GOSUB 
GOSUB 
GOSUB 
GOSUB 



2030 
2110 
2190 
2260 
2330 
2440 
2550 




Microcomputing, January 1982 33 



'BASIC program plus interpreter'' 
required to perform the same duties. 

Table 2 compares the two versions 
of Cube. Readers interested in such 
things might wish to develop ver- 
sions of both to verify or refute the 
comparisons contained in the table. 

The computer simulation has a 
number of advantages over the ac- 
tual Rubik's Cube, especially for 
beginning cubists. Unscrambling a 
randomly scrambled cube can take 
from a couple of hours to sever- 
al weeks; on the computer, instant 
recovery requires only the entry of an 
N command. 

Moving from one structured pat- 
tern to another often requires surpris- 
ingly few moves, although discover- 
ing the exact combination of moves 
required may involve a great many 
trial-and-error iterations and 
numerous dead ends. Once a desired 
configuration is achieved on the 
video terminal, entering a P com- 
mand will print not only the current 
configuration, but a record of up to 
the last 113 moves. (In the event the 
computer- wielding cubist makes 113 
moves without achieving a desired 
result, the computer takes over and 



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Listing 1 continued. 



1380 

1390 

1400 

1410 

1420 

1430 

1440 

1450 

1460 

1470 

1480 

1490 

1500 

1510 

1520 

1530 

1540 

1550 

1560 

1570 

1580 

1590 

1600 

1610 

1620 

1630 

1640 

1650 

1660 

1670 

1680 

1690 

1700 

1710 

1720 

1730 

1740 

1750 

1760 

1770 

1780 

1790 

1800 

1810 

1820 

1830 

1840 

1850 

1860 

1870 

1880 

1890 

1900 

1910 

1920 

1930 

1940 

1950 

1960 

1970 

1980 

1990 

2000 

2010 

2020 

2030 

2040 

2050 

2060 

2070 

2080 

2090 

2100 

2110 

2120 

2130 

2140 

2150 

2160 

2170 

2180 

2190 



IF 
IF 
IF 
IF 
IF 
IF 
IF 
IF 



II y II 



THEN 
THEN 
THEN 
THEN 
THEN 
THEN 
THEN 
THEN 



GOSUB 
GOSUB 
GOSUB 
GOSUB 
GOSUB 

# " " ; 

# " " ; 
GOSUB 



2660 
2770 
2870 
2970 
3070 
RUN 
END 
3340 



A$ = 

Av="F" 

A$="f " 

A$="B" 

A$="b" 

A $ = " N " 

A$= H X" 

A$= M P" 
GOTO 1260 
REM * 

REM * SCREEN/PRINTER FORMATTING ROUTINE 
REM * 

CURSOR : #"Move Sequence: 
IF A$="p" THEN #"" 
FOR 1=1 TO 9 

1 = 4 



";Q$; 



IF (1=1 OR 

#U$(I,I) ;" 

NEXT I 
# M n . £n tt 

FOR 1=0 TO 2 
#TAB(12) ; 
FOR J=l TO 
#L$ (K,K) ; 
NEXT J 



OR 1=7) THEN #"" 



#TAB(23) ; 



K=3*I+J 



3 
•i 



K=3*I+J 



3 
it 



3 
it 



K=3*I+J 



K=3*I+J 



1 = 4 



OR 1=7) THEN #"" 



Move : 
A$="P" 



#TAB(23) 



FOR J=l TO 
#F$ (K,K) ; 
NEXT J 

FOR J=l TO 
#R$ (K,K) 
NEXT J 
# " 

FOR J=l TO 
#B$ (K,K) 
NEXT J 
#" " : NEXT 
FOR 1=1 TO 9 
IF (1=1 OR 
#D$ (1,1);" 
NEXT I 
#"" : #"" : #"Next 
IF N=113 THEN N=0 
RETURN 
REM * 

STRING HANDLING ROUTINES - EACH FACE OF CUBE IS 
REPRESENTED BY A STRING VARIABLE, NINE CHARACTERS 
IN LENGTH. TOP ROW OF FACE AS DISPLAYED ON SCREEN 
IS REPRESENTED BY POSITIONS 1, 2, AND 3; MIDDLE 
ROW BY 4, 5, AND 6; AND BOTTOM ROW BY 7, 8, AND 9. 
PARTIAL STRINGS ARE DEPICTED BY THE VARIABLE NAME 
FOLLOWED BY THE STARTING AND ENDING POSITIONS IN 
PARENTHESES CEXAMPLE: BOTTOM ROW, FRONT FACE IS 
F$(7,9)D. IF ONLY ONE POSITION IS GIVEN IN PAREN- 
THESES, IT IS ASSUMED THAT ALL CHARACTERS FROM 
NUMBERED POSITION TO THE END ARE INTENDED [EXAMPLE: 
U$(4) IS EQUIVALENT TO U$(4,9)3. IN ANY STRING 
TRANSACTION THE NUMBER OF CHARACTERS ALTERED IS 
GOVERNED BY THE SHORTER SUBSTRING [EXAMPLE: THE 
STATEMENT " F$ ( 1 ) =L$ ( 1 , 3 ) " WILL CAUSE THE FIRST 
THREE CHARACTERS OF F$ TO BE SET TO THE FIRST THREE 
CHARACTERS OF L$D. 



REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 



* 

* 

* 

* 
* 

* 
* 

* 
* 
* 
* 
* 



UP FACE, CLOCKWISE (CW) ROTATION 

U$ = Y$ 



GOSUB 3140 



REM 

X$=U$ 

X$ = L$ 

L$ (1) =F$ (1,3) 

R$ (1)=B$ (1,3) 

GOTO 1500 

REM * 

UP FACE, 



* 
* 



GOSUB 3190 



REM 

REM 

X$ = U$ 

X$ = L$ 

L$(1)=B$ (1,3) : 

R$(1)=F$ (1,3) : 

GOTO 1500 

REM * 

REM * DOWN FACE , 

REM * 

X$=D$ : GOSUB 3140 



F$ (1)=R$ (1,3) 
B$ (1)=X$ (1,3) 



COUNTERCLOCKWISE (CCW) ROTATION 



U$ = Y$ 



B$(1)=R$ (1,3) 
F$(1)=X$(1,3) 



CW 



D$ = Y$ 




More 



automatically prints a hard copy, 
before starting to overwrite the 
previous Move Sequence.) 

The printed record of moves made 
can then be manually edited for re- 
dundancy (Ul followed immediately 
by Lu, for example), and the resultant 



edited sequence quickly verified in 
another run. 

Working with both computer and 
cube, the cubist can systematically 
apply real moves to the cube after 
perfecting each sequence painlessly 
on the machine. 



A couple of fairly simple sequences 
exist that clearly illustrate the cube's 
possibilities. First try UdRlFbUd; 
then uuddllrrffbb (or UUDDLLRRF- 
FBB); then combine these and others. 
Vast numbers of other combinations 
will suggest themselves, but exercise 

(continued on page 46 J 
























U 






















1 
1 










| 










1 




















1 








L 


1 
1 


F 


1 
1 


R 


1 
| 


B 




















1 
1 

1 












D 











Fig. 2. Unfolding the cube for the video display. 



DISK DRIVE WOES? 
PRINTER INTERACTION? 
MEMORY LOSS? 
ERRATIC OPERATION? 

Don't 
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MICROSTAT Release 2.0 

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clude: new programs for moments about the mean, skewness, 
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sort routine, the ability to declare each data file's numeric precision 
and drive location plus an expanded user's manual with new appendi- 
ces for the equations and file structures used in Microstat. Also 
included is a Data Management Subsystem for file maintenance (edit, 
list, destroy, augment, sort, rank-order, move and merge) plus trans- 
formations (add, subtract, multiply, divide, reciprocal, log, natural log 
and antilog, exponentiation and linear) that allow you to create new 
variables from existing variables 

After file creation with DMS, programs for analysis include: Descrip- 
tive statistics, Hypothesis testing (mean and proportion), AN0VA 
(one-way, two-way. and random blocks), Scatterplots. Frequency 
distributions. Correlation analysis. Simple. Multiple and Stepwise 
Multiple Regression (including files larger than available memory). 
Time series. 1 1 Nonparametric tests. 8 Probability distributions, 
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ials (up to one million factorial). All program output is neatly formatted 
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The price for Microstat Rel. 2 is $295.00 and the user's manual is 
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best at any price. 

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master charge 




Microcomputing, January 1982 35 



CH1PS & 

& DALE 

Specializing in memory Chips 



THE INFLATION 
FIGHTERS! 

By carrying a Specialized 
Product Line; we are able to 
get large discounts through 
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are passed on to you! 
♦We buy from Manufacturer's 
Authorized Distributors. All 
Chips are fully Guaranteed. 
*Also we won't carry any 
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at rock bottom prices. 

_RAM — 

41 16 200ns 8/$ 13.00 
41 16 150ns 8/$ 16.00 
21 14L 300ns 8/$ 16.95 
21 14L 200ns 8/$ 18.00 
4164 200ns $13.00 

— EPROM — 

2716 (5v»50ns 8/S3.90 ea. $4. 1 5 ea. 
2716-1 (5v) 350ns $7.50 ea. 
2732 <5v)450ns &/$ 10.25 ea. $ 10.75 
2532 (5v) 450ns 8/$ 12.00 $12. 50 ea. 

NEW Products Coming 

* * * Very Low Prices* * * 
Printers — Epson, Okidata, Paper Tiger 

& others 
Terminals— Televideo's, Z-19*s, Z-89's 

& others 
Please call or write for other computer 
peripherals 

Call for quantity pricing 

Call or write for Catalog 
Please allow up to 3 wks. for 
Personal checks to clear 
Master charge 
VISA accepted. 

Add $2.50 Shipping & Handling 

C.O.D. $3.50, Wash, residents add 

5.4% Sales Tax 

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P.O. BOX 31607, DEPT M 
Seattle, Washington 
Zip 98 1 03 

1-206-524-9126 
CHIPS* 

n DA LEO 

■"■ Specializing in memory chips 
36 Microcomputing, January 1982 



Listing 1 continued. 



2200 
2210 
2220 
2230 
2240 
2250 
2260 
2270 
2280 
2290 
2300 
2310 
2320 
2330 
2340 
2350 
2360 
2370 
2380 
2390 
2400 
2410 



X$=L$ (7) 

L$ (7) =B$ (7) 

GOTO 1500 

REM * 

REM * DOWN 

REM * 

X$=D$ : GOSUB 

X$=L$ (7) 

L$(7)=F$(7) : 

GOTO 1500 

REM * 

LEFT FACE, 



* 



: B$(7)=R$(7) 

FACE, CCW 

3190 : D$=Y$ 
F$ (7)=R$ (7) 

CW 



R$ (7)=F$ (7) 



F$ (7) =X$ 



R$ (7)=B$ (7) 



B$ (7) =X$ 



REM 

REM 

X$=L$ : GOSUB 3140 : L$=Y$ 

X$ = U$ 

U$(1)=B$(9) : U$ (4)=B$ (6,6) 

B$ (3)=D$ (7,7) : B$ ( 6 ) =D $ ( 4 , 4 ) : 

FOR 1=1 TO 7 STEP 3 

D$ (I)=F$ (1,1) : F$ (I)=X$ (1,1) 

NEXT I 
GOTO 1500 
REM * 



U$ (7)=B$ (3, 3) 
: B$(9)=D$(1) 



Move Sequence: 



Next Move 



Move Sequence: UdRlFbUduuddl lr r f f bb 



Next Move : 




Afo'f 









U 


U 


U 




















U 


U 


U 




















U 


U 


U 














L 


L 


L 


F 


F 


F 


R 


R 


R 


B 


B 


B 


L 


L 


L 


F 


F 


F 


R 


R 


R 


B 


B 


B 


L 


L 


L 


F 

D 
D 
D 


F 

D 
D 
D 


F 

D 
D 
D 


R 


R 


R 


B 


B 


B 



Next Move : 






















Move Sequence: 


UdRlFbUd 






















F 


F 


F 


















F 


U 


F 


















F 


F 


F 














D 


D D 


R 


R 


R 


U 


U 


U 


L 


L 


L 


D 


L D 


R 


F 


R 


U 


R 


U 


L 


B 


L 


D 


D D 


R 

B 
B 
B 


R 

B 
D 
B 


R 

B 
B 
B 


U 


U 


U 


L 


L 


L 









F 


B 


F 




















B 


U 


B 




















F 


B 


F 














D 


U 


D 


R 


L 


R 


U 


D 


U 


L 


R 


L 


U 


L 


U 


L 


F 


L 


D 


R 


D 


R 


B 


R 


D 


U 


D 


R 

B 
F 
B 


L 

F 
D 
F 


R 

B 

F 
B 


U 


D 


U 


L 


R 


L 



Fig. 3. The cube, as it appears on the video display, in its original state and as it appears after two 
Move Sequences. t 



Listing 1 continued 
2420 
2430 
2440 
2400 
2460 
2470 
2480 
2490 
2500 
2510 
2520 
2530 
2540 
2550 
2560 
2570 
2580 
2590 
2600 
2610 
2620 
2630 
2640 
2650 
2660 
2670 
2680 
2690 
2700 
2710 
2720 
2 7 30 
2740 
2750 
2760 
2770 
2780 
2790 
2 80 
2810 
2820 
2830 
2840 
2850 
2860 
2870 
2880 
2890 
2900 
2910 
2920 
2930 
2940 
2950 
2960 
2970 
2980 
2990 
3000 
3010 
}Q2Q 
3030 
3040 
3050 
3060 
3070 
3080 
3090 
3100 
3110 
3120 

3130 

3140 
3150 
3160 
3170 
3180 
3190 
32JO 
3210 
3220 
3230 
3240 



LEFT FACE, CCW 



GOSUB 3190 



STEP 
1) : 



HEM * 
REM * 
X$ = L$ 
X$ = U$ 
FOR 1=1 TO 7 

U $ ( I ) « F $ ( I , 

NEXT I 
D$ (1) =B$ (9) : 
B$ 13)=X$ (7 ,7) 
GOTO 1500 
REM * 

RIGHT FACE, 



L$-Y$ 



F$(I)=D$(I,I) 



D$ (4) =B$ (6,6 
: B$ (6) =X$ (4 



) : D$ (7)=B$ (3, 3) 
,4) : B$(9)=X$(1) 



CW 



GOSUB 3140 



R$ = Y$ 



F$ (I) =D$ (1,1) 



REM * 
REM * 
X$ = R$ 
X$ = U$ 
FOR 1=3 TO 9 STEP 

U$ (I) =F$ (1,1) : 

NEXT I 
D$ (3) =B$ (7,7) : D$(6)=B$(4 
B$(1)=X$(9) : B$(4)=X$(6,6 
GOTO 1500 
REM * 

REM * RIGHT FACE, CCW 
REM * 
X$ = R$ 
X$ = U$ 

U$ (3) =B$ (7,7) 
B$(1)=D$(9) : 
FOR L=3 TO 9 

D$ (I) =F$ (1,1) 

NEXT I 
GOTO 1500 
REM * 

FRONT FACE 



,4) : D$(9)=B$(1) 
) : B$ (7)=X$ (3,3) 



GOSUB 3190 



R$ = Y$ 



: U$ (6)=B$ (4,4) 
B$ (4) =D$ (6,6) : 
STEP 3 

: F$ (I) =X$ (1,1) 



: U$(9)=B$(1) 
B$ (7)=D$ (3,3) 



* 
* 



REM 
REM 
X $ = F $ 
X$ = U$ 

U$(7)=L$(9) : 
L$ (3)=D$ (1, 1) 
D$(1)=R$(7) : 
R$ (1)=X$ (7, 7) 
GOTO 1500 
REM * 

FRONT 



CW 



GOSUB 3140 



F$ = Y$ 



U$ (8)=L$ (6) 
: L$(6)=D$(2 
D$ (2) =R$ (4,4 
: R$(4)=X$(8 



: U 
,2) 

) : 
,8) 



$ (9)=L$ (3) 
: L$(9)=D$(3) 
D$ (3)=R$ (1, 1) 
: R$(7)=X$(9) 



REM * 
REM * 
X $ = F $ 
X $ = U $ 

U$(7)=R$(1) : 
R$ (1) =D$ (3, 3) 
D$ (1)=L$ (3,3) 
L$(3)=X$(9) : 
GOTO 1500 
REM * 

BACK 



FACE, CCW 



GOSUB 3190 



F$ = Y$ 



U$ (8) =R$ (4) 
: R$(4)=D$(2 
: D$(2)=L$(6 
L$ (6) =X$ (8, 8 



: U 
,2) 
,6) 
) : 



$ (9)=R$ (7) 
: R$ (7)=D$ (1, 1) 
: D$(3)=L$(9) 
L$ (9)=X$ (7) 



REM * 

REM * 

X$ = B$ 

X$ = U$ 

U$ (1)=R$ (3, 

R$ (3)=D$ (9) 

D$ (7) =L$ (1) 

L$ (1) =X$ (3, 

GOTO 1500 

REM * 



FACE, CW 



GOSUB 3140 



B$ = Y$ 



3) : U$(2)=R$(6 

: R$ (6) =D$ (8,8 

: D$(8)=L$(4) 

3) : L$(4)=X$(2 



,6) 

) : 
: D 
,2) 



: U$(3)=R$(9) 
R$ (9)=D$ (7) 
$ (9) =L$ (7) 
: L$ (7)=X$ (3, 3) 



* BACK FACE, CCW 



REM 
REM * 
X$ = B$ 
X$ = U$ 

U$(1)=L$(7) : 
L$ (1) =D$ (7,7) 
D$(7)=R$(9) : 
R$ (3)=X$ (1, 1) 
GOTO 1500 
GOSUB 3240 
Y$(1)«X$(7) : 
Y$ (4) =X$ (8,8) 
Y$(7)=X$(9) : 
RETURN 
GOSUB 3240 
Y$ (1) =X$ (3,3) 
Y$(4)=X$(2,2) 
Y$ (7) =X$ (1) : 
RETURN 
Y $ - X $ : N=N + 1 



GOSUB 3190 



B$ = Y$ 



U$ (2) =L$ (4,4) : 
: L$ (4) =D$ (8,8) 
D$ (8) =R$ (6) : D 
: R$ (6)=X$ (2,2) 



Y$ (2) =X$ (4,4) 
: Y$(6)=X$(2) 
Y$(8)=X$(6) : 



U$ (3)=L$(1,1) 
: L$(7)=D$(9) 
$ (9)=R$ (3) 
: R$(9)=X$(3) 



Y$ (3)=X$ (1,1) 



Y$ (9)=X$ (3) 



: Y$ (2) =X$ (6,6) : Y$(3)=X$(9) 

: Y$(6)=X$(8) 

Y$(8)=X$(4) : Y$(9)=X$(7) 

: Q$(N)=A$ 





CdmpuCquea 



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Phone (904) 243-5793 



Microcomputing, January 1982 37 




BOOKS and 
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For ATARI - PET 
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Expansion Handbook for 
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The First Book of Ohio 
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The Second Book of Ohio 
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Listing 1 


continuec 


I 


3250 


IF N, 


113 THEN Q$ (N+l) -" " 


3260 


RETURN 


3270 


REM * 




3280 


REM * 


HARDCOPY ROUTINE - "FILL" STATEMENT IS EQUIVALENT 


3290 


REM * 


TO "POKE," AND IS USED HERE TO TEMPORARILY ADJUST 


3300 


REM * 


OUTPUT LINE LENGTH TO PREVENT PRINTER FROM OVER- 


3310 


REM * 


RUNNING PAPER WIDTH. "OPEN" AND "CLOSE" STATEMENTS 


3320 


REM * 


TURN OUTPUT DEVICES ON AND OFF. 


3330 


REM * 




3340 


CLOSE 


(CRT,E) : OPEN (PRINTER, E) 


3350 


FILL 


12890,64 : A$="p" 


3360 


#"" 




3370 


GOSUB 


1500 


3380 


FOR I 


=1 TO 12 : #"" : NEXT I 


3390 


CLOSE 


(PRINTER, E) : OPEN (CRT,E) 


3400 


FILL 


12890,132 : A$=" " 


3410 


GOTO 


1500 







Bytes of Code 




BASIC 


Assembly 


Interpreter 


17,920 


(1) 


Main Program 


5,507 


2,224 


Variables 


329 


(2) 


Printer Driver 
Total Bytes 


(3) 


768 


23,756 


2,992 






Execution Times 


Each Command 


2.0 sec. 


0.1 sec. 


20 Commands (4) 


44.0 sec. 


5.4 sec. 


Notes: 






(1) Assembly-language 


program need not be present while 


' application program is running. 


(2) Variable storage locations included in main program. 




(3) Printer driver included in BASIC interpreter. 




(4) Includes operator reaction times between keystrokes. 




Table 2. Comparison 


of features of the BASIC and assembly versions of the Cube program. 



Listing 2. Z-80 assembly-language version of the Cube program. 



0000 








0000 








0000 








0000 








0000 








0000 








0000 








0000 








0000 


18 


15 




0002 


C3 


18 


01 


0005 


C3 


88 


E3 


0008 


C3 


6A 


E3 


000B 


C3 


70 


F3 


000E 


C3 


8A 


08 


0011 


C3 


B0 


EF 


0014 


C3 


00 


00 


0017 


31 


8A 


08 


001A 


11 


7F 


07 


001D 


0E 


71 




001F 


D5 






0020 


EB 






0021 


41 






0022 


36 


A0 




0024 


23 






0025 


10 


FB 




0027 


Dl 






0028 


3E 


D5 




002A 


32 


F2 


07 


002D 


32 


F4 


07 


0030 


32 


F6 


07 


0033 


32 


F8 


07 


0036 


32 


FC 


07 



0100 
0110 
0120 
0130 
0140 
0150 
0160 
0170 
0180 
0190 
0200 
0210 
0220 
0230 
0240 
0250 
0260 
0270 
0280 
0290 
0300 
0310 
0320 
0330 
0340 
0350 
0360 
0370 
0380 
0390 
0400 
0410 



ST 



***************************************** 

* RUBIK'S CUBE PUZZLE SIMULATOR PROGRAM * 

* VERSION 1.00 BY PAUL A. TURVILL * 

MARCH, 1981 



************** M&DPH 
***************************************** 

* 



START JR BEGIN 

JP UPDATE 

JP EDITOR 

JP KEY IN 

JP TRMOUT 

JP PRINT 

JP LPRTR 

JP 

BEGIN LD SP,STAK 

LD DE , MOVES 

LD C,113D 

PUSH DE 

EX DE,HL 

LD B,C 

BEGIN1 LD M,240 

INC HL 

DJNZ BEGIN 1 

POP DE 

INIT LD A,'U' 

LD (U1),A 

LD (U2) ,A 

LD (U3) ,A 

LD (U4),A 

LD (U6),A 



RESTART VECTORS 



SET STACK POINTER 
INITIALIZE 

MOVE 

SEQUENCE 

RECORD 



INITIALIZE 
CUBE 
TO 

STARTING 
POSITION 




38 Microcomputing, January 1982 



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Grade averages can be prepared using weighted 
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combination of these methods. 

3. Student progress reports. 

4. An individualized list of missing assignments. 

5. Easy editing and additions to any of the files. 

6. Reports on either the screen or printer. 

All of this power is yours for only $59.95. 
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When ordering please tell us your computer con- 
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Pet or CBM 2000, 3000, or 4000 series 

(16K with 2040 or 4040 disk) 

TEACHER'S AID will be ready soon on the Atari 
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Call or write for details of our other software offer- 
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NOTE OUR NEW ADDRESS 

DR. DALEY'S SOFTWARE 

Water Street 
Darby, MT 59829 
Phone: (406) 821-3924 

(Hours: 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. Mountain Time) 



*^34 



MasterCard 





Listing 2 continued. 

0039 32 FE 07 


0420 


LD 


(U7) ,A 


003C 


32 


00 


08 


04 30 


LD 


(U8) ,A 


003F 


32 


02 


08 


0440 


LD 


(U9) ,A 


0042 


3E 


C4 




04 50 


LD 


A, 'D' 


0044 


32 


4C 


08 


0460 


LD 


(Dl) ,A 


0047 


32 


4E 


08 


0470 


LD 


(D2) ,A 


004A 


32 


50 


08 


0480 


LD 


(D3) ,A 


004D 


32 


52 


08 


0490 


LD 


(D4) ,A 


0050 


32 


56 


08 


0500 


LD 


(D6) ,A 


0053 


32 


58 


08 


0510 


LD 


(D7),A 


0056 


32 


5A 


08 


0520 


LD 


(D8) , A 


0059 


32 


5C 


08 


0530 


LD 


(D9) ,A 


005C 


3E 


CC 




0540 


LD 


A, 'L' 


005E 


32 


04 


08 


0550 


LD 


(LI), A 


0061 


32 


06 


08 


0560 


LD 


(L2),A 


0064 


32 


08 


08 


0570 


LD 


(L3),A 


0067 


32 


1C 


08 


0580 


LD 


(L4),A 


006A 


32 


20 


08 


0590 


LD 


(L6) ,A 


006D 


32 


34 


08 


0600 


LD 


(L7) ,A 


0070 


32 


36 


08 


0610 


LD 


(L8) ,A 


007 3 


32 


38 


08 


0620 


LD 


(L9),A 


0076 


3E 


D2 




0630 


LD 


A, 'R' 


0078 


32 


10 


08 


0640 


LD 


(Rl) ,A 


007B 


32 


12 


08 


0650 


LD 


(R2) ,A 


007E 


32 


14 


08 


0660 


LD 


(R3) ,A 


0081 


32 


28 


08 


0670 


LD 


(R4) ,A 


0084 


32 


2C 


08 


0680 


LD 


(R6) ,A 


0087 


32 


40 


08 


0690 


LD 


(R7),A 


008A 


32 


42 


08 


0700 


LD 


(R8) ,A 


008D 


32 


44 


08 


0710 


LD 


(R9) ,A 


0090 


3E 


C6 




0720 


LD 


A, 'F' 


0092 


32 


OA 


08 


0730 


LD 


(F1),A 


0095 


32 


OC 


08 


0740 


LD 


(F2),A 


0098 


32 


OE 


08 


07 50 


LD 


(F3) ,A 


009B 


32 


22 


08 


0760 


LD 


(F4) , A 


009E 


32 


26 


08 


0770 


LD 


(F6) ,A 


00A1 


32 


3A 


08 


0780 


LD 


(F7),A 


00A4 


32 


3C 


08 


0790 


LD 


(F8) ,A 


00A7 


32 


3E 


08 


0800 


LD 


(F9) ,A 


00 AA 


3E 


C2 




0810 


LD 


A, 'B' 


00AC 


32 


16 


08 


0820 


LD 


(B1),A 


00AF 


32 


18 


08 


0830 


LD 


(B2) # A 


00B2 


32 


1A 


08 


0840 


LD 


(B3) ,A 


00B5 


32 


2E 


08 


0850 


LD 


(B4) ,A 


00B8 


32 


32 


08 


0860 


LD 


(B6) ,A 


00BB 


32 


46 


08 


0870 


LD 


(B7),A 


00BE 


32 


48 


08 


0880 


LD 


(B8) ,A 


00C1 


32 


4A 


08 


0890 


LD 


(B9) ,A 


00C4 








0900 


* 




00C4 








0910 


* SCREEN DISPLAY ROUTINE 


00C4 








0920 


* 




00C4 


21 


6F 


07 


0930 


DISPLY LD 


HL, SCREEN 


00C7 


C5 






0940 


PUSH 


BC 


00C8 


D7 






0950 


RST 


20 


00C9 


CI 






0960 


POP 


BC 


00CA 








0970 


* 




00CA 








0980 


* COMMAND INPUT AND RECOGNITION 


00CA 








0990 


* 




00CA 


DF 






1000 


GETCMD RST 


30 


00CB 


E7 






1010 


RST 


40 


OOCC 


FE 


D5 




1020 


CP 


'U' 


OOCE 


28 


57 




1030 


JR 


Z,UPRT 


00D0 


FE 


F5 




1040 


CP 


•u' 


00D2 


CA 


AD 


01 


1050 


JP 


Z,UPLT 


00D5 


FE 


C4 




1060 


CP 


'D' 


00D7 


CA 


33 


02 


1070 


JP 


Z , DNRT 


OODA 


FE 


E4 




1080 


CP 


•d' 


OODC 


CA 


B9 


02 


1090 


JP 


Z , DNLT 


OODF 


FE 


CC 




1100 


CP 


•L' 


00E1 


CA 


3F 


03 


1110 


JP 


Z , LTRT 


00E4 


FE 


EC 




1120 


CP 


'1' 


00E6 


CA 


C5 


03 


1130 


JP 


Z , LTLT 


00E9 


FE 


D2 




1140 


CP 


•R' 


OOEB 


CA 


4B 


04 


1150 


JP 


Z , RTRT 


OOEE 


FE 


F2 




1160 


CP 


. r , 


00F0 


CA 


Dl 


04 


1170 


JP 


Z , RTLT 


OOF 3 


FE 


C6 




1180 


CP 


• F . 


OOF 5 


CA 


57 


05 


1190 


JP 


Z,FRRT 


00F8 


FE 


E6 




1200 


CP 


'f • 


OOFA 


CA 


DD 


05 


1210 


JP 


Z,FRLT 


OOFD 


FE 


C2 




1220 


CP 


•B' 


OOFF 


CA 


63 


06 


1230 


JP 


Z,BKRT 


0102 


FE 


E2 




1240 


CP 


•b' ^ 


0104 


CA 


E9 


06 


1250 


JP 


Z.BKLT (More v 



Listing 2 continued. 




0107 FE CE 


1260 


0109 CA 17 00 


1270 


01 0C FE D8 


1280 


010E CA 00 EO 


1290 


0111 FE DO 


1300 


0113 CC 8A 08 


1310 


0116 18 AC 


1320 


0118 


1330 * 


0118 


1340 * 


0118 


1350 * 



CP 

JP 

CP 

JP 

CP 

CALL 

JR 



• N . 

Z, BEGIN 
•X' 

Z,MONITR 

• pi 

Z, PRINT 
DISPLY 



* "UPDATE" KEEPS TRACK OF MOVES MADE 



* 
* 



UPRT 



0118 12 1360 

0119 13 1370 
011A 3E AO 1380 
011C 12 1390 
011D OD 1400 
QUE CO 1410 
011F 11 7F 07 1420 
0122 OE 71 1430 

0124 EF 1440 

0125 18 9D 1450 
0127 1460 
0127 1470 
0127 1480 

0127 CF 1490 

0128 3A F2 07 1500 
012B 47 1510 
012C 3A FE 07 1520 
012F 32 F2 07 1530 
0132 3A 02 08 1540 
0135 32 FE 07 1550 
0138 3A F6 07 1560 
013B 32 02 08 1570 
013E 78 1580 
013F 32 F6 07 1590 
0142 3A F4 07 1600 

0145 47 1610 

0146 3A F8 07 1620 
0149 32 F4 07 1630 
014C 3A 00 08 1640 
014F 32 F8 07 1650 
0152 3A FC 07 1660 
0155 32 00 08 1670 

0158 78 1680 

0159 32 FC 07 1690 
015C 3A 04 08 1700 

015F 47 1710 

0160 3A OA 08 1720 

0163 32 04 08 1730 

0166 3A 10 08 1740 

0169 32 OA 08 1750 

016C 3A 16 08 1760 

016F 32 10 08 1770 

0172 78 1780 

0173 32 16 08 1790 
0176 3A 06 08 1800 

0179 47 1810 
017A 3A OC 08 1820 
017D 32 06 08 1830 

0180 3A 12 08 1840 
0183 32 OC 08 1850 
0186 3A 18 08 1860 

0189 32 12 08 1870 
018C 78 1880 
018D 32 18 08 1890 

0190 3A 08 08 1900 

0193 47 1910 

0194 3A OE 08 1920 
0197 32 08 08 1930 
019A 3A 14 08 1940 
019D 32 OE 08 1950 
01A0 3A 1A 08 1960 
01A3 32 14 08 1970 
01A6 78 1980 
01A7 32 1A 08 1990 
01AA C3 C4 00 2000 
01AD 2010 
01AD 2020 
01AD 2030 
01AD CF 2040 
01AE 3A F2 07 2050 
01B1 47 2060 
01B2 3A F6 07 2070 
01B5 32 F2 07 2080 
01B8 3A 02 08 2090 



• See List of Advertisers on page 178 



UPDATE LD 
INC 
LD 
LD 
DEC 
RET 
LD 
LD 
RST 
JR 



(DE) ,A 
DE 
A, 240 

(DE) ,A 
C 

NZ 

DE f MOVES 
C,113D 
50 
DISPLY 



U = UP SURFACE, CLOCKWISE ROTATION 



* 
* 
* 



UPLT 



RST 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 
LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

JP 



10 

A, (Ul) 

B,A 
A, (U7) 

(Ul),A 
A,(U9) 

(U7),A 
A,(U3) 

(U9) ,A 
A,B 

(U3),A 
A, (U2) 
B,A 
A,(U4) 

(U2),A 
A, (U8) 

(U4),A 
A,(U6) 

(U8),A 
A f B 

(U6),A 

A, (LI) 

B,A 
A, (Fl) 

(LI) , A 
A, (Rl) 

(Fl),A 
A, (Bl) 

(R1),A 
A,B 

(B1),A 
A, (L2) 
B,A 
A, (F2) 

(L2) ,A 
A, (R2) 

(F2) ,A 
A, (B2) 

(R2),A 
A,B 

(B2),A 
A, (L3) 
B,A 
A,(F3) 

(L3),A 
A, (R3) 

(F3),A 
A, (B3) 

(R3),A 
A,B 

(B3),A 
DISPLY 



U = UP SURFACE, COUNTERCLOCKWISE 



RST 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 



10 

A, (Ul) 
B,A 
A, (U3) 
(U1),A 
A, (U9) 




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UNIX is a trademark of Bell Labs 



Microcomputing, January 1982 41 



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• RELIABLE - Error Rate Less Than 1 in 10* Bytes. 

• CONVENIENT - Plugs Directly Into The SWTPC. 

• PLUS - A Fully Buffered 8 Bit Output Port Provided. 

• LOW COST - $5995 For Complete Kit. 

• OPTIONAL - CFM/3 File Manager 

Manual & Listing $19.95 
(For Cassette Add) $ 6 95 



C U jpc i 

PhnnP I 



TERMS CASH. MC or VISA. 



Shipping & Handling $J00 



JPC PRODUCTS CO 

Phone (505) 294-4623 
^92 12021 Paisano Ct. 

Albuquerque, N.M. 87112 



42 Microcomputing, January 1982 



Listing 2 continued. 






01BB 32 F6 07 


2100 


LD 


01BE 3A FE 07 


2110 


LD 


01C1 32 02 08 


2120 


LD 


01C4 78 


2130 


LD 


01C5 32 FE 07 


2140 


LD 


01C8 3A F4 07 


2150 


LD 


01CB 47 


2160 


LD 


01CC 3A FC 07 


2170 


LD 


01CF 32 F4 07 


2180 


LD 


01D2 3A 00 08 


2190 


LD 


01D5 32 FC 07 


2200 


LD 


01D8 3A F8 07 


2210 


LD 


01DB 32 00 08 


2220 


LD 


01DE 78 


2230 


LD 


01DF 32 F8 07 


2240 


LD 


01E2 3A 04 08 


2250 


LD 


01E5 47 


2260 


LD 


01E6 3A 16 08 


2270 


LD 


01E9 32 04 08 


2280 


LD 


01EC 3A 10 08 


2290 


LD 


01EF 32 16 08 


2300 


LD 


01F2 3A OA 08 


2310 


LD 


01F5 32 10 08 


2320 


LD 


01F8 78 


2330 


LD 


01F9 32 OA 08 


2340 


LD 


01FC 3A 06 08 


2350 


LD 


01FF 47 


2360 


LD 


0200 3A 18 08 


2370 


LD 


0203 32 06 08 


2380 


LD 


0206 3A 12 08 


2390 


LD 


0209 32 18 08 


2400 


LD 


02 OC 3 A OC 08 


2410 


LD 


020F 32 12 08 


2420 


LD 


0212 78 


2430 


LD 


0213 32 OC 08 


2440 


LD 


0216 3A 08 08 


2450 


LD 


0219 47 


2460 


LD 


021A 3A 1A 08 


2470 


LD 


021D 32 08 08 


2480 


LD 


0220 3A 14 08 


2490 


LD 


0223 32 1A 08 


2500 


LD 


0226 3A OE 08 


2510 


LD 


0229 32 14 08 


2520 


LD 


022C 78 


2530 


LD 


022D 32 OE 08 


2540 


LD 


0230 C3 C4 00 


2550 


JF 


0233 


2560 * 




0233 


2570 * D = 


DOWN 


0233 


2580 * 




0233 CF 


2590 DNRT 


RST 


0234 3A 4C 08 


2600 


LD 


0237 47 


2610 


LD 


0238 3A 58 08 


2620 


LD 


023B 32 4C 08 


2630 


LD 


02 3E 3A 5C 08 


2640 


LD 


0241 32 58 08 


2650 


LD 


0244 3A 50 08 


2660 


LD 


0247 32 5C 08 


2670 


LD 


024A 78 


2680 


LD 


024B 32 50 08 


2690 


LD 


024E 3A 4E 08 


2700 


LD 


0251 47 


2710 


LD 


0252 3A 52 08 


2720 


LD 


0255 32 4E 08 


2730 


LD 


0258 3 A 5A 08 


2740 


LD 


025B 32 52 08 


2750 


LD 


02 5E 3A 56 08 


2760 


LD 


0261 32 5A 08 


2770 


LD 


0264 78 


2780 


LD 


0265 32 56 08 


2790 


LD 


0268 3A 34 08 


2800 


LD 


026B 47 


2810 


LD 


026C 3A 46 08 


2820 


LD 


026F 32 34 08 


2830 


LD 


0272 3A 40 08 


2840 


LD 


0275 32 46 08 


2850 


LD 


0278 3A 3A 08 


2860 


LD 


027B 32 40 08 


2870 


LD 


027E 78 


2880 


LD 


027F 32 3A 08 


2890 


LD 


0282 3A 36 08 


2900 


LD 


0285 47 


2910 


LD 


0286 3A 48 08 


2920 


LD 


0289 32 36 08 


2930 


LD 



(U3) ,A 
A,(U7) 
(U9) ,A 
A,B 
(U7),A 
A, (U2) 
B,A 
A, (U6) 
(U2) ,A 
A, (U8) 
(U6) ,A 
A, (U4) 
(U8) ,A 
A,B 
(U4),A 
A, (LI) 
B,A 
A, (Bl) 
(LI) ,A 
A, (Rl) 
(B1),A 
A,(F1) 
(R1),A 
A,B 
(Fl),A 
A, (L2) 
B,A 
A, (B2) 
(L2) ,A 
A, (R2) 
(B2) ,A 
A, (F2) 
(R2) ,A 
A,B 
(F2),A 
A f (L3) 
B f A 
A,(B3) 
(L3),A 
A, (R3) 
(B3),A 
A, (F3) 
(R3),A 
A,B 
(F3),A 
DISPLY 



DOWN SURFACE, CLOCKWISE 



10 

A, (Dl) 
B,A 
A, (D7) 
(D1),A 
A, (D9) 
(D7),A 
A, (D3) 
(D9),A 
A,B 
(D3) ,A 
A, (D2) 
B,A 
A,(D4) 
(D2),A 
A, (D8) 
(D4),A 
A, (D6) 
(D8) , A 
A,B 

(D6) , A 
A, (L7) 
B,A 
A, (B7) 

(L7),A 
A, (R7) 

(B7),A 
A, (F7) 

(R7),A 
A,B 

(F7),A 
A, (L8) 
B,A 
A, (B8) 

(L8),A 




Aloft' 



Ml Computers 
ATARI for people: 




800 TU $ 699 



TM 

410 Recorder 
810 Disc Drive 
822 Printer 
825 Printer 
830 Modem 
820 Printer 

850 Interface 

New DOS 2 System 

CX70 Light Pen 

CX30 Paddle 

CX40 Joy Stick 

CX853 16K RAM 

Microtek 16K RAM 

Microtek 32K RAM 

One year extended warranty 




ATARI 400 



$59 00 
$444 00 
$359 00 
$629 00 
$159 00 
$269 00 

$159 00 
$21 00 
$64 00 
$18 00 
$18 00 
$89 00 
$75 00 

$169 00 

. . $50.00 



16K. 
32K. 



$329 
$478 
$555 



Intec 48K Board $249 

ATARI SOFTWARE 

CX404 Word Processor $119 00 

CX404 PILOT $68 00 

CX413 Microsoft Basic $68 00 

CX4101 Invitation To Programing I $17 00 

CX4102 Kingdom $13 00 

CX4103 Statistics $1700 

CX4104 Miahng List, $17 00 

CX4105 Blackjack $13 00 

CX4106 Invitation to Programing 2 $20 00 

CX4107 Biorythm $13 00 

CX4108 Hangman $13 00 

CX4109 Graph It $17 00 

CX41 10 Touch Typing $20.00 

CX4111 SPACE INVADERS $1700 

CX41 12 States & Capitals . . $13 00 

CX41U European Countries & Capitals $13 00 

CX41 15 Mortgage & Loan Analysis $13 00 

CX41 16 Personal Fitness Program $59 00 

CX41 17 Invitation To Programing 3 $20 00 

CX41 18 20 Conversational Languages (ea ) $45 00 

CX4121 Energy Czar $1300 

CXL4001 Educational Master $2100 

CX6001 1 7 Talk & Teach Series (ea ) $23 00 

CX8106 Bond Analysis $20 00 

CX8107 Stock Analysis $20 00 

CX8101 Stock Charting $20 00 

CXL4002 Basic Computing Language $46 00 

CXL4003 Assembler Editor $46 00 

CXL4004 Basketball $24 00 

CXL4005 Video Easel $24 00 

CXL4006 Super Breakout $30 00 

CXL4007 Music Composer $45 00 

CXL4009 Chess $30 00 

CXL4010 3-D Tic-Tac-Toe $24 00 

CLS401 1 STAR RAIDERS $39 00 

CXL40A2 NMSSLE COMMAND $32.00 

CXL4013 ASTEROIDS $3200 

CXL4015 TeleLmk $20.00 

Visicalc $149.00 

Letter Perfect (Word Processor) $109 00 

Source $89.00 




CBM 8032 $1149 

4016 $799 00 

4032 $999 99 

8096 $1795 00 

CBM4022 Printer $629 00 

Tally 8024 $1699 00 

CBM C2N Cassette Drive $69 00 

CBM4040 Dual Disk Drive $1039 00 

CBM8050 Dual Disk Drive $1349 00 

CBM 2031 Single Disc Drive $525.00 

CBM 8300 Letter Quality Printer $1799.00 

CBM 8023P 132 Column Printer $799 

SOFTWARE 

WordPro3 Plus $229 00 

WordPro4 Plus $329 00 

Commodore Tax Package $399 00 

Visicalc $149 00 

BPI General Ledger $329 00 

OZZ Information System $329 00 

Dow Jones Portfolio $129 00 

Pascal $23900 

Legal Time Accounting $449 00 

Word Craft 80 $289 00 

Create A Base $249 00 

Power $89 00 

Socket 2 Me $20 00 

Jinsam $Call 

MAGIC $ Call 

t 7, r"'B 



VIC 20 $259 



Vic TV Modual $19 00 

Vic Cassette $69 00 

Vic 6 Pack Program $44 00 

VIC1530 Commodore Datassette $69 00 

VIC'1540 Disk Drive $499 00 

VIC1515 VIC Graphic Printer $399 00 

VIC1210 3K Memory Expander $32 00 

VIC1 1 10 8K Memory Expander $53 00 

VIC1011 RS232C Terminal Interface $43 00 

VIC1 112 VIC IEEE 488 Interface $86 00 

VIC121 1 VIC 20 Super Expander $53 00 

VIC1212 Programmers Aid Cartridge $45 00 

VIC1213 VICMON Machine Language Monitor $45 00 

VIC1901 VIC AVENGERS $23 00 

VIC1904 SUPERSLOT $23 00 

VIC1906 SUPER ALIEN $19 00 

VIC1907 SUPER LANDER $23 00 

VIC1908 DRAW POKER $23 00 

VIC1909 MIDNIGHT DRIVE $23 00 

VT106A Recreation Pack A $44 00 

VT107A Home Calculation Pack A $44 00 

VT164 Programmable Character/Gramegraphics $12.00 
VT232 VICTerm I Terminal Emulator $9 00 



ca 



HEWLETT 
PACKARD 




HP* 85 $2595 

NEW' HP-125 $329500 

HP-83 $1795 00 

HP-85 16K Memory Module $249 00 

5'/4 " Dual Master Disc Drive $2129 00 

Graphics Plotter (7225B) $2079 00 
Call for HP Software Prices & Information. 
Call for Calculator prices 



f^n Texas Instruments 




TI-99/4A $379 

PHC 004 T I 99/4 Home Computer $399 00 

PHP 1600 Telephone Coupler $169 00 

PHP 1 700 RS 232 Accessories Interface $169 00 

PHP 1800 Disk Drive Controller $239 00 

PHP 1850 Disk Memory Drive $389 00 

PHP 2200 Memory Expansion (32K RAM) $239 00 

PHA2100RF Modulator $43 00 

PHP 1100 Wired Remote Controllers(Pair) $3100 

PHM 3006 Home Financial Decisions $26 00 

PHM 3013 Personal Record Keeping $43 00 

PHD 5001 Mailing List $60 00 

PHD 5021 Checkbook Manager $18 00 

PHM 3008 Video Chess $60 00 

PHM 3010 Physical Fitness $26 00 

PHM 3009 Football $26 00 

PHM 3018 Video Games I $26 00 

PHM 3024 Indoor Soccer $26 00 

PHM 3025 Mind Challengers $22 00 

PHM 3031 The Attack $35 00 

PHM 3032 Blasto $22 00 

PHM 3033 Blackjack and Poker $22 00 

PHM 3034 Hustle $22 00 

PHM.3036 Zero Zap $18 00 

PHM 3037 Hangman $18 00 

PHM 3038 Connect Four $18 0Q 

PHM 3039 Yahtzee $22 00 

PHM 3017 Terminal Emulator I $39 00 

PHM 3026 Extended Basic $88 00 

PHM 3035 Terminal Emulator II $45 00 

Call for the best prices on 

PRINTERS 

by Epson, Diablo, TEC and Tally. 



DISKS 

by Atari and Maxell. 




NO RISK • NO DEPOSITON PHONE, C.O.D. OR CREDIT CARD ORDERS. 

computer mail order 



SOO-233-8950 

501 East Third Street 
Wllllamtport, PA 17701 
(717)3279575 



OVER 40 YEARS EXPERIENCE IN SOPHISTICATED ELECTRONICS 



VISA' 



9St HOW TO ORDER: 

Phone orders Invited or send check or money order and receive 
free shipping In the continental United States. PA residents add 
6% sales tax. Add 3% for VISA or MO Equipment subject to price 
change and availability without notice. 



* 4 west 
800- 648-3351 

P.O. Box 6689 
State Line, Nevada 89449 



^See List of Advertisers on page 178 



Microcomputing, January 1982 43 



MBC SYSTEMS INC. (203) 342-2747 



COMPUTERS 

NORTH STAR 

♦ADVANTAGE 64K-QD $3550 

HRZ-2-64K-DD-ASM $CALL 

HRZ-2-64K-QD-ASM $CALL 

HEWLETT-PACKARD 

HP-85A $2 795 

HP-83A $CALL 

ZENITH Z-89 ALL-IN-ONE-COMPUTER $2275 

ATARI 800 16K $ 759 

400 16K $ 345 

COMMODORE BUSINESS MACHINES 

8032 LARGE 80 COLUMN SCREEN $CALL 

CBM.PET COMPUTER 32K LIMITED TIME & QUANITY $ 975 

8050 DUAL FLOPPY DRIVE 1 MEG STORAGE $CALL 

INTERTEC SUPERBRAIN 64K-DD $2775 

PRINTERS 

DIABLO 630 LETTER QUALITY DAISY WHEEL PRINTER $CALL 

NEC 7710/7730 LETTER QUALITY PRINTER $CALL 

C.ITOH LETTER QUALITY PRINTER $1499 

OLYMPIA ES-100 TYPEWRITER/PRINTER ALL INTERFACES AVAILABLE $1250 

IDS PAPER TIGER 445G $CALL 

460G $CALL 

560G 132 COLUMN 15" PAPER $1150 

ANADEX 9500/9501 132 COLUMN 15" PAPER $1290 

EPSON MX-80 WITH FRICTION ATTACHMENT $CALL 

MX-70 $395 

MX-100 132 COLUMN, 15" PAPER , FRICTION & TRACTOR $CALL 

OKIDATA MICROLINE 80 $ 375 

MICROLINE 83 132 COLUMN, 15 "PAPER, BI-DIRECTIONAL $ 750 

VERBATIM DISKETTS 

525-01/10/16 (10 PER BOX) $24.50 

550-01/10/16 (10 PER BOX) $37.50 

TERMINALS 

TELEVIDEO 920C $ 850 

950 $1050 

ZENITH Z19 $ 820 

INTERTUBE III OR EMULATOR $ 725 

ZENITH 12" GREEN MONITOR $ 139 

LEEDEX/AMDEK 100 GREEN MONITOR $ 165 

ABOVE ITEMS MAY BE ORDERED BY MAIL OR PHONE. VISA AND MASTER CHARGE 
FACTORY SEALED, MANUFACTURERS WARRANTY. PRICES ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE 

Multi-Business Computer Systems Inc. 

28 MARLBOROUGH STREET ^ 81 (203J 342'2747 

PORTLAND, CONN. 06480 

~ , , ~~ TW * 7 10 428-6345 

M-F 9-6 SAT. 9:30-3:00 



THE BIGGEST NAME IN LITTLE COMPUTERS^ 

TRS-80 Model II— Your Best Buy 
In a Business Microcomputer 



» ' 




UP 

TO 

15% 




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on 

TRS-80 computers, 
software and peripherals 

Similar values on all merchandise 

800-351-1580 

Texas Residents Call: 915-283-2920 

Van Horn Office Supply 

701 W. Broadway -- P O Box 1060 
Van Horn, Texas 79855 
Dealer G055 

Form F48 Provided 
Standard Warranty on Merchandise 

THE NA TIONWIDE SUPERMARKET OF SOUND 1 ' 



»^214 



€& 



VISA' 



44 Microcomputing, January 1982 



Listing 2 continued. 
028C 3A 42 08 


2940 


LD 


A, (R8) 


028F 


32 


48 


08 


2950 


LD 


(B8),A 


0292 


3A 


3C 


08 


2960 


LD 


A,(F8) 


0295 


32 


42 


08 


2970 


LD 


(R8) ,A 


0298 


78 






2980 


LD 


A,B 


0299 


32 


3C 


08 


2990 


LD 


(F8) ,A 


029C 


3A 


38 


08 


3000 


LD 


A, (L9) 


029F 


47 






3010 


LD 


B,A 


02A0 


3A 


4A 


08 


3020 


LD 


A, (B9) 


02A3 


32 


38 


08 


3030 


LD 


(L9) ,A 


02A6 


3A 


44 


08 


3040 


LD 


A, (R9) 


02A9 


32 


4A 


08 


3050 


LD 


(B9) ,A 


02AC 


3A 


3E 


08 


3060 


LD 


A, (F9) 


02AF 


32 


44 


08 


3070 


LD 


(R9),A 


02B2 


78 






3080 


LD 


A,B 


02B3 


32 


3E 


08 


3090 


LD 


(F9),A 


02B6 


C3 


C4 


00 


3100 


JP 


DISPLY 


02B9 








3110 * 






02B9 








3120 * d = 


DOWN 


SURFACE 


02B9 








3130 * 






02B9 


CF 






3140 DNLT 


RST 


10 


02BA 


3A 


4C 


08 


3150 


LD 


A, (Dl) 


02BD 


47 






3160 


LD 


B,A 


02 BE 


3A 


50 


08 


3170 


LD 


A, (D3) 


02C1 


32 


4C 


08 


3180 


LD 


(Dl) ,A 


02C4 


3A 


5C 


08 


3190 


LD 


A, (D9) 


02C7 


32 


50 


08 


3200 


LD 


(D3) ,A 


02CA 


3A 


58 


08 


3210 


LD 


A, (D7) 


02CD 


32 


5C 


08 


3220 


LD 


(D9) ,A 


02D0 


78 






3230 


LD 


A f B 


02D1 


32 


58 


08 


3240 


LD 


(D7),A 


02D4 


3A 


4E 


08 


3250 


LD 


A, (D2) 


02D7 


47 






3260 


LD 


B,A 


02D8 


3A 


56 


08 


3270 


LD 


A, (D6) 


02DB 


32 


4E 


08 


3280 


LD 


(D2) ,A 


02DE 


3A 


5A 


08 


3290 


LD 


A, (D8) 


02E1 


32 


56 


08 


3300 


LD 


(D6) ,A 


02E4 


3A 


52 


08 


3310 


LD 


A, (D4) 


02E7 


32 


5A 


08 


3320 


LD 


(D8),A 


02EA 
02EB 


78 
32 


52 


08 


3330 
3340 


LD 
LD 


A,B 
(D4) f A 


02EE 


3A 


34 


08 


3350 


LD 


A, (L7) 


02F1 


47 






3360 


LD 


B f A 


02F2 


3A 


3A 


08 


3370 


LD 


A, (F7) 


02F5 


32 


34 


08 


3380 


LD 


<L7),A 


02F8 


3A 


40 


08 


3390 


LD 


A,(R7) 


02FB 


32 


3A 


08 


3400 


LD 


(F7),A 


02FE 


3A 


46 


08 


3410 


LD 


A,(B7) 


0301 


32 


40 


08 


3420 


LD 


(R7),A 


0304 


78 






3430 


LD 


A,B 


0305 


32 


46 


08 


3440 


LD 


(B7),A 


0308 


3A 


36 


08 


3450 


LD 


A, (L8) 


030B 


47 






3460 


LD 


B,A 


030C 


3A 


3C 


08 


3470 


LD 


A, (F8) 


030F 


32 


36 


08 


3480 


LD 


(L8) ,A 


0312 


3A 


42 


08 


3490 


LD 


A, (R8) 


0315 


32 


3C 


08 


3500 


LD 


(F8),A 


0318 


3A 


48 


08 


3510 


LD 


A, (B8) 


031B 


32 


42 


08 


3520 


LD 


(R8),A 


031E 


78 






3530 


LD 


A,B 


031F 


32 


48 


08 


3540 


LD 


(B8) ,A 


0322 


3A 


38 


08 


3550 


LD 


A, (L9) 


0325 


47 






3560 


LD 


B,A 


0326 


3A 


3E 


08 


3570 


LD 


A,(F9) 


0329 


32 


38 


08 


3580 


LD 


(L9),A 


032C 


3A 


44 


08 


3590 


LD 


A, (R9) 


032F 


32 


3E 


08 


3600 


LD 


(F9),A 


0332 


3A 


4A 


08 


3610 


LD 


A, (B9) 


0335 


32 


44 


08 


3620 


LD 


(R9) ,A 


0338 


78 






3630 


LD 


A,B 


0339 


32 


4A 


08 


3640 


LD 


(B9) f A 


033C 


C3 


C4 


00 


3650 


JP 


DISPLY 


033F 








3660 * 






033F 








3670 * L = 


LEFT 


SURFACE 


033F 








3680 * 






03 3F 


CF 






3690 LTRT 


RST 


10 


0340 


3A 


04 


08 


3700 


LD 


A, (LI) 


0343 


47 






3710 


LD 


B,A 


0344 


3A 


34 


08 


3720 


LD 


A, (L7) 


0347 


32 


04 


08 


3730 


LD 


(LI) ,A 


034A 


3A 


38 


08 


3740 


LD 


A, (L9) 


034D 


32 


34 


08 


3750 


LD 


(L7),A 


0350 


3A 


08 


08 


3760 


LD 


A, (L3) 


0353 


32 


38 


08 


3770 


LD 


(L9) , A 




Listing 2 

0356 78 

0357 32 
03 5A 3A 
03 5D 47 
03 5E 3A 
0361 32 
0364 3A 
0367 32 
036A 3A 

036D 32 

0370 78 

0371 32 
0374 3A 

0377 47 

0378 3A 
037B 32 
037E 3A 
0381 32 
0384 3A 
0387 32 
038A 78 
038B 32 
038E 3A 

0391 47 

0392 3A 

0395 32 

0398 3A 

039B 32 

039E 3A 

03A1 32 

03A4 78 

03A5 32 

03A8 3A 

03AB 47 

03 AC 3 A 

03AF 32 

03B2 3A 

03B5 32 

03B8 3A 

03BB 32 

03BE 78 

03BF 32 

03C2 C3 

03C5 

03C5 

03C5 

03C5 CF 

03C6 3A 

03C9 47 

03CA 3A 

03CD 32 

03D0 3A 

03D3 32 

03D6 3A 

03D9 32 

03DC 78 

03DD 32 

03E0 3A 

03E3 47 

03E4 3A 

03E7 32 

03EA 3A 

03ED 32 

03FO 3 A 
03F3 32 

03F6 78 

03F7 32 

03FA 3A 

03FD 47 

03FE 3A 

0401 32 

0404 3A 

0407 32 

040 A 3A 

040D 32 

0410 78 

0411 32 
0414 3A 

0417 47 

0418 3A 
041B 32 
04 IE 3A 
0421 32 
0424 3A 



continued. 

08 08 
06 08 

1C 08 

06 08 

36 08 

1C 08 

20 08 

36 08 

20 08 
F2 07 

4A 08 
F2 07 
4C 08 
4A 08 
0A 08 
4C 08 

OA 08 
F8 07 

32 08 

F8 07 

52 08 

32 08 

22 08 

52 08 

22 08 
FE 07 

1A 08 

FE 07 

58 08 

1A 08 

3A 08 

58 08 

3A 08 
C4 00 



04 08 

08 08 
04 08 
38 08 
08 08 
34 08 
38 08 

34 08 
06 08 

20 08 

06 08 

36 08 

20 08 

1C 08 
36 08 

1C 08 
F2 07 

OA 08 
F2 07 
4C 08 
OA 08 
4A 08 
4C 08 

4A 08 
F8 07 

22 08 

F8 07 

52 08 

22 08 

32 08 



3780 LD A,B 

3790 LD (L3) ,A 

3800 LD A, (L2) 

3810 LD B,A 

3820 LD A, (L4) 

3830 LD (L2) ,A 

3840 LD A, (L8) 

3850 LD (L4) ,A 

3860 LD A, (L6) 

3870 LD (L8) ,A 

3880 LD A,B 

3890 LD (L6),A 

3900 LD A, (Ul) 

3910 LD B,A 

3920 LD A, (B9) 

3930 LD (Ul) ,A 

3940 LD A, (Dl) 

3950 LD (B9) ,A 

3960 LD A, (Fl) 

3970 LD (Dl) ,A 

3980 LD A,B 

3990 LD (Fl) ,A 

4000 LD A, (U4) 

4010 LD B,A 

4020 LD A, (B6) 

4030 LD (U4) ,A 

4040 LD A, (D4) 

4050 LD (B6) ,A 

4060 LD A, (F4) 

4070 LD (D4) ,A 

4080 LD A,B 

4090 LD (F4) ,A 

4100 LD A, (U7) 

4110 LD B,A 

4120 LD A, (B3) 

4130 LD (U7) ,A 

4140 LD A, (D7) 

4150 LD (B3),A 

4160 LD A, (F7) 

4170 LD (D7) ,A 

4180 LD A,B 

4190 LD (F7) ,A 

4200 JP DISPLY 

4210 * 

4220 * 

4230 * 

4240 LTLT RST 10 

4250 LD A, (LI) 

4260 LD B,A 

4270 LD A, (L3) 

4280 LD (LI), A 

4290 LD A, (L9) 

4300 LD (L3) ,A 

4310 LD A, (L7) 

4320 LD (L9) ,A 

4330 LD A,B 

4340 LD (L7) , A 

4350 LD A, (L2) 

4360 LD B,A 

4370 LD A, (L6) 

4380 LD (L2) ,A 

4390 LD A r (L8) 

4400 LD (L6) , A 

4410 LD A, (L4) 

4420 LD (L8) f A 

4430 LD A,B 

4440 LD (L4) ,A 

4450 LD A, (Ul) 

4460 LD B,A 

4470 LD A, (Fl) 

4480 LD (U1),A 

4490 LD A, (Dl) 

4500 LD (Fl) ,A 

4510 LD A, (B9) 

4520 LD (Dl) , A 

4530 LD A,B 

4540 LD (B9) ,A 

4550 LD A f (U4) 

4560 LD B,A 

4570 LD A, (F4) 

4580 LD (U4) ,A 

4590 LD A, (D4) 

4600 LD (F4) ,A 

4610 LD A, (B6) 



1 = LEFT SURFACE, COUNTERCLOCKWISE 




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H Level E kit $8 98 plus 504 Pal * 

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3 Add 4k HAM 



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Editor/Assembler in ROM 
9 Add two S100 hoards 
H Add von own custom cir- 
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7 Qinnert Irrminol 



LV 






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CP/M is a reg trademark of Digital Research 



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^ETRONICSResearch&DevelopmentLtd. 

333 Lijchf ieldRoad, New Milf ord ; CT 06776 

Microcomputing, January 1982 45 



(from page 35) 

caution: most patterns are not simple, 
and trying can be addictive! 

Future Prospects 

While it is beyond the scope of the 
programs offered here, far greater ca- 
pability for Rubik's Cube simulation 
can be achieved. For example, a sim- 
ple utility might be devised to preset 
a desired pattern on each face; this 
would be useful in discovering rou- 
tines to move from one arrangement 
to another, or in unscrambling a 
scrambled Cube. Naturally, care 
would have to be exercised to ensure 
that fixed adjacencies" (the invari- 
able relationships at edges and cor- 
ners) are not violated in such a pre- 
set capability. 

Readers with more sophisticated 
graphics capability may wish to pur- 
sue some of the obvious extensions 
suggested by the basic concepts. The 
possibilities promised by full color 
and/or 3-D graphics are truly ex- 
citing. 

Conclusion 

While this application certainly 
falls into the games category, these 
are not game programs in the usual 



Listing 2 continued. 

0427 
042A 
042B 
042E 
0431 
0432 
0435 
0438 
043B 
043E 
0441 
0444 
0445 
0448 
044B 
044B 
044B 
044B 
044C 
04 4 F 
0450 
0453 
0456 
0459 
04 5C 
045F 
0462 
0463 
0466 
0469 
046A 
046D 
0470 
0473 
0476 
0479 
047C 
047D 



32 52 08 

78 

32 32 08 

3A FE 07 

47 

3A 3A 08 

32 FE 07 

3A 58 08 

32 3A 08 

3A 1A 08 

32 58 08 

78 

32 1A 08 

C3 C4 00 



CF 

3A 10 08 

47 

3A 40 08 

32 10 08 

3A 44 08 

32 40 08 

3A 14 08 

32 44 08 

78 

32 14 08 

3A 12 08 

47 

3A 28 08 

32 12 08 

3A 42 08 

32 28 08 

3A 2C 08 

32 42 08 

78 

32 2C 08 



* 

* 



(D4) ,A 
A,B 

(B6) ,A 
A, (U7) 
B,A 
A, (F7) 

(U7) # A 
A, (D7) 

(F7) ,A 
A, (B3) 

(D7) ,A 
A,B 

(B3) ,A 
DISPLY 



R = RIGHT SURFACE, CLOCKWISE 



4620 LD 

4630 LD 

4640 LD 

4650 LD 

60 LD 

4670 LD 

4680 LD 

4690 LD 

4700 LD 

4710 LD 

4720 LD 

4730 LD 

4740 LD 

4750 JP 
4760 
4770 
4780 
4790 RTRT RST 

4800 LD 

4810 LD 

4820 LD 

4830 LD 

4840 LD 

4850 LD 

4860 LD 

4870 LD 

4880 LD 

4890 LD 

4900 LD 

4910 LD 

4920 LD 

4930 LD 

4940 LD 

4950 LD 

4960 LD 

4970 ' LD 

4980 LD 

4990 LD 



10 

A, (Rl) 
B,A 
A, (R7) 

(Rl) ,A 
A, (R9) 

(R7) ,A 
A, (R3) 

(R9) ,A 
A,B 

(R3) ,A 
A, (R2) 
B,A 
A, (R4) 

(R2),A 
A, (R8) 

(R4) ,A 
A, (R6) 

(R8) , A 
A,B 

(R6) ,A 




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46 Microcomputing, January 1982 



Everybody's making money 

selling microcomputers 
Somebody s going to make money 



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and Programming Personal and Small Business Computers 



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NRI can train you for this exciting, rewarding 
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Microcomputing, January 1982 47 



sense. More properly, they are prob- 
lem-solving tools, representative of 
ways computers are used in scientific 
and engineering applications in in- 
dustry and research. As with most 
computer applications, potential ex- 
tensions to these programs range 
from the obvious and simple to the 
subtle and sophisticated. 

In the Scientific American article, 
Hofstadter loosely associates Rubik's 
Cube with the once-popular and 
much older two-dimensional Fifteen 
Puzzle. An article and TRS-80 BASIC 
program for that puzzle, written by 
William L. Colsher, appeared in the 
February 1981 issue of Microcomput- 
ing. As awesome as the number of 
Fifteen Puzzle solutions may appear, 
Rubik's Cube makes the Fifteen Puz- 
zle seem trivial by contrast: the cube 
has more than four million times as 
many solutions! 

Even with the best of computer 
technology, it is improbable that 
every cube solution will ever be 
achieved. One hundred million com- 
puterized cubists, each producing so- 
lutions at the rate of one per second, 
would require more than 13,000 
years to complete the task.B 



Listing 2 continued. 












0480 


3A 


F6 


07 


5000 


LD 


A, (U3) 


0483 


47 






5010 


LD 


B,A 


0484 


3A 


0E 


08 


5020 


LD 


A, (F3) 


0487 


32 


F6 


07 


5030 


LD 


(U3) ,A 


048A 


3A 


50 


08 


5040 


LD 


A, (D3) 


048D 


32 


0E 


08 


5050 


LD 


(F3) ,A 


0490 


3A 


46 


08 


5060 


LD 


A, (B7) 


0493 


32 


50 


08 


5070 


LD 


(D3) ,A 


0496 


78 






5080 


LD 


A,B 


0497 


32 


46 


08 


5090 


LD 


(B7) ,A 


049A 


3A 


FC 


07 


5100 


LD 


A, (U6) 


049D 


47 






5110 


LD 


B,A 


049E 


3A 


26 


08 


5120 


LD 


A, (F6) 


04A1 


32 


FC 


07 


5130 


LD 


(U6) ,A 


04A4 


3A 


56 


08 


5140 


LD 


A, (D6) 


04A7 


32 


26 


08 


5150 


LD 


(F6) ,A 


04AA 


3A 


2E 


08 


5160 


LD 


A, (B4) 


04 AD 


32 


56 


08 


5170 


LD 


(D6) ,A 


04B0 


78 






5180 


LD 


A,B 


04B1 


32 


2E 


08 


5190 


LD 


(B4) f A 


04B4 


3A 


02 


08 


5200 


LD 


A, (U9) 


04B7 


47 






5210 


LD 


B,A 


04B8 


3A 


3E 


08 


5220 


LD 


A, (F9) 


04BB 


32 


02 


08 


5230 


LD 


(U9) ,A 


04 BE 


3A 


5C 


08 


5240 


LD 


A, (D9) 


04C1 


32 


3E 


08 


5250 


LD 


(F9) ,A 


04C4 


3A 


16 


08 


5260 


LD 


A, (Bl) 


04C7 


32 


5C 


08 


5270 


LD 


(D9) ,A 


04CA 


78 






5280 


LD 


A,B 


04CB 


32 


16 


08 


5290 


LD 


(Bl) ,A 


04CE 


C3 


C4 


00 


5300 


JP 


DTSPLY 


04D1 








5310 * 






04D1 








5320 * r 


RIGHT 


SURFACE, COL 


04D1 








5330 * 






04D1 


CF 






5340 RTLT 


RST 


10 


04D2 


3A 


10 


08 


5350 


LD 


A, (Rl) 


04D5 


47 






5360 


LD 


B,A 


04D6 


3A 


14 


08 


5370 


LD 


A, (R3) 




Desk Main/Frame 



Desk Main/Frame 

LOW COST & ATTRACTIVE STYLING 

• MAIN FRAME INTEGRATED INTO FURNITURE QUALITY DESK 

• ELECTRONICS PACKAGE SLIDE MOUNTED FOR EASY ACCESS 

• SUPPORTS TWO 8" FLOPPY DRIVES FROM SEVERAL MANUFAC- 
TURERS (DRIVES NOT INCLUDED) 

• 10 SLOT MOTHERBOARD INCLUDES CONNECTORS 

• POWER SUPPLY FOR DRIVES AND CARDS 

• DESK AND MAIN FRAME AVAILABLE SEPARATELY 

• MATCHING PRINTER DESK AVAILABLE 



WRITE OR CALL FOR OUR BROCHURE WHICH INCLUDES 
OUR APPLICATION NOTE: BUILDING CHEAP COMPUTERS' 



INTEGRAND 



^77 



8474 Ave. 296 • Visalia, CA 93277 • (209) 733-9288 
We accept BankAmericard/Visa and MasterCharge 




Put Your Printer on a Pedestal! 

This printer stand allows you to place a stack of paper under the 
printer for neat paper stacking— Available for most printers. 

(MX-80, MX-80F/T, LPIV, etc.) $24.95 

Larger stand (MX-10.0, Anadex, etc.) $29.95 
Extra Shelves (Shown Above) $9.95 

MX-80 RIBBON RELOADS 

Don't throw away your worn MX-80 ribbon cassettes We carry endless loop 
ribbons to replace the worn ribbon in your MX-80 ribbon cassette and save 
money. Installation takes about 3 minutes each Special offer $3.50/ea 
$35.00/doz. 



D.T. Enterprises 
171 Hawkins Rood 
Centereach, New York 
(516) 981-8568 (Voice) 
(516) 588-5836 (Doto) 
MNET-70331, 105 
^ 124 AddS2.00S&H.NYSres.addappr. fox 





MM ""i*' 



48 Microcomputing, January 1982 



Listing 2 continued. 








04D9 


32 10 


08 


5380 


LD 


(R1),A 


04DC 


3A 44 


08 


5390 


LD 


A, (R9) 


04 DF 


32 14 


08 


5400 


LD 


(R3) ,A 


04E2 


3A 40 


08 


5410 


LD 


A, (R7) 


04E5 


32 44 


08 


5420 


LD 


(R9),A 


04E8 


78 




5430 


LD 


A,B 


04E9 


32 40 


08 


5440 


LD 


(R7),A 


04EC 


3A 12 


08 


5450 


LD 


A, (R2) 


04EF 


47 




5460 


LD 


B,A 


04F0 


3A 2C 


08 


5470 


LD 


A, (R6) 


OAF 3 


32 12 


08 


5480 


LD 


(R2) ,A 


04F6 
04F9 


3A 42 
32 2C 


08 
08 


5490 
5500 


LD 
LD 


A, (R8) 
(R6) ,A 


04FC 


3A 28 


08 


5510 


LD 


A, (R4) 


04FF 


32 42 


08 


5520 


LD 


(R8),A 


0502 


78 




5530 


LD 


A,B 


0503 


32 28 


08 


5540 


LD 


(R4) ,A 


0506 


3A F6 


07 


5550 


LD 


A,(U3) 


0509 


47 




5560 


LD 


B,A 


050A 


3A 46 


08 


5570 


LD 


A, <B7) 


050D 


32 F6 


07 


5580 


LD 


(U3) ,A 


0510 


3A 50 


08 


5590 


LD 


A,(D3) 


0513 


32 46 


08 


5600 


LD 


(B7),A 


0516 


3A OE 


08 


5610 


LD 


A, (F3) 


0519 


32 50 


08 


5620 


LD 


(D3),A 


051C 


78 




5630 


LD 


A,B 


051D 


32 OE 


08 


5640 


LD 


(F3),A 


0520 


3A FC 


07 


5650 


LD 


A, (U6) 


0523 


47 




5660 


LD 


B, A 


0524 


3A 2E 


08 


5670 


LD 


A, (B4) 


0527 


32 FC 


07 


5680 


LD 


(U6),A 


052A 


3A 56 


08 


5690 


LD 


A, (D6) 


052D 


32 2E 


08 


5700 


LD 


(B4),A 


0530 


3A 26 


08 


5710 


LD 


A, (F6) 


0533 


32 56 


08 


5720 


LD 


(D6) , A 


0536 


78 




5730 


LD 


A,B 


0537 


32 26 


08 


5740 


LD 


(F6),A 


053A 


3A 02 


08 


5750 


LD 


A, (U9) 


053D 


47 




5760 


LD 


B,A 


053E 


3A 16 


08 


5770 


LD 


A, (Bl) 


0541 


32 02 


08 


5780 


LD 


(U9) ,A 


0544 


3A 5C 


08 


5790 


LD 


A, (D9) 


0547 


32 16 


08 


5800 


LD 


(B1),A 


054A 


3A 3E 


08 


5810 


LD 


A, (F9) 


054D 


32 5C 


08 


5820 


LD 


(D9) ,A 


0550 


78 




5830 


LD 


A,B 


0551 


32 3E 


08 


5840 


LD 


(F9),A 


0554 


C3 C4 


00 


5850 


JP 


DISPLY 


0557 






5860 * 






0557 






5870 * F = 


FRONT 


SURFAC] 


0557 






5880 * 






0557 


CF 




5890 FRRT 


RST 


10 


0558 


3A OA 


08 


5900 


LD 


A, (Fl) 


055B 


47 




5910 


LD 


B,A 


055C 


3A 3A 


08 


5920 


LD 


A, (F7) 


055F 


32 OA 


08 


5930 


LD 


(F1),A 


0562 


3A 3E 


08 


5940 


LD 


A, (F9) 


0565 


32 3A 


08 


5950 


LD 


(F7) ,A 


0568 


3A OE 


08 


5960 


LD 


A, <F3) 


056B 


32 3E 


08 


5970 


LD 


(F9),A 


056E 


78 




5980 


LD 


A,B 


056F 


32 OE 


08 


5990 


LD 


(F3),A 


0572 


3A OC 


08 


6000 


LD 


A, (F2) 


0575 


47 




6010 


LD 


B,A 


0576 


3A 22 


08 


6020 


LD 


A, (F4) 


0579 
05 1C 


32 OC 
3A 3C 


08 
08 


6030 
6040 


LD 
LD 


(F2),A 
A, (Fb; 


057F 


32 22 


08 


6050 


LD 


(F4) ,A 


0582 


3A 26 


08 


6060 


LD 


A, (F6) 


0585 


32 3C 


08 


6070 


LD 


(F8) , A 


0588 


78 




6080 


LD 


A,B 


0589 


32 26 


08 


6090 


LD 


(F6) , A 


058C 


3A FE 


07 


6100 


LD 


A,(U7) 


058F 


47 




6110 


LD 


B,A 


0590 


3A 38 


08 


6120 


LD 


A, (L9) 


0593 


32 FE 


07 


6130 


LD 


(U7),A 


0596 


3A 50 


08 


6140 


LD 


A, (D3) 


0599 


32 38 


08 


6150 


LD 


(L9) ,A 


059C 


3A 10 


08 


6160 


LD 


A, (Rl) 


059F 


32 50 


08 


6170 


LD 


(D3),A 


05A2 


78 




6180 


LD 


A,B 


05A3 


32 10 


08 


6190 


LD 


(R1),A 


05A6 


3A 00 


08 


6200 


LD 


A r (U8) 


05A9 


47 




6210 


LD 


B,A 





J. 1 Qstofrcn 



nnx-80 



only $ 469 




pj^f^\ 



Top-selling 
matrix printer 



MX-80F/T 



Uses tenfold 
or single sheet 
paper flOW 



$ 569 



NlMAOtl Wide carriage • Grattrax <^/|Q 
If lAIUU WE HAVE ACCESSORIES' * /(| JJ 

>ir':l;iVl:)nJ:l'J:ll?irj;; 

25cps parallel S 1380 45cps parallel 

TYPEWRITER QUALITY • FRICTION FEED » OAISYWHEEL 

'■]!<|iMIJ;imi*i? 

MICR0LINE80 s 385 




SPECIAL! 



1755 



MICROLINE 82A $ 560 



MICR 0LINE85A 



$ 860 




MICROLINE 82A & 83A 
FEATURES: 120cps • 
9x9 dot matrix 
• true lower descenders 



JDS MODEM 
UDS MODEM 
LEXICON MODEM 



EI2EMSHB 



SCOTCH 3M DISKETTES 



8 "SSSD 10/52.79 ea. 50/$2.69ea. 

5V4"SSSD 10/52.69 ea. 50/52.59 ea. 



P.O. BOX 505 

WASSAPEOUA, NY 11758 

TERMS: MO. Certified or Cashier's Check. 
Allow 2 weeks tor personal checks. 
NY State residents, add sales tax. 



(516)798-7048 



Vlsa/Hasttrtard: Add 2 V 
FOB. Shipping Point. 
PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE 



IT'S ABOUT TIME! 



SUPERCLOCK II™ 



A COMPLETE 
CLOCK/CALENDAR 
SYSTEM FOR THE 

APPLE II. 




KtST SIC* ELECTRONICS 



FEATURES: 

• Timing from milliseconds to 99 years 

• 1 2/24 Hour formats plus day of week 

• Does not use C800-CFFF address space 

• Automatic dating of files stored on disk 

• Automatic updating of PASCAL'S Filer 

• Up to four software controlled interrupts 

• Full battery operation for up to 10 years 



iimiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiii 



ji-'~ 



SUPERCLOCK II COMPLETE SYSTEM $159 




TIME-CLOCK II program automatically keeps track of the 
time you spend on your computer for each job, client, pro- 
gram, etc. Then prints out a detailed report. Requires 
SUPERCLOCK II, Applesoft, and disk $30 



west side electronics 



P.O. Box 636D, Chatsworth. CA 91311 



Phone (213) 884 4794 



All orders • add $3.50 tor postage, insurance, and handling ($7.00 

outside Continental USA). Calitornia residents add 6% sales tax 

A 3% surcharge will be added to all credit card orders 

Apple. Apple II, and Applesoft are trademarks ot Apple Computer, Inc 



Microcomputing, January 1982 49 



FTM 



SPIKE-SPIKERS 

Protect-Control-Organize 

Computer & Peripheral Equipment 

Helps prevent software "Glitches" 

and unexplained memory loss 



o 



*& 



mi 



«• «s «s 



Deluxe Power Console 

79.95 



PROTECTS against power 
line transients & filters 
out RFI 'Hash" 

CONTROLS with 8 indi- 
vidually switched 120 vac 
grounded outlets. 2 separ- 
ate filtered circuits. 

ORGANIZE your computer 
& peripheral equipment 
power cords individually 
or main on/off switch-fuse 
& indicator light. 



Also available in 2 -socket wall mounted models. 



MINM 

Transient absorber 



34.95 




MINMI 

„, . , % Order Factory Direct 

Transient absorber 

plus RFI ••Hash" filtering 215-865-0006 



44.95 



Out of state call toll free 
800-523-9685 



DflizHHP Electronics Co. Inc. ^222 

Colony Drive Ind. Park 

6584 Ruch Rd.. Dept.fTl C 

Bethlehem. PA 18017 

Dealers Invited 

PA Res add 6% 





TRS-80 



SAVE fl BUNDLE 

When you buy your 

TRS-80™ equipment! 

gg Is* our loll ircc number to 
fijf check our price before you buy f^j 
a TRS-80™ . . . anywhere! 






SALES COMPANY 

1412 WEST FAIRFIELD DR 
P.O. BOX 8098 PENSACOLA FL 32606 
904/438-6607 
nationwide 1 800 874 1551 



iftfi 



r Afi 



m 



Microcomputing, January 1982 



Listing 2 continued. 

05AA 3A 20 08 

05AD 32 00 08 

05B0 3A 4E 08 

05B3 32 20 08 

05B6 3A 28 08 

05B9 32 4E 08 

05BC 78 

05BD 32 28 08 

05C0 3A 02 08 

05C3 47 

05C4 3A 08 08 

05C7 32 02 08 

05CA 3A 4C 08 

05CD 32 08 08 

05D0 3A 40 08 

05D3 32 4C 08 

05D6 78 

05D7 32 40 08 

05DA C3 C4 00 

05DD 

05DD 

05DD 

05DD CF 

05DE 3A OA 08 

05E1 47 

05E2 3A OE 08 

05E5 32 OA 08 

05E8 3A 3E 08 

05EB 32 OE 08 

05EE 3 A 3 A 08 

05F1 32 3E 08 

05F4 78 

05F5 32 3A 08 

05F8 3A OC 08 

05FB 47 

05FC 3A 26 08 
05FF 32 OC 08 

0602 3A 3C 08 

0605 32 26 08 

0608 3A 22 08 

060B 32 3C 08 

060E 78 

060F 32 22 08 

0612 3A FE 07 

0615 47 

0616 3A 10 08 
0619 32 FE 07 
061C 3A 50 08 
061F 32 10 08 
0622 3A 38 08 
0625 32 50 08 

0628 78 

0629 32 38 08 
062C 3A 00 08 
062F 47 

0630 3A 28 08 
0633 32 00 08 
0636 3A 4E 08 
0639 32 28 08 
063C 3A 20 08 
063F 32 4E 08 

0642 78 

0643 32 20 08 
0646 3A 02 08 
0649 47 

064A 3A 40 08 
064D 32 02 08 
.0650 3 A 4C 08 
0653 32 40 08 
0656 3A 08 08 

0659 32 4C 08 
065C 78 

065D 32 08 08 

0660 C3 C4 00 
0663 

0663 
0663 

0663 CF 

0664 3A 16 08 

0667 47 

0668 3A 46 08 
066B 32 16 08 
066E 3A 4A 08 
0671 32 46 08 



* 
* 
* 



6220 LD A, (L6) 

6230 LD (U8),A 

6240 LD A, (D2) 

6250 LD (L6) ,A 

6260 LD A, (R4) 

6270 LD (D2) , A 

6280 LD A,B 

6290 LD (R4) ,A 

6300 LD A, (U9) 

6310 LD B,A 

6320 LD A,(L3) 

6330 LD (U9) , A 

6340 LD A, (Dl) 

6350 LD (L3) , A 

6360 LD A, (R7) 

6370 LD (D1),A 

6380 LD A,B 

6390 LD (R7) ,A 

6400 JP DISPLY 

6410 

6420 

6430 

6440 FRLT RST 

6450 LD 

6460 LD 

6470 LD 

6480 LD 

6490 LD 

6500 LD 

6510 LD 

6520 LD 

6530 LD 

6540 LD 

6550 LD 

6560 LD 

6570 LD 

6580 LD 

6590 LD 

6600 LD 

6610 LD 

6620 LD 

6630 LD 

6640 LD 

6650 LD 

6660 LD 

6670 LD 

6680 LD 

6690 LD 

6700 LD 

6710 LD 

6720 LD 

6730 LD 

6740 LD 

6750 LD 

6760 LD 

6770 LD 

6780 LD 

6790 LD 

6800 LD 

6810 LD 

6820 LD 

6830 LD 

6840 LD 

6850 LD 

6860 LD 

6870 LD 

6880 LD 

6890 LD 

6900 LD 

6910 LD 

6920 LD 

6930 LD 

6940 LD 

6950 JP 

6960 

6970 

6980 

6990 BKRT RST 10 

7000 LD A, (Bl) 

7010 LD B,A 

7020 LD A, (B7) 

7030 LD (Bl) ,A 

7040 LD A, (B9) 

7050 LD (B7) ,A 



* 
* 



f = FRONT SURFACE, COUNTERCLOCKWISE 



10 

A, (Fl) 
B,A 
A, (F3) 

(F1),A 
A,(F9) 

(F3),A 
A, (F7) 

(F9) ,A 
A,B 

(F7),A 

A, (F2) 

B,A 

A, (F6) 
(F2),A 

A, (F8) 

(F6) ,A 

A, (F4) 

(F8) ,A 

A,B 

(F4) ,A 

A, (U7) 

B,A 

A, (Rl) 

(U7),A 

A, (D3) 

(RD,A 

A, (L9) 

(D3),A 

A,B 

(L9),A 

A, (U8) 

B,A 

A, (R4) 

(U8) ,A 

A,(D2) 

(R4),A 

A, (L6) 

(D2) , A 

A,B 

(L6) , A 

A, (U9) 

B,A 

A, (R7) 

(U9),A 

A, (Dl) 

(R7) ,A 

A, (L3) 

(Dl) ,A 

A,B 

(L3) ,A 

DISPLY 



B = BACK SURFACE, CLOCKWISE 




More 



Super 

Compuprism 

Color Graphics 



#'.■■■*■* 



■ 



For the S-100 Bus 32K of on board memory 
allows a 288 H x 192V dot matrix, for a total 
of 55,296 pixels Every pixel is programable in 
ony one of 1 6 colors or 1 6 grey levels 
completely independent of all other pixels in the 
matrix 

Compuprism Bare Board with documentation 
$45. kit S240, ass and tested $280 
(16K Memory U4H x 192V ) 

Super Compuprism Bare Board with 

documentation S50, kit $350, ass and tested 

$395 

(32K Memory 288H x 192V ) 

Add $ 1 5 to A & T price for 1 6 level grey scale 

Add $ 1 5 to A & T price for memory 

management port 

Compuprism software package, includes alpa- 
numbencs, point plot, line draw, and TRS-80* 
graphics simulation $20 or FREE with A & T unit 



Z-80 Users 

You Can Usel 

TRS-80 * 

Software 



We offer an assembled hardware 
interface which we guarantee 
will load data from TRS-80* 
cassettes into any Z-80 based 
system (Except sealed units.) 
The documentation explains how 
to patch the TRS-80* software 
to your system. In fact you can 
virtually change your Z-80 
machine into a TRS-80* without 
making a single hardware 
change The documentation also 
includes an example of patching 
SARGON II** into a Z-80 
system 

The price is $30 or FREE with the) 
purchase of an assembled 
compuprism or super compuprism 
unit 

AD, DA Board 

S-100 board provides 16 chan- 
nels of analog to digital input 
and 8 channels of digital to 
analog output With on board 
kluge area. Total cost of board 
and parts less than $120 Bare 
board with documentation $45 



ALL COD ORDERS SHIPPED WITHIN 72 HOURS 4MHz MOD FOR S.D. SYSTEMS. 
EXPANDORAM $10 

J.I.S. GRAPHICS, P.O. Bex 1752 
Tulsa, OK 74101, (918) 742-7104 

TRS-80* is a trademark of Tandy Corp. ^180 
SARGON II** is a trademark of Hayden Book Co. 




AP101 Apple II with Single Disk Drive $109 

AP102 Apple II with Double Disk Drives 119 

AP103 Apple II, 9 inch Monitor & Double Drives . . 129 

AP104 Apple ///, two additional Drives & Silentype 139 

AP105 12 inch monitor plus accessories 99 

RS201 TRS-80 Model I, Expansion Unit & Drives . . 109 

RS202 TRS-80 Monitor or TV set 84 

RS204 TRS-80 Model III 129 

RS205 Radio Shack Color Computer 89 

AT301 Atari Computer & Accessories 109 

P401 Paper Tiger 440/445/460 99 

P402 Centronics 730/737 Line Printer ll/IV 89 

P403 Epson MX70 or MX80 89 

P404 Epson MX100 99 

CC90 Matching Attache Case 75 

compuTer case company ^320 ^ a 

5650 INDIAN MOUND CT COLUMBUS. OHIO 43213 (614) 868-9464 



V.I.P.'s Call A.E.I. 

V.I.P's call A.E.I, because A.E.I, tests before shipping, has expertise on all items offered, and is 
price competitive. 



TELEVIOEO COMPUTER 



System 1 Computer 
System 2 Computer 
System 3 Computer 
TS 80 user station 



List 

3995 

8995 

19995 

1795 



Sell 
2650 
CALL 
CALL 
1450 



TELEVIDEO TERMINALS 



910 Terminal 
91 2C Terminal 
920C Terminal 
950 Terminal 



NEC PRINTERS 



3510-1 30CPS Serial 
7710-1 55CPS SERIAL 
7720-1 KSR Serial 
5510-1 55CPS Serial 
5520-1 KSR Serial 



Ust 

2450 

CALL 

CALL 

3055 

3415 



Sell 

2050 
CALL 
CALL 
2495 
2895 



NORTHSTAR HORIZON 
COMPUTERS 



HR2 2064K 
HR2 2064K 
HR21O64K-H05 
HR2 1064K-HD18 
HDS-18 Hard Disc 



Ust Sell 

4195 2849 

4495 3149 

6695 4999 

9270 6749 

5374 3890 



NORTHSTAR SOFTWARE 



Northword D/Q 
Mailmanager D/Q 
Info manager D/Q 
General Ledger O/Q 
A/R D/Q 
A P D/Q 



TEXAS INSTRUMENTS PRINTERS 



TI-810 BASIC 
TI-810 Full ASCII 
TI-810 Package 
TI-820 R/O BASIC 
TI-820 KSR Package 



List 

1645 
1745 
1945 
1995 
2395 



Sell 

1398 

1479 

1649 

1625 

1950 



NORTHSTAR AOVANTAGE 
COMPUTER 



ADV-2Q-64K 
SIO Board 
PIO Board 
FPB Board 
Graphics Option 



Sell 
CALL 
CALL 
CALL 
CALL 
CALL 



SYSTEMS GROUP 



2800 Computer 
DM-6400 Memory 
DMB-6400 Memory 
CPC-2813 CPIM/O 
FDC-2801 Controller 



List Sell 

5035 3595 

760 585 

995 735 

460 365 

465 370 



OUME PRINTERS 



Sprint 9 35CPS R/O 
Sprint 9 45CPS R/O 
Sprint 9 55CPS R/O 
Full Control Option 
Memory Option 



Ust 

1995 

2300 

2400 

155 

150 



Sell 

1700 

2000 

2050 

150 

150 



- 



L ~, 



MORROW DECISION COMPUTER 

Ust Sell 

Decision 1 BASIC 1725 1350 

Decision 2 CALL CALL 

65 K Static Ram 1000 780 

Switchboard I/O 259 210 
Select drives from Morrow disc systems 
for desired configuration 



MORROW DISC SYSTEMS 




List Sell 


Discus 2D 1 Drive 


1095 849 


Discus 2D 2 Drive 


1875 1389 


Discus 2 + 2 1 Drive 


1395 1075 


Discus 2 + 22 Drive 


2495 1859 


M26 Hard Disc 


4495 3395 



CP/M & Microsoft Basic Included 



MODEMS 



Cat Modem 

D-Cat 

Auto- Cat 

Apple-Cat 

DC Hayes Micro-100 



—SEE THESE PRODUCTS AND MORE IN OUR SHOWROOM— 
PRICES CHANGE DAILY— CALL OR VISIT FOR CURRENT PRICING 



ZENITH DATA SYSTEMS 

List Sell 
VM-121 Green Monitor 160 CALL 

Z-19 Terminal 995 CALL 

Z 89 Computer 2895 CALL 

Z-90 Computer 3195 CALL 

— Call for Accessory Pricing — 
Peachtree Software Available 

3BIV 



MICROPRO SOFTWARE 



Wordstar 
Apple Wordstar 
Spell star 
Mailmerge 
Datastar 
Supersort 



List Sell 

495 300 

375 275 

250 190 

150 100 

350 250 

250 190 



fcOl* 



DISCS— CABLES 



Memorex 5 " 1 D 
Memorex 5 2D 
Memorex 8" 1D 
Memorex 8 2D 
RS-232 5 Cable 
RS-232 10 Cable 



AUTOMATED EQUIPMENT, INC. ^w 

18430 WARD STREET, FOUNTAIN VALLEY, CALIFORNIA 92708 



(714) 963-1414 
(800) 854-7635 



^See List of Advertisers on page 178 



Microcomputing, January 1982 51 



Letter Quality 

Printer 

Put your favorite 

electric typewriter 

to work. 






£ 





Build "Tillie the typing robot". Full parts kit, 
Instructions and Z-80 software source 
listing. 



$260 



CALIFORNIA RESIDENTS 
6% SALES TAX 



PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. 

Send stamped self addressed envelope 
for brochure. 

Mason Electronics ^218 
21203 A Hawthorne Blvd. • Suite 5053 
Torrance, California 90503 




»^ ^6 *?** «°^ 



nD^oT^lc 




R INQUIRIES WELCOME 




JQC 



"THE SOURCE For 

Personal Computer Sottwra 
Books Games A 
Accessories 




0£PT Ct 1025 INDUSTRIAL OR BENSENVILLE IL 60106 1297 



^353 



52 Microcomputing, January 1982 



Listing 2 continued. 










0674 


3A 1A 08 


7060 


LD 


A, (B3) 




0677 


32 4A 08 


7070 


LD 


(B9),A 




067A 


78 


7080 


LD 


A,B 




067B 


32 1A 08 


7090 


LD 


(B3),A 




067E 


3A 18 08 


7100 


LD 


A, (B2) 




0681 


47 


7110 


LD 


B,A 




0682 


3A 2E 08 


7120 


LD 


A, (B4) 




0685 


32 18 08 


7130 


LD 


(B2),A 




0688 


3A 48 08 


7140 


LD 


A, (B8) 




068B 


32 2E 08 


7150 


LD 


(B4),A 




068E 


3A 32 08 


7160 


LD 


A, (B6) 




0691 


32 48 08 


7170 


LD 


(B8) , A 




0694 


78 


7180 


LD 


A,B 




0695 


32 32 08 


7190 


LD 


(B6) ,A 




0698 


3A F2 07 


7200 


LD 


A, (Ul) 




069B 


47 


7210 


LD 


B,A 




069C 


3A 14 08 


7220 


LD 


A, (R3) 




069F 


32 F2 07 


7230 


LD 


(U1),A 




06A2 


3A 5C 08 


7240 


LD 


k, (09) 




06A5 


32 14 08 


7250 


LD 


(R3) ,A 




06A8 


3A 34 08 


7260 


LD 


A, (L7) 




06AB 


32 5C 08 


7270 


LD 


(D9),A 




06AE 


78 


7280 


LD 


A,B 




06AF 


32 34 08 


7290 


LD 


(L7),A 




06B2 


3A F4 07 


7300 


LD 


A f (U2) 




06B5 


47 


7310 


LD 


B,A 




06B6 


3A 2C 08 


7320 


LD 


A, (R6) 




06B9 


32 F4 07 


7330 


LD 


(U2) ,A 




06BC 


3A 5A 08 


7340 


LD 


A, (D8) 




06BF 


32 2C 08 


7350 


LD 


(R6) ,A 




06C2 


3A 1C 08 


7360 


LD 


A, (L4) 




06C5 


32 5A 08 


7370 


LD 


(D8) ,A 




06C8 


78 


7380 


LD 


A,B 




06C9 


32 1C 08 


7390 


LD 


(L4),A 




06CC 


3A F6 07 


7400 


LD 


A, (U3) 




06CF 


47 


7410 


LD 


B f A 




06D0 


3A 44 08 


7420 


LD 


A, (R9) 




06D3 


32 F6 07 


7430 


LD 


(U3),A 




06D6 


3A 58 08 


7440 


LD 


A, (D7) 




06D9 


32 44 08 


7450 


LD 


(R9) ,A 




06DC 


3A 04 08 


7460 


LD 


A, (LI) 




06DF 


32 58 08 


7470 


LD 


(D7) ,A 




06E2 


78 


7480 


LD 


A,B 




06E3 


32 04 08 


7490 


LD 


(LI), A 




06E6 


C3 C4 00 


7 500 


JP 


DISPLY 




06E9 




7510 * 








06E9 




7520 * b = 


BACK 


SURFACE, COUNTERCLOCKWISE 


06E9 




7530 * 








06E9 


CF 


7540 BKLT 


RST 


10 




06EA 


3A 16 08 


7550 


LD 


A, (Bl) 




06ED 


47 


7560 


LD 


B,A 




06EE 


3A 1A 08 


7570 


LD 


A,(B3) 




06F1 


32 16 08 


7580 


LD 


(B1),A 




06F4 


3A 4A 08 


7590 


LD 


A,(B9) 




06F7 


32 1A 08 


7600 


LD 


(B3) ,A 




06FA 


3A 46 08 


7610 


LD 


A, (B7) 




06FD 


32 4A 08 


7620 


LD 


(B9) ,A 




0700 


78 


7630 


LD 


A,B 




0701 


32 46 08 


7640 


LD 


(B7),A 




0704 


3A 18 08 


7650 


LD 


A, (B2) 




0707 


47 


7660 


LD 


B,A 




0708 


3A 32 08 


7670 


LD 


A, (B6) 




070B 


32 18 08 


7680 


LD 


(B2),A 




070E 


3A 48 08 


7690 


LD 


A, (B8) 




0711 


32 32 08 


7700 


LD 


(B6),A 




0714 


3A 2E 08 


7710 


LD 


A, (B4) 




0717 


32 48 08 


7720 


LD 


(B8),A 




071 A 


78 


7730 


LD 


A,B 




07 IB 


32 2E 08 


7740 


LD 


(B4) ,A 




071E 


3A F2 07 


7750 


LD 


A, (Ul) 




0721 


47 


7760 


LD 


B,A 




0722 


3A 34 08 


7770 


LD 


A, (L7) 




0725 


32 F2 07 


7780 


LD 


(Ul) ,A 




0728 


3A 5C 08 


7790 


LD 


A, (D9) 




072B 


32 34 08 


7800 


LD 


(L7),A 




072E 


3A 14 08 


7810 


LD 


A, (R3) 




0731 


32 5C 08 


7820 


LD 


(D9),A 




0734 


78 


7830 


LD 


A,B 




0735 


32 14 08 


7840 


LD 


(R3) ,A 




0738 


3A F4 07 


7850 


LD 


A, (U2) 




073B 


47 


7860 


LD 


B,A 




073C 


3A 1C 08 


7870 


LD 


A, (L4) 




073F 


32 F4 07 


7880 


LD 


(U2),A 


^ ^ 


0742 


3A 5A 08 


7890 


LD 


A, (D8) 


(More . 



Listing 2 con 


tinued. 










0745 


32 1C 


08 


7900 




LD 


(L4) ,A 


0748 


3A 2C 


08 


7910 




LD 


A, (R6) 


074B 


32 5A 


08 


7920 




LD 


(D8) ,A 


074E 


78 




7930 




LD 


A,B 


074F 


32 2C 


08 


7940 




LD 


(R6) ,A 


0752 


3A F6 


07 


7950 




LD 


A, (U3) 


0755 


47 




7960 




LD 


B,A 


07 56 


3A 04 


08 


7970 




LD 


A, (LI) 


0759 


32 F6 


07 


7980 




LD 


(U3) ,A 


07 5C 


3A 58 


08 


7990 




LD 


A, (D7) 


075F 


32 04 


08 


8000 




LD 


(LI), A 


0762 


ZK 44 


08 


8010 




LD 


A,(R9) 


0765 


32 58 


08 


8020 




LD 


(D7) ,A 


0768 


78 




8030 




LD 


A,B 


0769 


32 44 


08 


8040 




LD 


(R9),A 


076C 


C3 C4 


00 


8050 




JP 


DISPLY 


076F 






8060 * 








076F 






8070 * COMBINED 


DATA AND SCREEN FORMAT STORAGE AREA 


076F 






8080 * 


* 


EDITOR INTERPRETS BYTES WITH MSB SET (200-376) 


076F 






8090 * 


* 


AS 


CORRESPONDING ASCII CHARACTER; BYTES WITH 


076F 






8100 * 


* 


MSB 


CLEAR (001-177) ARE INTERPRETED AS MULTIPLE 


07 6F 






8110 * 


* 


SPACES. "377" ERASES SCREEN. "000" MARKS END 


076F 






8120 * 


* 


OF 


MESSAGE. 


076F 






8130 * 








076F 






8140 SCREEN 


DB 


377,'Move Sequence: ' 


FF 


CD 


EF 


F6 E5 








AO 


D3 


E5 


Fl F5 








E5 


EE 


E3 


E5 BA 








AO 














077F 






8150 MOVES 


DB 


• 


AO 


AO 


AO 


AO AO 








AO 


AO 


AO 


AO AO 








AO 


AO 


AO 


AO AO 








AO 


AO 


AO 


AO AO 








AO 


AO 


AO 


AO AO 








AO 


AO 


AO 


AO AO 








AO 


AO 












079F 






8160 




DB 


i 


AO 


AO 


AO 


AO AO 








AO 


AO 


AO 


AO AO 








AO 


AO 


AO 


AO AO 








AO 


AO 


AO 


AO AO 








AO 


AO 


AO 


AO AO 








AO 


AO 


AO 


AO AO 








AO 


AO 












07BF 






8170 




DB 


i 


AO 


AO 


AO 


AO AO 








AO 


AO 


AO 


AO AO 








AO 


AO 


AO 


AO AO 








AO 


AO 


AO 


AO AO 








AO 


AO 


AO 


AO AO 








AO 


AO 


AO 


AO AO 








AO 


AO 












07DF 






8180 




DB 


• ',83d 


AO 


AO 


AO 


AO AO 








AO 


AO 


AO 


AO AO 








AO 


AO 


AO 


AO AO 








AO 


AO 


AO 


53 








07F2 






8190 * 








07F2 






8200 * LABELS BELOW (Ul, U2, ETC.) PERMIT ASSEMBLER 


07F2 






8210 * 


* 


TO 


TREAT CORRESPONDING ADDRESSES AS 


07F2 






8220 * 


* 


LOCATIONS OF LITERAL VARIABLES. 


07F2 






8230 * 








07F2 






8240 Ul 




DB 


'U' ,2 


D5 


02 












07F4 






8250 U2 




DB 


•U' ,2 


D5 


02 












07F6 






8260 U3 




DB 


•U' , 57D 


D5 


39 




■ 








07F8 






8270 U4 




DB 


•U' ,2 


D5 


02 












07FA 






8280 U5 




DB 


•U' ,2 


D5 


02 












07FC 






8290 U6 




DB 


'U' ,57D 


D5 


39 












07FE 






8300 U7 




DB 


•U' ,2 


D5 


02 












0800 






8310 U8 




DB 


•U',2 


D5 


02 












0802 






8320 U9 




DB 


•U',110D 


D5 


6E 












0804 






8330 LI 




DB 


'L' ,2 


CC 
0806 


02 




8340 L2 




DB 


, L , 2 (Mnre^ — ^ 



MICRO-80™ CASSETTES— 
100% ERROR-FREE 




LENGTH PACK PACK 

C-10 79<t 59c 

C-20 99c 79c 



Fully Guaranteed! 
World's Finest Media 
Premium 5-Screw Construction 
Used by Software Firms Nationwide 
Dealer and Club Discounts Available 
Custom Storage Case, Add 19c Each 
Shipping, Add $2.00 Per Pack 



MICRO-80™ INC. 

K-2665 NO. BUSBY ROAD 
OAK HARBOR, WA 98277 



^308 



Offers Discounts on All 

TRS-80* 

COMPUTERS 



We Have What You Are Looking For 

□ PROMPT SHIPPING 

AVAILABLE SERVICE CONTRACTS 
D DISCOUNTED PRICES COMPAR 
ABLE TO ANY OTHERS 

□ NO TAX ON OUT OF STATE 

SHIPMENTS 

Call Collect For Prices 
And Shipping Schedules 

505-257-7865 

or write 

HAPPY HANDS ^243 

P.O. DRAWER I 
RUIDOSO, NEW MEXICO 

88345 



^See List of Advertisers on page 178 



Microcomputing, January 1982 53 



SMART II MEANS FAST. 



/ 









sececfAscf 

OPf,MS 



MlCl?o7te>C£±So2 



\Cc*/fAcr£ 



ASCf/ 
OufPff 



m 



i«« 



r 



#• 



SMART II MICROPROCESSOR CONTROLLED PARALLEL PRINTER INTERFACE 

Be Smart' With the new SMART II parallel printer interface for your Apple II* Computer you 
can have print spooling, left and right margin control, and adjustable tab stops The SMART II 
can buffer over three thousand characters before it signals the Apple to stop sending This 
eliminates the start stop problem c reated with conventional printer cards and will keep your 
printer printing (instead of waiting) 

The SMART II :s compatible with all known hardware and software including the Pascal 
language System Mic rosott /HO Sottc ard* . 
and Haves Mic romodem II* 



INTRODUCTORY 
Rf TAIL PRICE 



$225. 



irabie rnntl 
connactor 
"iciurtadl 



AVAILABLE AT YOUR LOCAL APPLE DEALER 
HARDWARE : hflU) Iv|h- MM W fttOCC M IOt 

Six static RAM", r«MI ROMs 

t ik^I su|)(X)rt l( s 
4 tl prRMfl I ,ir>lr ,tnd < finrw-t tor 
HiKh qudlity hfMrd with tjoM pl.tt.-d 
»'(1k«' < OMin lor 

* Apple 'S a ragtatarad trademark ol Apple Computer Inc 

■ 2 to SoHcera ■» a registered trader"*- IM MM 

m '^modern II •« a registered trademark Q t Hayes mr 



FEATURES: 

C om|i,ttihlf vsith .ill C i-ntr<int< s tv|><- ('.tr.ill.-l printers 
MM ludinn lh«- , |iMin MX 70 HI) KM) C .-ntr<ini< s 7 \7 7 W 77«» 
IDS 441) 44 r > -».>() '..,l> C Itoh Sl.irvsnl.-r *JUO>l 

■MnVSnn*y*HCRl .in<1 Mmtl.tr prinl.-rs 

IK I'rinl Spooler whit h hi ts mm h l,ir>;»'r when spooling 
!»•»! b»-< .lust- ol ,i unique < omp.it lion routine 

On bodrr) sotlw.ire supports tviM'wnter like IM< Com 
m.inris .inrl has 1C-> s<>ttw,m- selei t,ihle IAH positions left 
,tnd riuht maruin t ommnnds are ,ilso sotlvwirt- selei t.ittle to 
t-Hse in the |iistiti( ,)tion ot reports ,in<) listings 

-sith th«- Hrtves Mar romodem II" to prevent loss ot 
( h,»Mt ters while on line with ,i host < ompuler 



OLENSKY BROS., INC" 130 

COMPUTER SALES DIVISION / 

3763 AIRPORT BLVD. • MOBILE, ALA. 36608 

& L E 800-633-1636 ■ ^(205)3447448 



TEXAS COMPUTER SYSTEMS 

Offers Lowest Prices on 



COMPUTERS 

Model " 64K F Tn\ U orn a pC«er e s 9h, | Epson Printers 

For air service— call I $ Call 



Model III 16K 
$839 

Model III 48K 
2 Disks $2095 



Color Computer 
4K Lev. I $319 

16K Ex. Basic 
$469 



Radio Shack 

Stereos, Radios 

Discounted Call for 

discount on orders 

over $100 



For fast efficient service we can air freight from Dallas 
to major a/p near you Call for information 



• Payment Mom. . Certified 

Che' • 'mi cheel . sa Mr 

add 



• Pnres subiect to chanqe any time 

• No tax out ot state Texans add V' 

• Delivery subiect to availability 

• Shipping extra quoted by phone 



TEXAS COMPUTER SYSTEMS 

Box 1327 Arlington, Texas 76004-1327 

800433-5184 

tousteid^l 7-274-5625 

54 Microcomputing, January 1982 



»x328 













Listing 2 continued. 
CC 02 








0808 




8350 L3 


DB 


•L',4 


CC 


04 








080A 




8360 Fl 


DB 


'F',2 


C6 


02 








08 0C 




8370 F2 


DB 


'F',2 


C6 


02 








08 OE 




8380 F3 


DB 


•F' ,4 


C6 


04 








0810 




8390 Rl 


DB 


'R',2 


D2 


02 








0812 




8400 R2 


DB 


•R' .2 


D2 


02 








0814 




8410 R3 


DB 


•R',4 


D2 


04 








0816 




8420 Bl 


DB 


•B\2 


C2 


02 








0818 




8430 B2 


DB 


'B',2 


C2 


02 








081 A 




8440 B3 


DB 


•B' ,24D 


C2 


18 






• 


081C 




8450 L4 


DB 


•L',2 


CC 


02 








081E 




8460 L5 


DB 


'L' ,2 


CC 


02 








0820 




8470 L6 


DB 


'L' ,4 


CC 


04 








0822 




8480 F4 


DB 


•F' ,2 


C6 


02 








0824 




8490 F5 


DB 


•F\2 


C6 


02 








0826 




8500 F6 


DB 


'F',4 


C6 


04 








0828 




8510 R4 


DB 


'R\2 


D2 


02 








082A 




8520 R5 


DB 


'R' ,2 


D2 


02 








082C 




8530 R6 


DB 


•R' ,4 


D2 


04 








082E 




8540 B4 


DB 


'B',2 


C2 


02 








0830 




8550 B5 


DB 


•B' ,2 


C2 


02 








0832 




8560 B6 


DB 


'B' ,24D 


C2 


18 








0834 




8570 L7 


DB 


'L',2 


CC 


02 








0836 




8580 L8 


DB 


'L',2 


CC 


02 








0838 




8590 L9 


DB 


'L',4 


CC 


04 








083A 




8600 F7 


DB 


'F',2 


C6 


02 








083C 
C6 


02 


8610 F8 


DB 


•F',2 


083E 




8620 F9 


DB 


•F',4 


C6 


04 








0840 




8630 R7 


DB 


'R',2 


D2 


02 








0842 




8640 R8 


DB 


'R',2 


D2 


02 








0844 




8650 R9 


DB 


'R',4 


D2 


04 








0846 




8660 B7 


DB 


'B' ,2 


C2 


02 








0848 




8670 B8 


DB 


■B',2 


C2 


02 








084A 




8680 B9 


DB 


' B ' , 99D 


C2 


63 








084C 




8690 Dl 


DB 


•D' ,2 


C4 


02 








084E 




8700 D2 


DB 


'D',2 


C4 


02 








0850 




8710 D3 


DB 


•D' ,57D 


C4 


39 








0852 




8720 D4 


DB 


'D' ,2 


C4 


02 








0854 




8730 D5 


DB 


'D\2 


C4 


02 








0856 




8740 D6 


DB 


'D' ,57D 


C4 


39 








0858 




8750 D7 


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C4 


02 






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C4 


02 














085C 






8770 


D9 


DB 


'D' ,101D, 'Next Move: ',0 


C4 


65 CE 


E5 F8 








F4 


A0 CD 


EF F6 








E5 


BA A0 


00 










086A 






8780 


* 








086A 






8790 


* END OF MAIN PROGRAM 




08 6A 






8800 


* 








08 6 A 






8810 


STACK DS 


3 2D 




088A 






8820 


STAK 


EQU 


$ 




088A 






8830 


* 








088A 






8840 


EDITOR EQU 


343210 


EDITS MESSAGE TO CRT 


088A 






8850 


KEYIN EQU 


343152 


RETURNS KEYSTROKE IN A 


088A 






8860 


TRMOUT EQU 


363160 


OUTPUTS A CONTENTS TO CRT 


088A 






8870 


MONITR EQU 


340000 


MONITOR/OPERATING SYSTEM 


088A 






8880 


* 








08 8 A 






8890 


* PRINT ROUTINE USER SHOULD SUPPLY APPROPRIATE 


08 8 A 






8900 


* 




ROUTINE 


TO REPRODUCE CONTENTS OF 


08 8 A 






8910 


* 




VIDEO DISPLAY ON HARDCOPY DEVICE 


088A 






8920 


* 








088A 


C5 




8930 


PRINT PUSH 


BC 




088B 


21 AF F0 




8940 




LD 


HL,PBUF+100 




088E 


22 D3 EF 




8950 




LD 


(BFNDST+1) ,HL 




0891 


CD A3 E3 




8960 




CALL 


ERASE 




0894 


3E 0D 




8970 




LD 


A, 15 




0896 


F7 




8980 




RST 


60 




0897 


32 ID F3 




8990 




LD 


(PRTFLG) ,A 




089A 


21 70 07 




9000 




LD 


HL,SCREEN+1 




089D 


D7 




9010 




RST 


20 




089E 


AF 




9020 




XOR 


A 




089F 


32 ID F3 




9030 




LD 


(PRTFLG) ,A 




08A2 


21 CF F0 




9040 




LD 


HL, BUFEND 




08 A 5 


22 D3 EF 




9050 




LD 


(BFNDST+1) ,HL 




08A8 


06 09 




9060 




LD 


B,9D 




08AA 


3E 0D 




9070 




LD 


A, 15 




08AC 


F7 




9080 


FORMOT RST 


60 




08AD 


10 FD 




9090 




DJNZ 


FORMOT 




08AF 


CI 




9100 




POP 


BC 




08B0 


C9 




9110 




RET 






08B1 






9120 


* 








08B1 






9130 


* JUMP/CALL 


TABLE OF SUBROUTINES IN 


08B1 






9140 


* 


* AUTHOR'S OPERATING 


SYSTEM/MONITOR 


08B1 






9150 


* 








08B1 






9160 


PRTFLG EQU 


363035 




08B1 






9170 


BUFEND EQU 


360317 




08B1 






9180 


BFNDST EQU 


357322 




08B1 






9190 


PBUF 


EQU 


360157 




08B1 






9200 


ERASE EQU 


343243 




08B1 






9210 


LPRTR EQU 


357260 




08B1 






9220 


* 








08B1 






9999 


* END OF PRINT ROUTINE 




NO ERRORS FOUND 












CUBE 


3000 6BDF 












READY 














LTABL 














Bl 


0816 


B2 


0818 


B3 


081A B4 


082E 


B5 


0830 


B6 


0832 


B7 


0846 B8 


0848 


B9 


084A 


BEGIN 0017 


BEGIN1 


0022 BFNDST 


EFD2 


BKLT 


06E9 


BKRT 0663 


BUFEND 


FOCF Dl 


084C 


D2 


084E 


D3 


0850 


D4 


0852 D5 


0854 


D6 


0856 


D7 


0858 


D8 


085A D9 


08 5C 


DISPLY 00C4 


DNLT 02B9 


DNRT 


023 3 EDITOR 


E388 


ERASE E3A3 


Fl 


080A 


F2 


080C F3 


080E 


F4 


0822 


F5 


0824 


F6 


0826 F7 


083A 

05DD 1 


F8 


08 3C 


F9 


083E 


FORMOT 


08AC FRLT 


FRRT 


0557 


GETCMD OOCA 


INIT 


0028 KEYIN 


E36A 


LI 


0804 


L2 


0806 


L3 


0808 L4 


081C 


L5 


081E 


L6 


0820 


L7 


0834 L8 


0836 


L9 


0838 


LPRTR EFBO 


LTLT 


03C5 LTRT 


033F 


MONITR E000 


MOVES 07 7F 


PBUF 


F06F PRINT 


088A 


PRTFLG F31D 


Rl 


0810 


R2 


0812 R3 


0814 


R4 


0828 


R5 


08 2 A 


R6 


082C R7 


0840 


R8 


0842 


R9 


0844 


RTLT 


04D1 RTRT 


044B 


SCREEN 07 6F 


STACK 08 6A 


STAK 


088A START 


0000 


TRMOUT F370 


Ul 


07F2 


U2 


07F4 U3 


07F6 


U4 


07F8 


U5 


07FA 


U6 


07FC U7 


07FE 


U8 


0800 


U9 


0802 


UPDATE 


0118 UPLT 


01AD 


UPRT 


0127 














CUBE 


3000 6BDF 












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56 Microcomputing, January 1982 



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Microcomputing, January 1982 57 



& 



o 



& 



& 



!<*> 



<v 



8 



O 



& 



Micros in Science 



By Harry Nelson 
Microcomputing Technical Editor 



Micros Practice Science 

The sciences— human, social, bio- 
logical and physical— have all re- 
quired frequent and often very com- 
plex mathematical calculations. It is 
hardly surprising that scientists and 
students of science have sought bet- 
ter and better aids for performing cal- 
culations that are extremely repeti- 
tious, almost incomprehensibly com- 
plicated or simply very lengthy. 
Some early thinkers developed crude 
mechanical calculating devices. The 
trusty old slide rule was indispensa- 
ble in situations that did not require 
more than a few decimal places of ac- 
curacy. Mainframe and then mini- 
computers have been a very expen- 
sive solution. Small calculators were 
much more accurate than the slide 
rules but could not handle or store 
data as the computers could. 

The result was that large projects 
with very large budgets got their own 
computers. Smaller projects, labs, 
and science education facilities got 
access to time-sharing systems— 
when they were lucky. Even those 
that did have access to a large system 
were often not lucky. Sometimes ac- 
cess was restricted to unusual hours, 
and if the system went down the only 
options were to just wait or do the 
work by hand. 

It didn't take scientists long to real- 
ize that the computer could do more 
for them then just serve as a high- 
powered and expensive calculator. 
Computer models could be designed 
to simulate a variety of situations 
scientists wanted to study. And this 
could be done interactively with the 
researcher changing parameters of 
the situation being investigated to ob- 
serve possible results. Computers 
could also be programmed to control 
experiments and record and analyze 

58 Microcomputing, January 1982 



data from them. Again, as long as a 
project could maintain its own com- 
puter, there was little problem. But 
time-sharing presented more difficul- 
ties in these applications than in strict 
calculating operations. 

Within the past few years many 
scientists have been discovering a 
powerful new tool that can be used in 
a variety of ways in their research. 
The microcomputer, used in conjunc- 
tion with a larger system or as a 
stand-alone system, has started to 
emerge as a valuable tool for many 
scientific applications. 

Sidney Fernbach, deputy associate 
director for scientific support at the 
Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, is a 
more than credible witness to this 
tendency (see "Scientific Use of 
Computers" in The Computer Age: A 
Twenty-Year View, edited by Michael 
L. Dertouzous and Joel Moses, The 
MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1979, p. 
146). He says, 'While the scientific 
community has been the user of most 
of the large computers built, interest- 
ingly enough, it also uses most of the 
minicomputers (and now microcom- 
puters) . . . .There is no doubt that the 
minicomputer will continue to be 
used heavily in the scientific labora- 
tory . . . (but) growing availability and 
improving performance of micropro- 
cessors may change this somewhat 

. . . .It seems clear that every experi- 
ment will have one or more proces- 
sors tied to it for control, data acquisi- 
tion and data analysis purposes .... 
Soon we will find the microproces- 
sors far outnumber the minis." 

Expanding on scientific networks, 
Fernbach writes, 'What I picture is 
networks made up of computers of 
all varieties. These can be local net- 
works or local networks tied to any 
number of remote systems. In each 



there will be a set of functional boxes 
or computers dedicated to specific 
functions. One or more may do noth- 
ing but print, another plot, another 
create pictures on film, another 
retrieve information from a local data 
bank. In other words, instead of a 
large-scale general purpose com- 
puter, I visualize a distributed system 
in which specific jobs are parceled 
out to specialists." 

Fernbach' s vision of only two years 
ago is reality today. There are a num- 
ber of small (and I might add inex- 
pensive) microcomputers available 
that are ideal, and in some cases have 
been designed for such dedicated sin- 
gle-functions jobs as equipment con- 
trol and data acquisition. (See, for 
example, 'Everyman's Computer 
System" by J. McKown and S. Sarns, 
Microcomputing, Dec. 1981, p. 32.) 

Distributed intelligence networks 
are becoming almost commonplace. 
They are appearing in business of- 
fices as well as scientific laboratories 
(not to mention the Children's Televi- 
sion Workshop's Sesame Place). (See 
'(Distributed) Intelligence Networks 
in the Office" by Michael Brandt and 
Michael Bodner, Microcomputing, 
Oct. 1981, p. 80.) 

Personal microcomputers are be- 
ing used by many scientists today. 
One very interesting example in- 
volves some recent discoveries in 
"experimental" mathematics (that's 
right, there is such a thing as empiri- 
cal mathematics and discoveries is 
the correct word to use for findings in 
that area). M. J. Feigenbaum of the 
Los Alamos National Laboratory has 
found some important characteristics 
of the phenomena known as strange 
attractors that occur in a variety of 
systems of interest to scientists rang- 
ing from meteorologists to physicists. 
(For an engaging introduction to this 



fascinating topic see Douglas Hof- 
stader's "Metamagical Themas" col- 
umn in the Nov. 1981 Scientific Amer- 
ican, p. 22.) One thing that is striking 
about Feigenbaum's work, in the pre- 
sent context, is that some of his very 
important discoveries were made 
with the aid of a small computer and 
a calculator. 

(The mention of meteorologists 
calls a recent news item to mind. The 
National Weather Service is in the 
process of installing a large national 
minicomputer-based system. But in 
the meantime, directors of some 
weather service centers have decided 
to purchase and use Zenith Z-89 mi- 
crocomputers with modems rather 
than wait for completion of the large 
system.) 

The science-related articles that 
follow, in addition to describing 
specific uses of microcomputers, in- 
dicate something of the flexibility 
and range of possible science applica- 
tions. Obviously, we could not hope 
to cover the entire spectrum in a 
single issue. So, from time to time we 
will be printing more material on 
uses of micros in the sciences. 

It also seems worth noting that new 
products are beginning to appear that 
facilitate the use of off-the-shelf mi- 
crocomputers in the science lab. One 
such product, called Isaac (Cyborg 
Corp., Boston, MA), allows you to use 
an Apple for instrument control, data 
acquisition, electronic testing and 
process control. The manufacturer 
claims it can be easily used for appli- 
cations in chemistry, engineering, 
psychology and physiology. It sounds 
like it turns a standard Apple into a 
versatile laboratory machine. 

Cubist's Corner 

Rubik's Cube has become so 
popular that its devotees have their 
own fashionable malady. Cubist's 
thumb has definitely replaced tennis 
elbow. So, in an endeavor to preserve 
the national health we have offered 
two cube simulation programs (one 
for the Apple and one for Z-80 sys- 
tems) in this issue. But both programs 
only offer one mode of what we feel 
should be included in a complete cube 
program. The Coopers' and Paul Tur- 
vill's programs allow you to input a 
desired number of twists, which the 
computer then makes; then it is up to 
you to restore the cube. That's a fine 
first step. In fact, it is just like work- 
ing with an actual Rubik's Cube. The 
next step would be to include a sec- 



ond mode in which you would mix 
up the cube and the computer would 
restore it. Such programs do exist— I 
have seen a few excellent ones for 
large computers and heard of a few 
for micros. In fact, we are in the pro- 
cess of reviewing a few for possible 
publication and would be interested 
in seeing more. 

Micros and Minis 

Last spring a somewhat unsettling 
situation came to my attention. A 
friend who had just earned his degree 
in computer science from a large 
state university and I were talking 
about job prospects in the computer 
field. He was concerned because, in 
spite of a good academic record, he 
was having some difficulty in finding 
a good position. He said that he was 
interested in gaining some program- 
ming experience and was especially 
interested in working with Pascal. 

I couldn't understand why he was 
having any trouble at all finding a 
good job. We are constantly hearing 
about the need for good program- 
mers. I asked what companies he had 
been talking to. He named several of 
the large minicomputer manufactur- 
ers and several companies that offer 
software support services for the 
products of these manufacturers. 
When I asked what microcomputer 
companies and software houses he 
had contacted, his answer astonished 
me, especially in light of the fact that 
he wanted to locate in the San Fran- 
cisco area. He hadn't been in contact 
with any. 

As we talked it became apparent 
that he was equating microcomput- 
ers with video games. He didn't think 
of micros as real computers. And 
worst of all he was completely 
unaware of the extremely large and 
rapidly growing microcomputer in- 
dustry. He simply did not know it ex- 
isted. It was disturbing to find that a 
good student could complete four 
years in a respected computer sci- 
ence program and never be made 
aware of one of the most dynamic 
segments of the computer industry. 
After doing some checking I found 
that my young friend's situation was 
not uncommon. I also learned of sev- 
eral educational institutions that do 
incorporate microcomputing into 
their programs. These schools are 
working to give their students a full 
picture of the field for which their 
graduates are being prepared. But 
there are still a number of highly re- 



spected schools that are not offering 
their students a complete preparation 
for their chosen field. 

Several possible reasons for this ex- 
ist, but two of them seem to stand 
out. The microcomputer field, as we 
all know but sometimes forget, is 
very new— by most accounts only 
about six years old. As a significant 
industry, microcomputing is even 
newer. And most computer science 
professors were trained during, or 
were part of, the minicomputer revo- 
lution. Then too, educational institu- 
tions are not always noted for their 
ability to rapidly change with the 
times, despite the best efforts of some 
of the faculty. (We have to sympa- 
thize with those who must try to con- 
vince an administration that is still 
paying for a large time-sharing sys- 
tem to go out and buy a significant 
number of new machines— but we 
have learned of some very creative 
strategies used by some individuals 
and departments to get around this 
obstacle for the benefit of their 
students.) 

It still bothered me that a number 
of young computer professionals 
would have to gain their first micro- 
computing experience as on-the-job 
training. Feeling, however, that the 
computer-educational establishment 
was at least starting to move in the 
proper direction, I more or less put 
the mini/micro question out of my 
mind. But a recent article in a com- 
puter publication (see "Mini or Mi- 
cro: Which Way to Go?" by John Sea- 
man in Computer Decisions, Oct. 
1981, p. 90) raised the question 
anew in a slightly different context. 
Here the question was posed in the 
context of which kind of system was 
most appropriate for business pur- 
poses. (It may be a bit unfair to single 
out Seaman's article, because one can 
find numerous articles containing 
some of the same information and I 
believe Seaman was trying to be ob- 
jective. The information he was deal- 
ing with, however, made that im- 
possible.) 

The criteria for comparison in this 
article are: 
•speed of operation 

• response time 
•amount of memory 

• control of a variety of peripherals 

• hardware and software availability 

• service 



(continued on page 93) 
Microcomputing, January 1982 59 



This Apple program helps scientists gather data and analyze geologic research. 



Uncovering the History 

Of the Earth 



By Fred J. Gunther 



Computers have contributed to 
important changes in the way 
scientists do science. Some advances, 
such as those in space research, are 
enormous and obvious; others are 
not. But the way data is collected, or- 
ganized and analyzed has unquestion- 
ably changed in all branches of sci- 
ence, and microcomputers are the 



newest part of that change. 

Most geologists are not mathemati- 
cally or computer oriented. They 
are interested in the Earth, its rocks 
and minerals, its parade of plant and 
animal life through geologic time, 
its mountains and what caused them 
and its oceans and continents. 

Even geologic research has 



OLD/NEW 



a 



CATALOG 






LABEL$ 

NAME$ 



RUN 



»0 



300 




SET 

INITIAL 
CONDITIONS 



400 



OLD 




800 



SET OP 
GRAPH 



1030 



LSP ■ LSP*I 
NSP- 
TALLY % ' 
COUNT ■ 




S/S 
ABUNDANCE 
DIVERSIT Y 



s/s 

ABUNDANCE, 
DIVERSITY/ 



1 



100 



1/0 



2 40 i 



I/O 



I/O 



NSP- 
LSP' 
COUNT- 
5P$> 



900 



PLOT 
GRAPH 



iQOO 



I/O 



RETURN 



TITLE 
CREDITS 



250 




CATALOG 



NAME$ 



SPECIES> 
[ SPECIMENS) 
GRAPH 



SPECIES 
CODE 



Fig. 1. Flowchart for the PEG Helper program. 
60 Microcomputing, January 1982 



changed because of the use of com- 
puters. Earthquake data is recorded 
with much greater sensitivity. Indica- 
tions of ore deposits can be detected 
in computer-processed images taken 
by satellites. Several technical jour- 
nals publish articles by mathematical 
geologists concerning fossils, mag- 
netism, ore deposits, storm waves 
and statistical tests. Data of all types 
can be processed much more effi- 
ciently and accurately. 

When I was a graduate student, my 
first job as a laboratory assistant was 
to help a senior graduate student with 
his research. I was to take his hand- 
calculated results for species per- 
cent data at each of many oceano- 
graphic collection stations and calcu- 
late an index of similarity for each 
and every pair of stations. The result- 
ing numbers would enable the senior 
graduate student to draw a map of 
the ocean floor showing which sta- 
tions had similar collections of ani- 
mals. There were many stations, and 
many species, and it took weeks to 
calculate the matrix. 

That same semester, I took a course 
in FORTRAN IV computer program- 
ming on a CDC-3300 (a big computer 
in 1967). By the time I was a senior 
graduate student, I had designed, 
written and debugged a computer 



Address correspondence to Dr Fred J. Gunther, 
9464 Wandering Way, Columbia, MD 21045. 




Photo 1. Monitor display of Example Species/Specimens curve. The steepness of the curve indicates that 
new species are still bem^ found at a rapid rate. For this reason many more specimens need to be exam- 
ined to adequately know what the species composition of the sample is. 



program that calculated the same in- 
dex of similarity for all station pairs 
in a few seconds. In addition, it pro- 
duced all of the other previously 
hand-calculated values for species 
abundance. And it calculated many 
other "nifty numbers" of use and in- 
terest to geologists and marine 
biologists. 

Input Problems 

To use my program, I still had to 
examine the samples, keep a tally of 
the number of specimens for each 
sample and keypunch the data onto 
computer cards. 

Many other scientists face the same 
problems in data entry. Marine biolo- 



gists often count the numbers of indi- 
viduals for each species of plant or 
animal. Ecologists often pay close at- 
tention to both the type and the num- 
ber of specimens for each species. 
Many scientific studies depend upon 
being able to tally the number of 
specimens for each species. The fre- 
quency distributions of species in 
each sample can be compared by eye 
or by computer program to indicate 
what the natural communities or 
groups of species are. 

Some solutions to the data-entry 
problem have been suggested. The 
counted number of specimens can 
be entered onto a machine-readable 
form. The sense-marked form or card 



SP$(100) 



COUNT(l 

TALLY%| 
NSP 
LSP 
LABELS 

NAMES 



The array of species ID codes. A string variable is used so that numbers 
and/or letters can form the ID code. Thus 33 is as valid as T33, and both 
are as valid as the full scientific name, Textulana earlandi. Be careful of 
spelling errors on input; each spelling variation is treated as a different 
species ID code. 

00) The array of the counted number of specimens for each species. It is up- 
dated every time a new specimen ID code is entered. 

1 000) The array for the number of species known at the time that each specimen 
was found. It is updated every time a new specimen ID code is entered. 
The total number of species. It is updated each time a new species is 
entered 

The total number of specimens. It is updated every time a specimen ID 

code is entered. 

A string variable with sample and project identification information. It is 

typed in by the analyst at the start of an analysis. It is stored on the disk to 

be read when an analysis is continued after an interruption. 

A string variable for the name of the data file. It is used for disk storage and 

must be unique 

Table 1 Important variables for PEG Microscope Helper program. 



can then be read by a computer in 
essentially the same way as for 
machine grading of multiple-choice 
examinations. 

Data entry directly from sample 
material has been performed using 
large computers for automatic shape 
analysis, but only for special cases in 
medicine and genetics. Recently a 
microprocessor-based texture analy- 
sis station for cell and tissue samples, 
featuring direct data entry, has been 
advertised. 

Fossils, however, must be iden- 
tified by eye. Direct-entry computer 
systems cannot handle the variety in 
shapes and orientation encountered 
in the species-analysis of paleontolo- 
gic, ecologic or geologic samples. Fos- 
sil specimens must be found, separ- 
ated from the surrounding rock, 
cleaned, examined and finally identi- 
fied and tallied by species. 

I decided to use an Apple micro- 
computer to keep the tally for each 
species in a sample. The program 
presented here (Listing 1) allows the 
Apple to assist the scientist or techni- 
cian in data collection and prelimi- 
nary analysis. It's named the PEG 
Helper because I use it for research in 



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Microcomputing, January 1982 





61 



Paleontology, Ecology and Geology. 
All I have to do is type in a code name 
or number each time I see a speci- 
men. The computer does all the rest 
of the data entry, record-keeping and 
calculations. The program helps me 
to "work smart, not hard." 

Bells and Whistles 

Of course, once the data is in 



machine-readable form, other things 
can be done (Fig. 1). The program 
does much more than simply replace 
a tally sheet or a multi-key counter. A 
variety of important reports are pro- 
duced from the data. 

The program calculates the relative 
(percent) abundance of each species 
and prints this along with the tally 
and species ID code. (Sample 1.) 



Sample 1. Printer copy of Species Abundance matrix. This is the data that would have to be tallied 
by hand and entered to a computer by punched cards if this program did not exist. This data is 
stored on a disk file for direct entry to computer programs that will do additional analyses. 



SPECIMEN 
COUNT 

1 

2 
2 
2 



2 

3 

2 

2 

3 

2 

1 

2 

1 

1 

3 

2 

1 

2 

1 

2 

1 

1 

2 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 



SAMPLE 

PERCENT 

1.28203128 

2.36410236 

2.56410236 

2.56410236 

1.28205128 

1.28205128 

1.28205128 

1.28205128 

1.28205128 

2.56410256 

1.28205128 

1.28205128 

1.28205128 

2.56410256 

6.41025641 

2.56410256 

2.56410256 

3.84615385 

2.56410256 

1.28205128 

2.56410236 

1.28203128 

1.28203128 

3.84615383 

2.56410256 

1.28205128 

2.36410236 

1.28203128 

2.36410236 
1.28203128 
1.28205128 
2.36410236 
1.28203128 
1.28205128 
1.28205128 
1.28205128 
1 . 28205 1 28 
1.28205128 
1.28205128 



SPECIES 
ID CODE 
28 

70 

43 

67 

30 

24 



4 

49 

27 

74 

75 

61 

8 

69 



2.56410256 26 

1.28205128 52 

1.28205128 41 

1.28205128 54 

1.28205128 3 

1.28205128 44 

2.56410256 72 

1.28205128 37 

1.28205128 86 

1.28205128 59 

1.28203128 92 

1.28205128 23 

1.28205128 30 

1.28205128 89 

1.28205128 29 

1.28205128 32 



13 
39 

3 
16 

7 



79 
47 
97 
73 
40 

37 
22 

62 

42 

2 

38 

96 

17 

84 

98 

82 



A graph showing the frequency of 
occurrence of new species as addi- 
tional specimens are studied is a very 
useful report. Where the curve is 
steep, the analyst can expect to find 
more species as more specimens are 
examined. Where the curve is very 
flat, the analyst can expect that the 
examination of additional specimens 
is unlikely to produce additional 
species. The curve therefore can be 
used to predict the results of addition- 
al work to analyze the sample. If the 
curve is very flat, the cost of finding 
new species may be considered to be 
too high, and the analyst can stop. 

A manual tally of the number of 
specimens vs the number of species 
is very difficult to keep. I've done 
it many times and know the prob- 
lems involved well. The program in- 
structions allow the computer to 
keep the tally and to generate a 
continuously-updated plot for every 
single sample, at no extra effort to the 
analyst (Photo 1). 

Species diversity is one of those 
"nifty numbers" mentioned earlier. 
It is of interest to specialists in the 
studies of modern and ancient groups 
of animals or plants. It attempts to 
measure one aspect of population or 
group organization. Changes in diver- 
sity have been related to changes in 
the environment in many scientific 
studies; it is common knowledge that 
there are fewer species and in- 



DIVERSITY INDICES 



55 = NUMBER OF SPECIES 



12.3946773 = MARGALEF'S INDEX 



.976988823 - SIMPSON'S INDEX 



-10.8321596 = MC INTOSH'S INDEX 



1.6948065 = SHANNON'S INDEX (INFORMATION THEORY) 



REFERENCES 

MAC ARTHUR 1965 BIOL. REVIEW 40s 51 1-533 

MC INTOSH 1967 ECOLOGY 48(3): 392-404 

SANDERS 1968 AMERICAN NATURALIST 102(925): 243-282 

Sample 2. Printer copy of diversity data. 



62 Microcomputing, January 1982 



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dividuals in Arctic regions than in 
tropical regions. 

Many scientists have calculated the 
species diversity of the samples that 
they study. Of course, where there 
are many people, there are many 
different opinions. There are several 
opinions on how to measure the di- 
versity of a sample, and so there are 
several algorithms. Each tries to an- 
swer the question, 'Is this sample 
really different from that sample?" 

The Helper program helps out in 
this case also. It calculates and prints 
several indices of diversity. The 
printer copy (Sample 1) with the 
different diversity values becomes 
part of the analysis file for the sample 
and project. 

Program Code 

The program code has three major 
sections (see Fig. 1). The program 



first prints a title page and asks the 
user for information (Photo 2); it then 
sets up the initial conditions for that 
run (Listing 1, lines 90 to 950). Sec- 
ond, the program requests input tor 
each species, and then processes the 
data (Listing 1, lines 900 to 1090- 
yes, lines 900 to 950 are used by both 
setup and run portions of the pro- 
gram). Finally, when the input se- 
quence is complete, the program 
writes the data onto a disk file 
(Listing 1, lines 2000 to 2170), and 
prints (lines 3000 to 5430) a hard copy 
of the results (Fig. 2 and Sample 1; 
also Sample 2). The program is so de- 
pendent upon user input tor pacing 
that it is coded in linear (non-opti- 
mized) form (see Fig. 1 and Listing 1). 

Program Use 

I have already written a lot about 
how the program is used. However, 



Listing 1. PEG Microscope Helper, written in Applesoft BASIC to take advantage of high 
resolution graphics to display the species/specimens curve. 



90 

lOO 

HO 

120 

130 

140 

150 

160 

170 

180 

190 

200 

210 

220 

230 

240 

250 

260 

300 

310 

320 

330 

340 

350 

3AO 

370 

380 

390 

400 

410 

420 

430 

440 

450 

460 

470 

480 

490 

500 

600 

A20 

630 

&40 

650 

660 

670 

800 

810 

820 

830 

840 

900 

910 



CLEAR 
HOME : PRINT ■ 
PRINT : INVERSE 
INVERSE : PRINT 
INVERSE j PRINT 

PRINT i PRINT : INVERSE : PRINT "DR. FRED J 
PRINT "9464 WANDERING WAY": PRINT "COLUMBIA 
NORMAL : PRINT : PRINT : PRINT "INPUT IS ID 
PRINT : PRINT : PRINT "OUTPUT IS: " 
"SPECIES /SPEC I MENS CURVE" 



PEG 
: PRINT "P",i 
"E",: NORMAL 
"G",: NORMAL 



MICROSCOPE HELPER" 
NORMAL j PRINT "PALEONTOLOGY" 
PRINT "ECOLOGY- 
PRINT "GEOLOGY" 

GUNTHER" 
MD 21045" 
CODE FOR EACH SPECIMEN' 



LET MM* = 
PRINT " -1- 
PRINT " -2- 
PRINT " -3- 
PRINT " -4- 
PRINT " -5- 
LET M* = "ADJUST 



HGR"; MM* 

DISK COPY, SPECIES 
PRINTED ";MM* 
PRINTED SPECIES 
PRINTED SPECIES 
PRINTER AND 
SLOT NUMBER 



TALLY" 



TALLY" 
DIVERSITY": 
(RETURN) " 
FOR PRINTER 



PRINT 



N 



PRINT 



PRINT M*: INPUT 

PRINT : INPUT "SPECIAL PRINTER CONTROL CHARACTERS 

HOME : REM SET INITIAL CONDITIONS 

VTAB lO 

DIM SP*(100) , COUNT (lOO) : REM UP TO lOO SPECIES 

DIM TALLY7. (lOOO) : REM UP TO lOOO SPECIMENS 

LET NSP = 0:LSP = O 

INPUT "NEW SAMPLE OR CONTINUATION OF OLD'' 

IF IN* ■ "NEW" THEN GOTO 600 

= "OLD" THEN GOTO 400 
INVERSE : PRINT "UNEXPECTED RESPONSE" 

: PRINT : GOTO 350 

PRINT "WHICH FILE'' CO* IF NOT HERE)" 



;CC* 



(NEW/OLD) 



IN* 



IF IN* 
PRINT ; 
NORMAL 
HOME : 
PRINT 
PRINT 



PRINT 
INPUT 



IF NAME* = 



CHR* 

NAME* 

THEN 



(4) 



CATALOG" 



PRINT "INSERT NEW DISK' 



GOTO 350 



PRINT 

PRINT 

INPUT 

FOR J 

INPUT 

PRINT 

GOTO 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

INPUT 

INPUT 

PRINT 



CHR* (4);" OPEN " ; NAME* 

CHR* (4);" READ " ; NAME* 
LABEL*: INPUT NSP: INPUT LSP 
= 1 TO NSP: INPUT COUNT (J) 
SP*(J) : NEXT J 

CHR* (4);" CLOSE " ; NAME* 
800 

TYPE IN LABEL FOR THIS SAMPLE." 
INPUT LABEL*: PRINT : PRINT 

IS THIS THE DISK YOU WANT TO STORE THE" 

DATA ON?": PRINT CHR* (4) , "CATALOG" 

(YES/NO) "; IN*: IF IN* ■ "YES" THEN GOTO 

PUT PROPER DISK IN DRIVE AND (RETURN) " ; IN*: GOTO 630 
INPUT "GIVE FILE NAME (DO NOT USE ONE OF THE ABOVE), 
IETUP HGR GRAPH 



670 



;NAME* 



REM 

HOME : VTAB 21: HGR : HCOLOR= 

HPLOT 0,0 TO O, 159 TO 279,159 

PRINT ■ ";: INVERSE : PRINT 

NORMAL : POKE 34,23: VTAB 23 

LET Y = 159 - 2 t NSP 

IF Y < O THEN GOTO lOOO 



MM* 



64 Microcomputing, January 1982 



some details might be useful to you 
to see if you could use it in your 
applications. 

The program has been used in a 
computer with the keyboard next to a 
microscope (for small fossils) or 
specimen-sorting tray (for large 
fossils) in a laboratory. The computer 
must be connected to a monitor, a 
disk drive and a printer. 

The analyst first enters general 
sample information, starting a new 
file or continuing an old one as appro- 
priate. S/he spreads the sample thinly 
over the surface of a small tray and 
carefully searches it for specimens. 
Usually, there are many grains of 
sand and few specimens. As each 
specimen is encountered, the analyst 
identifies it and types a short code 
name or number on the keyboard. A 
specimen that is new to the project 
must be given a new code ID and set 



-LEOHT0L0GY 
ECOLOGY 
GEOLOG 



FRED 

yAHDER 



GUNTHE] 



GLUMBIA 






- 

- • _ : i 






HLL § 



■-. 



- - 



: Li i ^:ili 



...-- PRIHTES AND (RETURN) 

sLOT JflBER FOP. PRINTER. I 



Photo 2. Monitor display of program title page. The prompt at the bottom of the page allows the program 
to be run on systems with different configurations. 



920 
930 
950 

lOOO 

ioio 

1020 

1030 

1035 

1040 

1050 

1060 

1070 

1080 

1090 

2000 

2110 

2120 

21 30 

2140 

2150 

2160 

21 70 

3000 

3110 

31 20 

3130 

3140 

3150 

3160 

31 70 

4000 

4100 

4110 

4\20 

4130 

5000 

5010 

5020 

5030 

5040 

5100 

SllO 

5120 

5130 

5140 

5200 

5210 

5220 

5300 

5310 

5320 

5340 

5400 

S410 

5420 

5430 

6000 



J - 280i GOTO 930 



LET J ■ LSP 

IF J > 280 THEN LET J 

HPLOT J,Y TO J,Y + 1 

PRINT "SPECIES CODE FOR NEXT SPECIMEN?" 

PRINT -CO' TO END)", 

INPUT IN*: IF IN* « "O" THEN TEXT s POKE 34, Of GOTO 2000 

LET LSP • LSP ♦ 1 

FOR J » 1 TO NSPiJJ « J 

IF IN* « SP*(J) THEN GOTO 1070 

NEXT JsNSP » NSP ♦ li REM ADD NEW SPECIES 

LET SP*(NSP> » IN*: J J ■ NSPs REM STORE NEW SPECIES WORKING CODE 

LET TALLY* (LSP) ■ NSP 

LET COUNT (JJ) - COUNT (JJ) ♦ It REM UPDATE SPECIES ABUNDANCE MATRIX 

GOTO 900 

PRINT "WRITE DATA TO DISK FILE. " 

PRINT CHR* (4); "OPEN"; NAME*: REM WRITE DATA TO DISK 

PRINT CHR* (4); "WRITE"; NAME* 

PRINT LABEL*: REM KEEP ID WITH FILE 

PRINT NSP: REM NUMBER OF SPECIES 

PRINT LSP: REM NUMBER OF SPECIMENS 

FOR J * 1 TO NSP: PRINT COUNT (J): PRINT SP*(J): 

PR I NT CHR* ( 4 ) ; " CLOSE " ; NAME* 

TEXT : FLASH : PRINT M*: INPUT IN*: NORMAL 

PR# N: PRINT CC*: PRINT LABEL*: PRINT : PRINT : 

PRINT ,"0";: FOR J = 10 TO lOO STEP 10: PRINT " 

PRINT ,"*";: FOR J - 1 TO 10: PRINT " I *' 

FOR J = 1 TO LSP: PRINT J,"*";: REM PRINT A LINE 

IF TALLY* < J) = 1 THEN PRINT "#": GOTO 3170 

FOR JJ = 2 TO TALLY* (J): PRINT " ";: NEXT J J: PRINT "#" 

NEXT J 

FOR J = 1 TO 5: PRINT : NEXT : REM ABUNDANCE DATA 

PR# O: PRINT M*: INPUT IN* 

PR# N: PRINT CC*: PRINT LABEL*: PRINT : PRINT 

PR I NT ■ SPEC I MEN " , " SAMPLE " , SPEC I ES " : PR I NT " COUNT " , " PERCENT " , " I DCODE " 

FOR J ■ 1 TO NS: PRINT COUNT (J), 100 * COUNT (J) / LSP,SP*(J): PRINT : NEXT 

PR# O: PRINT M*: INPUT IN* 

PR# N: PRINT CC*: PRINT LABEL*: PRINT : PRINT 

PRINT ""."DIVERSITY INDICES": PRINT t PRINT 

LET SSQ = OfPSQ = 0:PLG = O 

PRINT NSP; "-NUMBER OF SPECIES" 

FOR J = 1 TO NSP: LET P = COUND(J) / LSP 



NEXT 



PRINT MM*: PRINT 

";J;: NEXT J: 
';: NEXT : PRINT 



PRINT 



COUNT (J) 

P ~ 2 

P • LOG 



LET SSQ = SSQ 

LET PSQ ■ PSQ 

LET PLG - PL6 

NEXT J 

LET DM ■ (NSP - 1) / LOG (LSP) 

LET DH = - 1 



(P) * 0-4342945 



LET DD 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 



t PLG 

* 1 - SQR (SSQ) i DP - 1 - PSQ 
PRINT : PRINT DM; "=MARGALEF' S INDEX" 
PRINT : PRINT DP; "'SIMPSON'S INDEX" 
PRINT : PRINT DD ; " =MC I NTOSH ' S INDEX" 

PRINT : PRINT DH; "« SHANNON ' S INDEX (INFORMATION THEORY- 
PRINT i PRINT : PRINT ""."REFERENCES": PRINT 

MACARTHUR 1965 BIOL. REVIEW 40:511-533" 

MCINTOSH 1967 ECOLOGY 48(3): 392-404" 

SANDERS 1968 AMERICAN NATURALIST 102(925) I 243-282" 



PR* O: POKE 34, O: END 



Microcomputing, January 1982 65 



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CABLE 

90 DAY WARRANTY 
FACTORY ASSEMBLED 
FACTORY TESTED 

THESE ARE NEW 5" FD's 



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• Full file handling 

• Built in chaining and spooling 
facilities 

• Frequency response, magnitude and 
phase 

• Complete manual with examples 

• Full support 

• A truly professional program with 
features previously available only on 
large systems 

• TRS-80 model I or model III, disk or 
cassi'tU'. $75.00 

Tatum Labs ^ 350 
P.O. Box 722 
Hawleyville, CT 06440 

TRS-80 is «i tradmaiV >>t 

ot I .inclv C <>rp. 



aside for later identification; 
specimens of recognized species need 
not be set aside. 

All records are kept by the com- 
puter. It is not necessary for the ana- 
lyst to write down anything, other 
than the ID code for each set-aside 
specimen. The computer keeps all 
data up-to-date on internal files. It 
also plots in real time the 
species/specimens curve. At the end 
of the analysis, the computer prints 
disk copies of some files and hard 
copies of all files. 

Because the analysis of a sample 
may take a long time, the program 
has the capability of reading a disk 
file. This allows the analyst to take a 
break (for coffee, lunch, or the end of 
the working day) after recording the 
data up to that time. The analyst can 
continue from that point after the 
program has read the stored data 
from the disk file. The computer 



printout for that sample will be in 
two or more parts, but that problem 
can be solved with scissors and tape. 
The program should be useful not 
only to paleontologists (geologists 
who work with plant and animal 
fossils), but also to many other scien- 
tists and to anyone interested in the 
numbers of species of plants or ani- 
mals found in one place. Even those 
who work with inorganic items, such 
as geologists who study sand grains, 
could find this program useful in col- 
lecting data about the "species" of 
heavy minerals. It might even be 
useful to a traffic analyst, who must 
count the numbers of different types 
of vehicles that pass a certain point of 
a road. It could assist in keeping track 
of the numbers and species of birds 
that visit a bird feeder, or the animals 
that visit a salt lick or a water hole. 
Let me know what uses you have 
found for the program. ■ 



10 



20 



30 



40 



50 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

IS 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 

31 

32 

33 

34 

35 

36 

37 

38 

39 

40 

41 

42 

43 

44 

45 

46 

47 

48 

49 

50 

51 

52 

53 

54 

55 

56 

57 

58 

59 

60 

61 

62 

63 

64 

65 

66 

67 

68 

69 

70 

71 

72 

73 

74 

75 



60 



70 

■-*- 



80 






* 



* 



* 
* 



* 



* 
« 



• 



* 



* 



* 



* 
* 



t 
* 



* 
» 
* 



t 



t 






Fig. 2. Printer copy of Example Species/Specimens curve. The number of species is printed horizontally 
and the number of specimens vertically. Each specimen is represented by a line; if a specimen is of a new 
species, a new column is added. This is the same curve shown in Photo I, but this curve is produced using a 
I different medium with a different aspect ratio to the plot. 



66 Microcomputing, January 1982 








(without Front Panel Support) 

The H8/Z80 combination is nothing more than a glorified 8080 system unless you have the front 
panel monitor support to access the additional power of the Z80 CPU. The expanded instruction set, 
alternate registers and enhanced interrupt capability of the Z80 are all wishful dreams if inaccessible 
to the user. 

DG offers the H8 owner not only the finest Z80 CPU board available today but also the monitor 
necessary for its use. The DG-FP8 hardware/firmware package featuring our versatile FPM/80 
monitor provides all of the features and facilities of the Heath® PAM 8 monitor as well as the advanced 
monitor capabilities necessary for optimum utilization of the DG-80 Z80 CPU. 





Features of the DG-80/FP-8 package include: 

Full compatibility with Heath® H8 hardware and software 

Expanded Z80 Instruction Set 

Operational 2 or 4 Mhz 

On-Board Provisions for 8K Prom or 4K Ram 

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Easy Front Panel Access to all Z80 Registers 

Support of H17 and H47/Z47 Disk System 

Support of CP/M V2.2 as well as HDOS 

AND MUCH MORE 




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^145 



^See List of Advertisers on page 178 



Ordering Information: Products listed available from DG Electronic Developments Co. , 700 
South Armstrong, Denison, Tx. 75020. Check, Money Order, VISA or MasterCard 
accepted. Phone orders call (214) 465-7805. Freight prepaid. Allow 3 weeks for personal 
checks to clear. Texas residents add 5%. Foreign orders add 30%. Prices subject to change 
" without notice. 



Microcomputing, January 1982 67 



When the going gets hot in the laboratory, the Apple is a versatile low-cost instrument to record 

graphic data. 



Red Hot Computing 



By Paul T. Ward 



Many laboratory phenomena re- 
quire recording a rapidly 
changing dc voltage for later analysis. 
In my laboratory, I routinely mea- 
sure the output of photomultiplier 
tubes, recording the glow of irradi- 



ated phosphors as they are heated. 
During the heating process, the phos- 
phors give off varying amounts of 
light, depending on the type of radia- 
tion and the temperature. 
In the past, this glow curve has 




From left to right, IDS-440 Paper Tiger printer, Panasonic model UD702 thermoluminescent dosimeter 
reader, Apple // + , chart recorder and Tektronix oscilloscope with Polaroid camera attached. 



Program listing. 



10 
20 
30 
40 
50 
40 
70 
75 
80 
82 



REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
D$ = 



A/D CONVERTER PROGRAM 
INTERACTIVE STRUCTURE 
MODEL AI-02 ANLG-DGTL 
A-BASE ADDRESS 



FOR 



C0NVTR 



AP1=C0NVERSI0N 
CH^CHANNEL * 
V< I )= RESULT 
P( I )=- V< I ) * 

CHR* ( 4 ) 



RESULT 



ADDRESS 
OF A/D CONVERTER 
OF C0NVRSN I 
SCALE FACTOR TO PLOT 



ON HI RES PAGE ONE 




been recorded on a fast chart record- 
er. This became less accurate as we 
increased the heating rate, due to the 
starting inertia of the paper and pen. 

The next step was to use an oscillo- 
scope with a Polaroid camera to 
eliminate the mechanical time lags. 
This works, but it is less than ideal 
due to the high cost, the small size of 
the picture and the tricky synchroni- 
zation problem. The synchronization 
problem can be solved with a special 
storage screen oscilloscope, but this is 
very expensive and tends to smear 
the recording. 

I needed a good, low-cost method of 
recording graphic data that's too fast 
for a conventional chart recorder and 
too slow for a normal oscilloscope. 

The answer was to bring in my Ap- 
ple II microcomputer and hook it 
up to the photometer in the lab 
through an analog-to-digital (A/D) 
converter. I used an Interactive 
Structures AI-02 converter, which is 
an eight-bit, 16-channel model. This 
device accepts dc voltages from 0-5 
V, and digitizes this into a number 
from 0-255. 

The digitization is started by pok- 
ing a base address (which depends on 
the slot number of the converter) 
with the number of the A/D channel 



Address correspondence to Paul T. Ward, 
Radiological Health program, School of Public 
Health, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 
MI 48109. 



68 Microcomputing, January 1982 



connected. You get the result of the 
conversion by peeking at an address 
one byte higher than the base address. 

By using the Program listing, I ob- 
tained a plot of the digitized data just 
like one from our storage screen os- 
cilloscope running at 1 cm/sec. The 
data was plotted in high-resolution 
graphics as it was generated. If you 
need faster sampling rates, the plot- 
ting could be done later, since the 
values are stored in the V array. 

An option at the end of the program 
stores the data as numbers, a high- 
resolution picture or both. To restore 
the picture to the screen, first BLOAD 
the file it was saved in, then enter 

GR:POKE - 16297,0 

to restore the high-resolution screen. 
The screen image can be hard-copied 
on a dot-matrix printer with a graph- 
ics driver program. A short BASIC 
program is required to read the 
number data from the disk file. 

Similarly, you can make a fast X-Y 
recorder by plotting one conversion 
against the other, recording from two 
A/D channels alternately. This tech- 
nique is useful for examining the hys- 
teresis loop of control systems too fast 
for conventional X-Y recorders. ■ 



Listing continued. 


15 


DIM Q$( 5)»NM$( 15) 


¥0 


DIM V< 280 )»P< 280 ) 


!5 


HGR J TEXT 


10O 


A = 14592: REM SLOT #7 ADDRESS 


110 


API =• A 1 1 


120 


CM -- 0: REM CHANNEL ZERO 


130 


CALL - 936J VTAB 10: PRINT "THIS PROGRAM READS A D.C. VOLTAGE FROM 


140 


PRINT J PRINT "0 TO !5.0 VDC USING AN INTERACTIVE" 


150 


PRINT : PRINT "STRUCTURES MODEL AI 02 A/D CONVERTER" 


160 


REM START CONVERSION 


170 


VTAB 23: PRINT ■ PRESS ANY KEY TO CQNTINUf " 


180 


IF PEEK ( 16384) > 127 THEN GOTO 200 


190 


GOTO 180 


200 


CALL - 936: VTAD 23: PRINT " RECORDING DATA " 


210 


HGR : HCOLOR- 3: HPLOT 0,0 TO 0,159: HPLOT 0,159 TO 279,159 


220 


FOR I - TO 279 


230 


POKE AP1,CH 


240 


V< I ) = PEEK ( A ) 


250 


P(I) = V( I ) * 0.623: REM SCALE DATA TO FIT HI RES PAGE ONE 


260 


HPLOT I»< 159 P( I )) 


270 


NEXT I 


280 


CALL - 9361 VTAD 23 : PRINT " RECORDING FINISHED " 


290 


PRINT : INPUT " SAVE THIS DATA? "JQ$ 


300 


IF LEFT* <Q$,1) * "Y" THEN GOTO 350 


310 


PRINT : INPUT " ANOTHER RUN? " ;Q$ 


320 


IF LEFT* (Q$,l) ■- "Y" THEN GOTO 170 


330 


END 


350 


PRINT " WHAT FILENAME? (UP TO TEN CHARACTERS)": INPUT NM* 


360 


INPUT " SAVE PICTURE TOO? "JPCt 


370 


print d*; ii open n ;nm$ 


375 


PRINT D* J " WR 1 TE " J Ntt % 


380 


FOR K = TO 279 


390 


PRINT V(K ) 


395 


NEXT K 


400 


PRINT D$> "CLOSE" JNM$ 


420 


IF LEFTS <PC$,1) ■- "Y" THEN GOTO 450 


430 


GOTO 310 


450 


NM* ■ NMt> \ " ♦PIC" 


470 


PRINT Dt; H BSAVE " IHHtt " , At 2000 ,L*2000" 


490 


GOTO 310 



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Microcomputing, January 1982 69 



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This publication 
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70 Microcomputing, January 1982 



NEW! TPM* for TRS-80 Model II 
NEW! System/6 Package 

Computer Design Labs 



Z80 Disk software 



We have acquired the rights to all TDL software (& hardware). TDL software has long had the reputation of being the best in the 
industry. Computer Design Labs will continue to maintain, evolve and add to this superior line of quality software. 

— Carl Galletti and Roger Amidon, owners. 
Software with Manual/Manual Alone 



All off the software below is available on any of the 
following media for operation with a Z80 CPU using 
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for TRS-80* CP/M (Model I or II) 
for 8" CP/M (soft sectored single density) 
for 5 1 /4" CP/M (soft sectored single density) 
for 5 1 /*" North Star CP/M (single density) 
for 5V4" North Star CP/M (double density) 

BASIC I 



DEBUG I SYSTEM/6 

Many programmers give up on writing in assembly TPM with utilities, Basic I interpreter, Basic E compiler, 

language even though they know their programs would Macro I assembler, Debug I debugger, and ZEDIT text 

be faster and more powerful. To them assembly language editor. 



seems difficult to understand and follow, as well as 
being a nightmare to debug. Well, not with proper tools 
like Debug I. With Debug I you can easily follow the flow 
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step at a time or 1 steps or whatever you like. At each 
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what it did. If desired, modifications can then be made 
before continuing. Ifs all under your control. You can 
A powerful and fast Z80 Basic interpreter with EDIT, even skip displaying a subroutine call and up to seven 




RENUMBER, TRACE, PRINT USING, assembly language 
subroutine CALL, LOADGO for "chaining", COPY to 
move text, EXCHANGE, KILL, LINE INPUT, error inter- 
cept, sequential file handling In both ASCII and binary 
formats, and much, mtich more. It runs in a little over 1 2 
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BASIC II 

Basic I but with 12 digit precision to make its power 
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BUSINESS BASIC 

The most powerful Basic for business applications. It 
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added math functions, and disk file maintenance capa- 
bility without leaving Basic (list, rename, or delete). 
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ZEDIT 

A character oriented text editor with 26 commands 
and"macro" capability for stringing multiple commands 
together. Included are a complete array of character 
move, add, delete, and display function. $49.95./$ 15. 

ZTEL 

Z80 Text Editing Language - Not just a text editor. 
Actually a language which allows you to edit text and 
also write, save, and recall programs which manipulate 
text. Commands include conditional branching, subrou- 
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TOP 

A Z80 Text Output Processor which will do text 
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MACRO I 

A macro assembler which will generate relocateable 
or absolute code for the 8080 or Z80 using standard 
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Expands upon Macro I's linking capability (which is 
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How many times have you written the same subroutine 
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breakpoints can be set during execution. Use of Debug I 
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DEBUG II 

This is an expanded debugger which has all of the 
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A Z80 executive and debug monitor. Capable of 
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on disk 

APPLE 

8080 version of Zapple 



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Above purchased separately costs $339.75 

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8" disks $ 99.95 (manual not included) 
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8" $99.95 (manual not included) 
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8" disks $99.95 (manual not included) 
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ORDERING INFORMATION 

Visa, Master Charge and C.O.D. O.K. To order call or 
write with the following information. 

1. Name of Product (e.g. Macro I) 

2. Media (e.g. 8" CP/M) 

3. Price and method of payment (e.g. C.O.D.) include 
credit card info, if applicable. 

4. Name, Address and Phone number. 

5. For TPM orders only: I ndicate if for TRS 80, Tarbell, 
Xitan DDDC, SD Sales (6V or 8"). ICOM (6V or 
8"), North Star (single or double density) or Digital 
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6. N.J. residents add 5% sales tax. 

Manual cost applicable against price of subsequent 
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For information and tech queries call 

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For phone orders ONLY call toll free 

1 -800-327-91 91 
Ext. 676 

(Except Florida) 

OEMS 

Many CDL products are available for licensing to 
OEMs. Write to Carl Galletti with your requirements. 

* Z80 is a trademark of Zilog 

* TRS-80 is a trademark for Radio Shack 

* TPM is a trademark of Computer Design Labs. It is not 
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Prices and specifications subject to change without 
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Microcomputing, January 1982 71 



This unique application for the H8 helps neurophysiologists crack the "last frontier of biology. " 



Tapping Into the Brain 



By Robert M. Bradley 



Of all the organs in the body, the 
brain is perhaps the least under- 
stood. It is the last frontier of biology. 

Neurophysiologists have been able 
to gather much information on brain 
function by recording activity from 
the peripheral and central nervous 
systems and analyzing the resulting 
records. Until recently, this has been 
a tedious chore— investigators have 
had to rely on measurements from re- 
cordings photographed on a moving 
film passing across an oscilloscope 
screen. But the digital computer 
makes possible many types of analy- 
sis not possible before. 

This interface for the Heath H8 



measures the intervals between neu- 
ral discharges and stores the data on 
disks for later study. It also stores in 
the data stream a marker to indicate 
the beginning and end of a stimula- 
tion. Once the interval data is stored, 
software can be used to convert inter- 
vals into frequency of impulses, and 
show the distribution pattern of the 
intervals with respect to time. The 
extent of the analysis is dependent 
primarily on the imagination and in- 
genuity of the researcher. 

About Neurons 

Neurophysiologists record electrical 
impulses produced by neurons. A 



Listing 1. Assembly-language listing of the program designed to run with the interface. 



♦INTERSPIKE 

♦AUTHOR: 

+ 

+ 



I NTER 1 ' AL PROGRAM- I S I P- 



ROBEPT M.BRROLEV 
DEPT. ORRL BIOLOGY 
SCHOOL OF DENTISTRY 
UN I ■ 'EPS I T 7 OF M I CH I GAN 
ANN ARBOR 
MICHIGAN, 48109. 

4- ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ + + + ♦♦♦♦♦>+ + ♦«•♦♦ + ♦♦ + + ♦<♦♦♦♦ ■♦♦♦♦♦«'■♦ ■♦■ 

♦PULSE IS ON D0 PORT 004 

♦MARK BIT IS Dl PORT 004 

♦STOP BIT IS D2 PORT 004 

♦RESET IS PORT 006 

♦LSB7TE OF INT COUNT IS PORT 

*MSBVTE OF INT COUNT IS PORT 

♦CLOCK IS SET AT 1NSEC 

♦MAXIMUM INTERVAL STORAGE 2KBVTES 



GOG 

002 



START 

MODE 

CNTRL 

DATA1 

DATA2 

DATA3 

.OPENU 

.WRITE 

. CLOSE 

BEGIN 



XTEXT 

OP 'j 
ECU 
ECU 
EQU 
EQU 
ECU 
ECU 
EQU 
EQU 
XRA 
M'.'I 

MIIT 

SCALL 

M'.'I 
OUT 



HDOS 
USERFWA 



223Q 
003 

000Q 

00 1 Q 

002 

00O04 3A 
0Q00 5A 
0O0046A 

A 

B. 001'.' 



♦ SPECIFIES PORTS A ft B OF 825 
♦AND PORT C AS 2 4 BIT PORTS, 

+LSB7TE OF COUNT PORT 

♦MSB7TE OF COUNT POP! 

♦PULSE MARK AND STOP BIT PORT 

♦HDOS DEFINITIONS 

. ii ii 



AS INPUT POR 
1 AS INPUT 1 



TS, 

AS OUTPUT 



:0l! 



! 



UNSL 
A MULE 
CNTRL 



♦SET UP TERM 
♦SET UP 8255 
♦ SETS UP TRANSFER- 



CHARACTER 1ST I CS 



+ 



GET OUTPUT FILE NAME 




neuron, the basic building block of 
the central nervous system, is made 
up of a cell body with cytoplasmic ex- 
tensions called axons and dendrites. 
A neuron usually has only one axon, 
but can have a number of dendrites. 

All information travelling in the 
central nervous system passes along 
the axons to the dendrites, where it 
crosses a synapse to the axon of the 
next neuron in the chain. Thus, neu- 
ral activity typically begins at a sense 
organ and is transmitted along the 
neurons to the central nervous sys- 
tem, where the information is pro- 
cessed. This processing can result in a 
number of actions, the most obvious 
involving muscle use. 

Neurophysiologists are particularly 
interested in the functioning of sen- 
sory receptors, specialized dendrites 
sensitive to physical states. A series 
of these receptors senses the external 
environment and translates the infor- 
mation into signals used by the cen- 
tral nervous system. 

For example, the retina converts 
light energy into neural energy. The 
neural energy consists of action po- 
tentials (spikes, neural discharges) 
that are sent along the neurons to the 
central nervous system. These action 
potentials are a coded message of the 
transduced external energy. 

To understand how the brain 
works, the researcher must tap into 
the neural messages and decipher the 



Robert M. Bradley is on the faculty of the Depart- 
ment of Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, Univer- 
sity of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. 



72 Microcomputing, January 1982 



neural code. This is analogous to us- 
ing a logic tester in a computer circuit. 

To do this, he must isolate single 
neurons and record their action po- 
tentials, while stimulating the recep- 
tors to which they are connected. 
This is done either by dissecting the 
peripheral nerves to isolate single ax- 
ons, or advancing an electrode with a 
very small uninsulated tip into the 
brain or other parts of the central ner- 
vous system. In either case, an active 
electrode picks up the electrical ac- 
tivity of the isolated neuron, while an 
indifferent electrode placed in near- 
by tissue completes the circuit. 

The neural activity is amplified and 
recorded on magnetic tape. After the 
experiment, the tape is replayed and 
the data is analyzed. 

The recordings consist of a series of 
action potentials that occur at various 
intervals. An example of a small por- 
tion of such a recording is shown in 
Fig. 1. Note that the neural discharges 
are essentially a digital code. The ac- 
tion potentials from one neuron are 
of fixed magnitude, and last about 1 
ms. The analog recording is then 
passed through a window discrimina- 
tor, which converts the action poten- 
tials into standard TTL pulses. The 
neural data is now in the form that 
can be analyzed by a digital computer. 

Since action potentials from one 
neuron are of a fixed magnitude, the 
neural code cannot be in the form of 
amplitude modulation, but rather 
must rely on frequency modulation. 
All the information relating to the 
magnitude and quality of the stimulus 
must be contained in a frequency- 
modulated code. For example, the 
neural discharge pattern from a sin- 
gle fiber connected to a taste bud 
must convey not only information on 
the concentration of the stimulus but 
also on what kind of chemical has 
been applied to the tongue (eg., salty, 
sour, bitter, sweet-tasting). 

Hardware 

A block diagram of the interface is 
shown in Fig. 2 and a full schematic 
in Fig. 3. A crystal-controlled clock is 
set at a frequency of 1 kHz to give a 
pulse every 1 ms. These pulses are 
counted by a 16-bit binary counter. 
The least-significant byte of this count 
goes to one eight-bit input port, and 
the most-significant byte to a second 
port. One bit of an output port is used 
to reset the counter. A third port is 
used for input from the data pulses as 
well as the mark (stimulus beginning 
and end) and end analysis pulses. 



Since a 16-bit counter is used, 65,536 
ms is the maximum interval that can 
be counted, which is more than suffi- 
cient for most neural data. The inter- 
face functions therefore in a very 
straightforward manner. 

The computer first resets the count- 
ers, and then looks at the pulse mark 
and end port. When it meets a data 
pulse, the computer gets the input 
from the binary counters, resets the 
counters and looks for the next pulse. 
Whenever the mark bit is set, the 
computer then stores the next series 
of intervals in a second storage loca- 
tion. The reset pulse now not only re- 
sets the counters but also the mark bit. 

The same series of events takes 
place when the mark pulse is set again 
(end of stimulation period). Finally 
after the poststimulus period the end 
bit is set and data analysis is finished. 
If the mark facility is not required, 
both the hardware and software be- 
come much simpler to design. Often, 
however, the time of stimulus onset 
can be very accurately determined 
and recorded on a second channel of 
the analog recording during the ex- 
periment. On playback, the stimulus 
marker channel can be used to con- 
trol the mark input bit. 

The schematic diagram is, for the 
most part, self-explanatory. The three 
input ports are neatly implemented 
using an 8255 programmable periph- 
eral interface integrated circuit (see 
P. F. Goldsbrough's Microcomputer 
Interfacing with the 8255 PPI Chip). 
One of the ports is split into a four-bit 



MARK 

PULSE 

IN 



END 

PULSE 

IN 



DATA PULSES IN 



f 



8 BIT 
INPUT 
PORT 



1 MSEC 
CLOCK 



16 BIT 
BINARY 
COUNTER 



2 



8 BIT 
INPUT 
PORT 



8 BIT 

INPUT 

PORT 



COUNTER 
RESET OUT 



8 BIT 
OUTPUT 
PORT 



input and four-bit output port. 

I ran into a problem in the early de- 
sign stages: the computer could store 
the interval data in a shorter time 
than the length of the data pulse. It 
therefore appeared to the computer 
as if a further input pulse was present 
when in fact it was not. To get around 
this problem, I used a "one and only 
one synchronizer" described in Don 
Lancaster's TTL Cookbook. 

The incoming data pulse is used to 
gate a 1 /us clock pulse, which is used 
to set a flip-flop. Thus, the data pulse 
is converted to a pulse that the com- 
puter can reset once the interval has 
been stored. In effect, the incoming 
pulse is held until the computer ac- 
knowledges its presence. The use of 
this circuit gives very accurate inter- 
val measures. 

The same type of circuit is used for 
the mark input pulse. The rest of the 
circuitry consists of address decod- 




Fig. 1. a} Oscilloscope tracing of action potentials 
recorded from the chorda tympani nerve in a rat. b) 
TTL output pulses produced when the action 
potentials of la are passed through a window 
discriminator. 




ADDRESS 
DECODE 



ADDRESS 
BUS 




CONTROL 
LOGIC 



DATA 

BUS 

BUFFER 



DATA 




Fig. 2. Block diagram of an interface designed to measure the intervals between neural impulses. 

Microcomputing, January 1982 73 



ers, input control logic and switch de- 
bounce logic. For this application, the 
mark and end bits are set by momen- 
tary push-buttons. As I mentioned 
before, this could easily be done by 
using pulses recorded on magnetic 
tape during the experiment. 

Software 

I originally wrote the software in 
BASIC, which was far too slow for 
the speed of the neurophysiological 
data. The software listing of Fig. 4 is 
therefore in assembly language. A 
BASIC program analyzes the interval 
data stored on disk. (I haven't includ- 
ed mine here, since the program must 
be suited to individual needs.) Be- 
sides the fact that speed is not critical 
here, it would take me years to write 
a program in assembly language to 
analyze the data. 

Analyzed data is plotted on both a 
line printer and an X-Y plotter 
through D-A converters. Statistical 
analyses are also printed on the line 
printer. 

The initial part of the program sets 
up the transfer characteristics of the 
8255. The program then asks for the 
output file name, and waits for the 



Listing 


1 continued 






• 




NflMEIT 


LXI 


H,ME'-.l 


♦SET TO MESSAGE 






SCflLL 


.PRINT 


♦GO PRINT IT 






L'.'.l 


HFNRME 


+SET TO FILE MflME STORRGE 




REfil 


SCflLL 


.SCIN 


♦GET CHARACTER 






JC 


RER1 


♦LOOP UNTIL REflDV 






MOU 


M H 


♦STORE IT 






in:: 


H 


♦BUMP IT 






cpi 


1 20 


♦ IS IT R CR 






JMZ 


PERI 


♦NOT VET 






OCX 


H 


♦VES SET BACK 






MUI 


M, X - 








I NX 


H 








MUI 


M, D 








in:: 


H 








MUI 


M, R 








in:-: 


H 








MUI 


M, T 








I NX 


H 








M','1 


M © 


♦TERMINATE WITH 88 HOT 12Q 






MUI 


R, 1 


♦CHANNEL 1 






LXI 


D. DEFALT 






LXI 


HFNRME 








SCflLL 


. OPENU 


♦OPEN CHRNNEL 




♦ 


JC 


ERR1 


TERROR TRV RGRIN 




» 


INITISLI 


5E MEMORY 


AND WRIT FOR STRRT 




+ 


IGMMHND 










CALL 


INIT 


♦SET UP MEM 






CRLL 


ZBUF 


♦SET UP BUFFER 






LXI 


H.MES4 


♦READY TO START? 






SCflLL 


.PRINT 


♦GO PROMPT 




TERM 


SCflLL 


-SCIN 


♦GET REPLV 






JC 


TERM 








CPI 


OORH 


♦IS IT R CR? 






JNZ 


TERM 


♦NO TRV RGRIN 




T 


STRRT GETTING INTERURLS 




+ 


LXI 


HON 


♦SET TO MARK COUNTER 






MUI 


M,ueiOH 


♦ZERO IT 






LXI 


H. PRE 


♦ OKAY BEG IN-SET HL TO PRESTIM STORRGE 






LXI 


D > 20000 


♦SET UP MRX STORRGE COUNTER 






LXI 


B .• 000CO 


♦SET UP DATA POINT COUNTER 




ZERO 


MUI 


ft* 1 OH 


♦SET UP RESET BIT 






OUT 


C'RTr! ' 


♦RESET OUT 






MUI 


r 1 000N 


♦ CANCEL / > 






OUT 


0RTR3 


♦ IT (Mon * 



OSI COMPATIBLE HARDWARE 

10 CA10X SERIAL PORT $125 

ACIA based RS-232 serial printer port. DIP SWITCH selectable baud rates of 300-9600. 
Handshaking (CTS) input line is provided to signal the computer when the printer buffer 
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IO-CA9 PARALLEL PORT $1 75 

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for 24K of memory The card uses 21 14-300ns chips DIP SWITCH addressing is provided 
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Expansion for C1 P 600 or 610 boards to the OSI 48 Pin Buss Uses expansion socket and 
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$ 149 95 , 

DISKETTE AND MANUAL 



• Uses CP/M or MP/M operat- 
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Apple's with softcard. North Star, 
Superbrain, Micropolis, and 
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Needs a minimum of 16K of 
RAM. Uses single density 8 
or 5 V4 diskette. 



O 



ELLIS COMPUTING 

SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY 

600 41st Avenue 

San Francisco, CA 94121 



Edition II of Nevada COBOL, 

a subset of ANSI-74, features: 

Copy statement for library handling. 
CALL. USING.. .CANCEL. 

• PERFORM. ..THRU.. .TIMES... 
UNTIL. . . Paragraph or section names. 

• IF.. .NEXT SENTENCE.. .ELSE... 
NEXT SENTENCE AND/OR 

< = >N0T. 
•GO TO.. .DEPENDING ON. 

• Unique easily understood diagnostic 
error messages. 

• Interactive ACCEPT/DISPLAY 

• RELATIVE (random) access 1ites. 

• Sequential files both fixed and 
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• ADD, SUBTRACT, MULTIPLY, 
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• Generates optimized 8080 machine 
language at up to 500 statements 
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WE WELCOME C.O.D's 



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(415) 751-1522. 

CP/M. MP/M and TRS-80 are registered TM's of Digital Research and Tandy Corporation. 



74 Microcomputing, January 1982 



user to type a carriage return to begin 
data entry. A program loop constant- 
ly examines the data input port, look- 
ing for data pulses, mark pulses or 
the stop bit. Prestimulus intervals are 
stored in one block of memory, stim- 
ulus intervals in another and poststim- 
ulus intervals in a third. The size of the 
assigned blocks are generous, and can 
be adjusted according to your needs. 

Once \he data has been entered, 
the program enters a binary-to-ASCII 
conversion routine, and the data is 
written to the output file (usually a 
disk). When the pre-, during- and 
post-blocks of memory are sequen- 
tially written to the output file, an as- 
terisk is placed in the data stream on 
the disks between the blocks of data. 
Thus, when the disk is subsequently 
read, the BASIC program can use 
these markers in data analysis. 

Because the program is written for 
the Heath disk operating system, it 
uses various system calls and begins 
above the first 8K of memory. These 
may have to be altered to run on 
other machines. 

Conclusions 

We've been using this system in the 



Listing 1 continued. 



WRIT 



MARK 



MARK 2 



COUNT 



IN 

R! ! I 
CPI 

CPI 

JZ 

CPI 

JZ 

■: p i 

TZ 

.TMP 

IN 

Ml" ' 

in:: 

IN 
MO" 
I NX 
I NX 

l::i 

MO" 

CPI 

Jt 12 

INR 

PUSH 

POP 

SHLD 

LXI 

LX2 

JMP 

PUSH 

POP 

SHLD 

LXI 

l: ■■■: i 

JMP 

IN 

MO'.' 

I NX 

I NX 

IN 

MO" 

in:: 
in:: 
DCX 

MO'.' 



DRTR3 
00FH 

yulH 

c om it 

006W 

'■'HIT 

e-ujH 
Wfl . 
003H 

MRRr. 

00 tH 

HhT 

CON'.T 

DftTRI 

M H 

H 

B 

DRTR2 

M. . R 

H 

B 

H • ON 

H,M 

000H 

MRRK2 

M 

B 

H 

PRESTIM 

B • OOOOOC 

H.STIM 

ZERO 

B 

H 

DUST I M 

B, OGOGD 

H.POST 

ZERO 

DRTR1 

M,R 

H 

B 

DRTR2 

M,R 

H 

B 

D 

R,D 



+GET DRTR PORT 

♦MASK OUT UPPER NIBBLE 

♦PULSE PRESENT GO GET INTERNAL 

+N0 PULSE VET TRV RGRIN 

♦STILL NOT RERDV 

♦MARKER RND PULSE PRESENT CHRNGE STORAGE 

♦MARKER RND END BIT SET? 

♦ 7ES FIX RND COHUERT 

♦-NON OF HBOUE MUST HAUE ENDED INPUT 



♦ SET TO MARK COUNTER 
♦BRING IT INTO R 
♦IS IT SET? 

+ VES SET TO NEXT BLOCK 
♦SET IT 
♦CORV B-C 
♦INTO H-L 
♦STORE COUNT 

♦SET H-L TO STIM STORRGE 
♦GO DO MORE 
♦COPV B-C: 

♦ INTO H-L 
*SAUE B-C COUNT 
♦ZERO B-C 

♦SET H-L TO POST STIM 
♦DO MORE 

♦ GET LSB'.'TE 
♦STORE IT 

♦SET TO NEXT LOG 

♦COUNT IT 

♦GET MSBVTE 

♦STORE IT 

♦BUMP MEM 

♦COUNT IT 

♦IS DE ZERO VET? 




Mure 




NEW PRODUCTS! 

NOW AVAILABLE FROM AUTOMATED EQUIPMENT 



TELEVIDEO SYSTEM I 

The Televideo System I is a CP/M" based single- 
user computer system State-of-the-art design and 
single board construction accounts for Televideo's 
reliability and exceptional price performance 
Cobal. Basic, PL/1 and Fortran are just a few of the 
high level languages available As your needs grow 
so can your Televideo computer system The 
System I can be a satellite computer of a larger 
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includes TS-81 computer, Televideo 910 terminal 
(950 terminal available at additional cost) and 
CP/M» 2 2 Nation wide on-site service is available 
through General Electric service company 

System I specifications: Z80A. 64K Ram. 4K diag- 
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port 




CP/M" is a licensed product supplied by Digital 
Research. Inc 

See Televideo System Ad 




NORTHSTAR ADVANTAGE 
COMPUTER 

The Northstar Advantage Computer is an integrated 
package including full graphics capability Line 
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displays are all possible as part of Northstar's 
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graphics package All Northstar applications soft- 
ware is available for the Advantage Computer Slots 
for 6 additional expansion cards are included 

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12" monitor, 240 x 640 pixel graphics resolution, 
sculptured typewriter-like keyboard, two 5" 360K 
drives 

V.I.P.'s call A.E.I. 



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Zenith Data Systems with world famous quality and 
reliability are now available from A.E.I. The Z89 and 
Z90 are standalone micro computers with a one 
piece design that simplifies installation and opera- 
tion With the board line of PeachTree accounting 
software and Micro-Pro word processing software 
the Zenith computers are the ideal small business 
systems Heathkit/Zemth educational courses are 
available making the Zenith computer an excellent 
choice for the first time buyer 

Zenith specifications: 

Z89— 48K ram standard. Z80cpu. 2 serial ports, built 
in 12" terminal, one 5" 100K drive, expandable 

Z90— 64K ram standard, Z80 cpu. 2 serial ports, 
built in 12" terminal, one 5" 200K drive, expandable 




Because A.E.I, tests before shipping, has expertise on all items offered, and is price competitive. 




V 



^96 



AUTOMATED EQUIPMENT, INC. 

18430 WARD STREET, FOUNTAIN VALLEY, CALIFORNIA 92708 
- See these products and a full line of peripheral equipment in our showroom. 



(714) 963-1414 
(800) 854,-7635 



^See List of Advertisers on page 178 



Microcomputing, January 1982 75 



CP/M 



<8> 




QUALITY BUSINESS APPLICATIONS 

LARGEST SELECTION IN U.S.A. 



• • SOFTWARE 



CIALS * • 



Select- SIS $395.00' 

Wordstar. . Micropro $299.00' 

Mailmerge . Micropro $ 99.00' 

Spellstar . Micropro $169.00' 

T/Maker II . Lifeboat $229.00* 

dBase II . AslVTate $595.00* 

FMS 80 Syst. Plus $649.00* 

Quickscreen. Fox/Geller. . $149.00' 

Basic 80 Microsoft $284.00' 

Basic Compiler. . Microsoft . $325.00' 
Microtax. Microtax Syst. . . (CALL)' 
Legal Billing Microcraft $495.00' 
Supercalc . . Sorcim $239.00' 

• HARDWARE • 

XEROX 820 $2595.00 

Televideo 910 $575.00 

Televideo 950 $955.00 

C. Itoh Starwriter 25 CPS (Par.)$ 1429.00 
C. Itoh Prowriter $559.00 

STANDARD 



'-*••** 



IDS 560G Printer $1364.00 

IDS 460 G Printer $1050.00 

Anadex DP9500&9501 $1329.00 

Microsoft Softcard $ 289.00 

Diablo 630 Printer $2295.00 

Archives Computers Less 20% 

CCS Products Less 20% 

Zenith Products Less 20% 

Corvus Products Less 20% 

HOW TO ORDER 

CALL (617) 963-7220 
PROMPT DELIVERY! 

Payment: UPS COD. Certified Check 
or Cash. 5% discount for prepaid or- 
ders. Mass. residents add 5%. Ship- 
ping A handling $5 (Supplies, Prepay 
only). Items subject to avail. Price sub 
|ect to change. Software sale conveys 
a license for use on one system. 
CP/M Reg. Trademark of Digital Re 
search. 



^143 



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LOGICAL DEVICES INC. 

781 W OAKLAND PARK BLVD • FT LAUDERDALE. FLORIDA 33311 



ADD :S J 00 SHIPPING $2 00 C O D CHARGES 



*^373 



Listing 1 continued. 








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76 Microcomputing, January 1982 



ISK DRIVES DISK DRI 

VES DISK DRIVES DIS 

HARD DISKS AND FLOPPIES FOR YOUR HEATH, RADIO SHACK, OSI, S-100 SYSTEMS 

5 1 /4 DISK DRIVES (MODEL FDD-100-5b) 

SIEMENS 5V4" drives are single sided, single or double density drives that are designed for years of 
trouble free service. These are the flippy models which other companies charge 1 5 to 30 dollars more 
for. The 5V*" is the exact same one used in the HEATH systems, but check our price! . . . $25Q.OOea 

8" FLOPPY DISK DRIVES (MODEL FDD-100-8d) 

SI EMENS 8" drives are single sided, single or double density with simple power requirements. +24 and 
+5 VDC. It has automatic diskette ejection and a fail safe interlock that prevents the doorf rom closing on 
a partially inserted diskette. The track to track time is as fast as 3ms. These drives are completely 
compatible with your MOD II, OSI, and many other systems $360.00ea 



ATTENTION HEATH H-88, 89 OWNERS 

HEATH owners, we now have the CDR controller card that allows you to use our 
8" drives on the H-88 or H-89 computers! You may mix any combination of 8" or 
5 1 /Tdrives and also change your system to soft sectored formatting! Mix any 
combo single sided, double sided, single density or double density. We even 
include the zero origin prom. As a special offer we are giving you ALL 
necessary components with this system, even the patch for C/PM! 
A complete dual 8" system for the H-88 or H-89..shipping incl... $1600.00 




WINCHESTER TECHNOLOGY HARD DISK 

5 MB hard disk systems.for your HEATH H-88, H89, Radio Shack, MOD II, S-1 00 
systems. You get a 5 1 /4" 5mb formatted hard disk, power supply, cabinet, ali 
connecting and interface cables, interface and boot loader. Most of all its all 
preassembled tested burned in and ready to run! and as an added bonus we'll 
include a real time clock with date. Call or write for details, 1 mb available soon. 
This system is designed from the ground up and built of only commercial grade 
components. Price is just $2499.00 




8" SYSTEM PACKAGES 

One or two 8" SIEMENS drives with cabinet (choice of vertical or horizontal) power supply, all power 
connections, manuals and fan. A beautifully functional package built only of the best grade components. 
Availablefully assembled and tested for $100.00 more. 

Single 8" drive in dual cabinet (data cables extra) $665.00 

Dual drive package (data cables extra) $995 

5V4" WITH CASE AND POWER 

Our 5V4" drives are also available in system packages. One 5V*" flippy in case 

with power supply tested $295.00 

2 drives in dual case $595.00 




CONNECTORS AND CABLES 

Power Connectors 8" $3.50 set 

Power Connectors 5VT 1 .50 ea 

Edge Cards 8" or 5V4" 1 0.00 ea 

Ribbon Cable 1 .50 ft 

CP-206 dual 8" supply 1 00.00 ea 

Maintenance manuals 1 3.00 ea 

Custom made data cables Call 

Spare parts for SIEMENS drives. Call with 
your requirements. 
quantity discounts available, dealer inquiries invited 



PAYMENT POLICY 

We accept Mastercard. Visa, personal checks. MO. COD 
with PRIOR PERMISSION ONLY. (CASH will be required). 
We reserve the right to wait 10 working days for personal 
checks to clear your bank before we ship. Shipping charges 
MUST be included or your order will be delayed. All charges 
are standard UPS rates plus insurance. 

NJ residents must add 5% sales tax... no exceptions. 






PRICES & SPECIFICATIONS 
SUBJECT TO CHANGE 




VISA 



• some of the 8" packages require minor assembly 



FLOPPY DISKSERVICES, INC 



• 191 



C.N.5212 

PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY 08540 



PHONE INQUIRIES WELCOME 9AM to 5PM (ET) 

609-771- 0374 



MOD II. CP/M are trademarks of Tandy and Digital Research respectively. 



A Toot&Ptusotfs 

GrOJOET 






■*\\ 



i*w 




SCELBI Publication* 



Order publication number I. 
Price in United States: just $7 



A BOOK FOR KIDS? 
Yes! For youngsters, 
eager to get their first 
glimpse at the world of 
computing. Includes a 
brief history of the 
computer. Discusses the 
manner in which a com- 
puter must be told how 
to do anything. This 
book is a real charmer. 
Lavishly illustrated for 
youngsters. The book 
for your children is 
here! Order now. 

S.B.N. 0-939280-00-0 
.95 + $1.00 s/h by mail. 



Please include remittance with order. Allow 3 - 4 weeks 
for delivery. MasterCard & VISA credit cards accepted. 
Our phone line for credit card orders is (203) 888-1946. 
Foreign price list available. Write for more information. 

] Check here for descriptive literature & catalog. 



Name : 
Addr: 

City: 

MC/VISA # 



State: Zip: 

Bank: 



Signature 



SCELBI Publications 

35 Old State Road, Oxford, CT 06483 



^ 146 



^5 



&& 



av 



.:■*- 



*%^ What 

^^ makes your 

CENTRONICS? 
737 or 739 

the better buy... 
the new ETI 



ETI's own microprocessor intelligence 

can put all the power of your 737 or 739 Printer 

at your fingertips.. 

ETI's pioneering design (patents pending) allows you to control all 
the options of this powerful printer with simple commands right 
from Basic or the body of your wordprocessing text. 

Provides maximum printing speed with mainframe-like dedicated 
peripheral control and programmability. 

Compatible with most popular wordprocessing packages and 
microcomputer hardware. 

Features: 

• access to all six fonts of the 737 printer & graphics on 739 

• true proportional spacing with justification 

• superscript, subscript, underlining 

• user definable spacing, line centering, form feed 

• UPPER/lowercase support also for UPPER-only systems 

• optional use of BASIC as a simple but flexible wordprocessor 

• no additional cables — Centronics-like edge-card connector 

ETI-A:$147 ETI -T: $147 ETI-U:$157 

(Apple" II +) (TRS-8CT Mod. 1,11,111) (all others) 

order now directly from us (check, MO, Visa, MC) 
or your local printer dealer 

(N.J residents please add 5% tax) 



master charge 



micrOdome 

CORPORATION 

Denville, New Jersey 07834 
P.O. Box 392 (201)627-8554 



^248 






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78 Microcomputing, January 1982 



laboratory for some time now, and are 
pleased with the results. 

Someone may ask why I didn't de- 
sign the interface to measure fre- 
quency directly since the neural code 
is frequency modulated. It would in 
fact have been much simpler to do 
this, and only an eight-bit binary 
counter would have been required. 
However, average frequency ob- 
scures many of the subtleties of neural 
discharge patterns that may be an im- 
portant part of the code. By measur- 
ing intervals between action poten- 
tials, all forms of data analysis be- 
come possible, including instantane- 
ous and average frequency. 

Techniques such as have been de- 
scribed here are neither new nor orig- 
inal, and have been used for some 
time by individuals with access to 
large, expensive computer systems. 
With the advent of small, relatively 
inexpensive computers, this facility 
is available to most neurophysiology 
laboratories. ■ 



Listing 1 


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+*:£i£i 




Fig. 3. Schematic diagram of the interface designed to measure the intervals between neural impulses. The interface is configured for the Heath H8 computer and 
the bus connections are therefore defined for that machine. 



Microcomputing, January 1982 79 



Ever wonder what puts the twinkle in those little stars? Well, at the Strasenburgh a microcomputer is 

responsible for those special effects. 



Planetarium Shows 
With a Difference 



By Susannah C. West 



Imagine you're sitting in a planetar- 
ium, waiting for the show to start. 
The lights dim slowly and stars ap- 
pear on the darkened dome above 
you, as clean and bright as if you 
were miles out in the country. The 
show begins. But in this show, you 
see and experience much more than 
stars. Comets streaking across the 
sky. The eerie flicker of the Aurora 
Borealis. A tiny earth as seen from 
space, revolving silently, high on the 
dome above you. A violent blinding 
flash, so sudden that it shakes you in 
your seat— a sun going nova. 

Many modern planetarium shows 
feature such spectacular special ef- 
fects, rivaling those in today's 
movies. With the help of a computer 
to automatically coordinate the pro- 
duction of these special effects, they 
can be astonishingly realistic. 

A Computer-Automated 
Planetarium 

The Strasenburgh Planetarium of 
the Rochester Museum & Science 
Center in Rochester, NY, is a leading 



example of a computerized planetari- 
um. When the Strasenburgh opened 
in 1968, a custom-designed system 
controlled by a PDP-8 computer pro- 
duced its shows' effects. Last sum- 
mer, the planetarium switched from 
the PDP-8 to a microcomputer sys- 
tem designed specifically for produc- 
ing multimedia shows— the MC-10 
Media Control System, manufac- 
tured by R. A. Gray, Inc. of San 
Diego, CA. 

The decision to switch was prompt- 
ed by the fact that the PDP-8 was ob- 
solete—parts and service were be- 
coming increasingly difficult to ob- 
tain. After 13 years, the old system 
was still working "virtually perfect- 
ly," according to planetarium direc- 
tor Don Hall, who adds that "to get 
the kind of service we've had out of it 
is just miraculous. However, it was 
obvious that we had to junk a work- 
ing system and buy something to re- 
place it, just so we would get parts 
and service and be confident that we 
were going to be able to remain in 
business." 




Photo 1. Strasenburgh Planetarium of the Rochester Museum & Science Center. (Photo by William G. 
Frank.} 

80 Microcomputing, January 1982 



The careful search for a new sys- 
tem took about a year, and others 
besides the MC-10 were considered. 
The staff found out about the MC-10 
through word of mouth— from a 
former Strasenburgh intern who had 
gone on to the Reuben H. Fleet Space 
Theater in San Diego, which uses an 
MC-10 to produce its special effects. 

"The MC-10 is essentially a micro- 
processor that is built by another San 
Diego company called Gnat,' ex- 
plains Hall. "They build the brain, 
you might say, and then R. A. Gray 
builds the various modules that allow 
it to control the devices in the plane- 
tarium theater. So if you have ten 
Carousel projectors that you want to 
control in the theater, you buy ten 
Carousel units as part of your com- 
puter system. You buy just what you 
need, and you can expand the sys- 
tem, because it is modular." 

The planetarium staff planned the 
switch-over carefully. After receiving 
the MC-10 equipment, they spent 
about four months learning about the 
system and interfacing it with the 
planetarium's devices. During this 
phase, the PDP-8 continued to pro- 
duce the special effects for shows. 

On June 21, 1981, the final installa- 
tion began, right on schedule. It took 
five days to move out the old equip- 
ment, move in the new equipment 
and plug it in. 'Except for a few ini- 
tial difficulties,' says chief techni- 
cian Carl Dziedziech, 'she's been 
quite good— hasn't given us any 
problems." 

R. A. Gray describes the MC-10 as 
a "general-purpose media controller 



Susannah C. West (224 Selye Terrace, Rochester, 
NY 14613} is a free-lance writer. 



designed especially for recording and 
playbacks of multimedia presenta- 
tions." The hardware consists of two 
disk drives, used to record and store 
performance information, two moni- 
tors, a keyboard and a variety of 
modules that can control up to 120 
devices at one time. These can in- 
clude not only equipment like lights 
and projectors, but also tape ma- 
chines, speakers, robots and puppets. 

The MC-10 incorporates three 
levels of operation. The highest level 
(maintenance) allows development 
of all features of the operating envi- 
ronment. Devices can be added or 
removed from the working environ- 
ment and named as they will be dis- 
played on the monitors. When it be- 
comes necessary, the system can also 
be tested for maintenance. 

The second level (production) 
allows editing and storage of 
'scripts" of performances. Because 
the system recognizes commands in 
English, programming is no problem, 
even for the computing novice. 

The third level (operation) is for 
playback and setup. The play mode 
recalls previous performances. The 
setup mode allows user control of de- 
vices in real-time without recording 
for review and experimentation 
without editing. 

At either of the first two levels, 
disks can be produced to allow func- 
tions at or below that level and no 
higher. Thus, disks for production 
are unable to destroy or modify the 
basic system features and controls; 
and disks for playback cannot be 
erased or edited by operators. This 
scheme provides both protection and 
security. 

Recording Shows with the MC-10 

'When we want to record a 
45-minute show,' says Hall, "we 
break it up into ten or 20 shorter se- 
quences which are each only a few 
minutes long. We go into the theater 
with the script with the cues marked 
in the margin. Two or three people 
are standing there at the console with 
their hands on the controls, and are 
actually giving the show." 

The soundtrack for the show has 
already been taped and is played. 

"One person's reading the script," 
Hall continues, "and he says the cues 
to the technicians who are operating 
the effects. And the narrator says, 
'And so the rocket takes off for Mars, ' 
and the person giving the cue says, 
'All right, fade up C3, hit the non-dim 



B-RECORD DISK TIME 37:17:03 REV: 7 NAME: SYSTEM DEMONSTRATION 

A-PLAY DISK TIME 12:48:00 END: 54:47:00 REV: 6 NAME: SYSTEM DEMONSTRATION 

TRACKS AVAILABLE: 54 BASE TIME: 15:02:12 BLOCKS ASSIGNED: 2 89 

LT1A LT2A LT3A LT4A LT5A LT1B LT2B LT3B LT4B LT5B LT1C LT2C LT3C LT4C LT5C 
17* 17* 17* 17* 0* 20* 20* 20* 0* 0* 0* 0* 80* 0* 0* 
RED RED RED RED YEL BLUE BLUE BLUE GRN GRN STEP STEP FOOT WHT WKT 

TAPE SPK1 SPK2 SPK3 SPK4 SPK5 SPK6 SPK7 SPK8 
PLAY 7 4 7 4 7654 65 65 







ASMT a 


21 21 


3_0 3__0 __ 


3210 


BLOCK INFO 
CANCEL ALL 
CANCEL CMOS 
CANCEL DISK 
CROSSFADE 
DELETE BLOCK 


DEVICE INFO 
DISSOLVE 
END 

ERASE W/E 
EXEC BLOCK 
FADE 


FIND W/E 

FLASH 

GO 

HOME TRAYS 

INIT TIMERS 

LEVEL 


NEW DISK 
NEXT TIMER 
OFFSET 
OPEN BLOCK 
PLAY ADV 
POSIT TRAY 


RAMP 

RECORD ADV 
RELAY 

REPEAT BLOCK 
SET BASE 
SET TIMER 


SWITCH 
VALUE 
WAIT 
? 



FADE, DEVICE, TIME, DURATION, INITIAL VALUE, END VALUE 



R->FA,LT1A,N,P20S,C,0 



r SP1A 
0* 
m35 




SP2A 

0* 
40 




SP3A 
0* 
42 


SP4A 
0* 
40 


SP5A 
0* 
m36 


SPOT HUE 

20* BLUE 

SIZE YEL 




ZOOM 

50 

SIZE 


VIEW 

5 

NMBR 


52 


SP1B 
20* 
31 




SP2B 
60* 
41 




SP3B 
60* 
36 


SP43 
60* 
37 


SP5B 
20* 
32 


BRT 

0* 
SHUT 


SHAP 

RND 

EVEN 




IRIS 

20* 

OPEN 


ROT 
20 


Y 
-126 


SP1C 
40* 
28 




SP2C 
40* 
45 




SP3C 
40* 
44 


SP4C 
40* 
41 


SP5C 
40* 
29 














SPID 
20* 
24 




SP2D 
0* 
40 




SP3D 
0* 

m38 


SP4D 
0* 
m36 


SP5D 
20* 
27 


SE1 

0* 

FIRE 

SE2 

0* 
OFF 


SE4 
80* 
SEA 

SE5 

0* 
OFF 


SE7 

0* 
RAIN 

SE8 

0* 

OFF 


SE10 

0* 

SNOW 

SE11 

0* 
OFF 


SE13 

0* 

LTNG 

SE14 

0* 
OFF 


SE16 
70* 
CLD 

SEW 

0* 
OFF 


PANA 
0* 
8 


PANB 
0* 
8 




BALL 

20 

MOVE 


STRB 

5 

OFF 


FILM 
STOP 
DOUS 




SE3 
26* 

OPEN 


SE6 

99* 

BLST 


SE9 

0* 

OFF 


SE12 

0* 
OFF 


SE15 

0* 

OFF 


SE18 

0* 

OFF 


JIMER 


: 06*37:16:04 


07*37 


:16:12 « 


08=00:00:00 


» 


09-00 


:00:( 


30 10*00:00:00 



Fig. 1. Typical video display. (Source: R. A. Gray, Inc.) 



What Makes 
The Stars Shine? 



Although the universe is not ac- 
tually a sphere, it is convenient to 
think of it that way. To reproduce 
the stars in a planetarium sky via 
its star projector, the celestial 
sphere is approximated with an 
icosadodecahedron, a 32-sided 
solid made up of pentagons and 
hexagons. 

Each star which falls inside one 
of these areas is reproduced as a 
tiny opening in a transparent 
photographic slide. These holes 



vary in size according to the 
brightness of the actual stars. Each 
slide is lit by a central light source, 
which passes through the holes 
and focuses on the planetarium 
dome. A planetarium projector 
also incorporates individual pro- 
jectors which reproduce the 
brightest stars in the sky, the sun, 
the moon and the five visible 
planets. 
A number of firms make plane- 

(continued on p. 82} 



Microcomputing, January 1982 81 



(continued from p. 81) 

tarium projectors which follow the 
same principle. But the Strasen- 
burgh's projector is a very special 
one. It's a Zeiss model VI— a Rolls- 
Royce among planetarium projec- 
tors. Built by the West German 
firm of Carl Zeiss, Inc., it includes 
many sophisticated components. 
The most complex of these is the 
moon projector, which reproduces 
the phases of the moon and five 
kinds of lunar eclipses. It also 
features a sun projector capable of 
showing the sun's position in the 
sky for any day of the year, and ten 
kinds of solar eclipses. 

The Star Theatre 

With a star projector like the 
Zeiss, you'd expect the Strasen- 
burgh's Star Theatre to be special 
too, and it is. It seats 240 people 
under its 65-foot diameter dome. 
The seats swivel and recline so 
you can look up at the dome with- 
out getting a stiff neck. You hear 
the narration from speakers built 
into the chairs, next to your ears, 
and music and sound effects from 
speakers set in the dome. 

Narration, music and sound ef- 
fects are sent to the theater from 
the control room, which contains 
the recorders and amplifiers. A 
projection gallery surrounding the 
theater contains about 300 projec- 
tors which are aimed at different 
parts of the planetarium sky. The 
number of projectors varies ac- 
cording to the number needed for 
the various shows running at any 
particular time. 

The planetarium features sever- 
al shows simultaneously. A 
45-minute show which explores 
such things as phenomena of the 
universe or space exploration runs 
several times a day and in the 
evening. A 20-minute minishow 
about the seasonal sky also runs in 
the evening. 

There are shows designed for 
family audiences, preschool 
shows which combine live action 
with star projections, and shows 
for school groups. In addition, 
there are special shows, like the 
3-D light show which ran during 
the summer of 1981. And the plan- 
etarium staff is always working or 
shows that will replace current 
ones when their runs are 
through. ■ 




Photo 2. Chief technician Carl Dziedziech at Plan- 
etarium console. MC-10 is in background to the 
left. (Photo by Victor A. Costanzo, Jr.) 

and fade up E4.' And those cues 
'cause' the rocket to take off for 
Mars.'' 

Sequences are rarely right the first 
time. With the old system, perfecting 
a sequence was laborious, even if on- 
ly one problem occurred, because the 
entire sequence would have to be re- 
recorded. But the MC-10, Hall ex- 
plains, "allows us to edit the show, 
once it's been put in, much more easi- 
ly. If just one thing needs to be done, 
like a light that fades down just a little 
too quickly, that part alone can be 
edited without affecting the other 
parts of the sequence that don't need 
changing." 

When a show is being recorded, 
"the computer is scanning all the 
controls on the console. If anything is 
moved, it notes its position, and the 
next time the computer scans 
around, it will compare the second 
scan with the first scan; if anything 
has moved, it makes a note of where 
it is now. When it comes to the 
playback of those instructions, we 
tell the computer, 'Now play back 
the show.' The computer grabs hold 
of the controls and will actually 
operate them." 

To develop programs more conve- 
niently, and to have a backup system, 
two computers were purchased. One 
computer "sits in the control room 
and gives the show,' says Hall. The 
other "allows a person to sit in his of- 
fice, use the typewriter keyboard at- 
tached to it and the two monitors, 
and program the show, just watching 
numbers appear and change on the 
screen, take the program on the flop- 
py disk, put it in the computer in the 
theater, and adjust it there. So record- 
ing can be done off-line." 



Planetarium Console 

The planetarium console is located 
at the back or side of any planetarium 
theater. It is here that the operator 
sits to deliver a show, manipulating 
knobs and buttons to project image? 
on the dome and operating the stai 
projector so that the appropriate stan 
will appear. If it's a live rather than re- 
corded show, he delivers the lecture. 

The Strasenburgh's console was 
originally built for use with the 
PDP-8, but when the decision was 
made to switch to the MC-10, the 
console was almost completely rede- 
signed by a time-motion studies ex- 
pert. Its appearance is quite similar, 
but there are also differences. For in- 
stance, many of the special effects 
control knobs were replaced with 
slider controls. 

The MC-10 is also part of the con- 
sole. The video displays show the op- 
erator what's going on with the spe- 
cial effects: which projectors are on 
at any given moment and what their 
brightness is. By watching the moni- 
tors, the operator can easily tell, for 
example, if a projector bulb is burnt 
out or if an effect is out of sequence. 
School shows are usually run manu- 
ally with a live lecturer, and so the 
console was designed to allow opera- 
tion without the MC-10. 

Results 

Audiences can't really detect the 
difference between a show produced 
by the old system and one produced 
by the MC-10. However, there are 
differences— and all to the good. 
Formerly, it took five people two full 
days to record a show. In contrast, 
the first shows produced using the 
MC-10 were recorded by four people 
in about five hours. As the staff be- 
comes more accustomed to the sys- 
tem, they will be able to record 
shows in even less time. 

In addition, more complicated ef- 
fects can be achieved with the 
MC-10. It gives a greater degree of 
control, so that technicians can do 
precisely what they want with the ef- 
fects. The current show, which 
opened in mid-October 1981, 
features effects that would have been 
impossible or very difficult to pro- 
duce using the old system. 

Future for the MC-10 

Although the planetarium staff is 
pleased with the MC-10's perfor- 
mance, there's still a lot of work to be 
done. Right now, only the special ef- 



82 Microcomputing, January 1982 



Are you looking for . 



or 

mi 



When you subscribe to a magazine, you want to get REAL 
SOLID INFORMATION, not just a giant catalog of ads 
every month . . . and mostly the same ads, if you've noticed. 
Kilobaud Microcomputing has the meat: feature articles 

written by the most knowledge- 
able people in the field, yet writ- 
ten for the relative newcomer to 
computing. Kilobaud Microcomputing 
has more articles than any other maga- 
zine in the field ... by a wide margin 
. . . regardless of fatness. In 1980 Kilo- 
baud Microcomputing published 409 
articles. . and that included a wealth 
of programs which you could use. 

Compare that with 133 paltry arti- 
cles in Brand B, the "Fat Albert" 
of the computer field. You can 
get far more from your computer 
^ if you can really understand it, 
which is where the simple articles 
in Kilobaud Microcomputing 
come in. You don't need a science 
degree to get through it like some 
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practical reviews of both hardware 
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computing can save you a bundle 
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wealth of programs give you things you 
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. .* 



articles on programs help you learn how to write and modify 
programs that you have to do yourself. 

When you subscribe to a magazine, you want to pay for 
the information, not a bunch of ads. The advertisers are 
already paying for them so why should you? Kilobaud 
Microcomputing has been running around 40 % advertising 
while Brand B has been running 60-70 % , making fat issues, 
but with little real information for you. 

You want to learn about computers as fast as you can. The 
editors of Kilobaud Microcomputing are 
under orders (pain of death or 
worse) to keep the material as sim- 
ple as possible so new comers will 
be able to learn about computers 
as quickly as possible. Kilobaud 
Microcomputing covers all types 
of microcomputers, including (to 
some extent) the TRS-80 though 
this is covered overwhelmingly in 
80 Microcomputing, a sister pub- y 
lication. 

At $2.95 a copy, Kilobaud 
Microcomputing is the best infor- 
mation buy you'll find. At $25 a 
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microcomputing you can buy . . . 
2,960 pages in 1980! 




□ So, please bill me $25 for one year's subscription 

to Kilobaud Microcomputing. 



Canadian $27/1 year only, US funds. 
Foreign $35/1 year only, US funds. 
Please allow 4-6 weeks for delivery. 



name 
street 
city _ 



state. 



zip. 



Kilobaud Microcomputing • Box 997 • Farmingdale NY 11737 
is a division of 



^ 



n — rr 

H. R Peterborough NH 03458 



321 B7 



Microcomputing, January 1982 83 




Photo 3. Close-up of MC-W. (Photo by Victor A. Costanzo, Jr.) 



Photo 4. Planetarium's Star Theatre with Zeiss Star Projector in center. 
(Photo by William G. Frank.} 



fects are controlled by the system. 
However, work has begun on inter- 
facing it with the planetarium's star 
projector to control its operation. 

'It will be a one-on-one situation 
where we'll be changing over func- 
tions one at a time, interfacing on a 
piecemeal basis, testing as we go 
along,' says Dziedziech, adding that 
not all the system gets automat- 
ed—only those functions that are 
used 80-90 percent of the time will 
be computerized.' The projector will 



be automated by the spring of 1982. 
Through this combination of 
technology and theater, the Strasen- 
burgh Planetarium will strive to pro- 
duce high-quality shows that will 
both teach and entertain. ■ 



References 

The MC-10 Media Control System 
was developed by R. A. Gray, Inc., 
9181 Chesapeake Drive, San Diego, 
CA 92123. 714-560-4162. 



The internal computer was manufac- 
tured by Gnat Computers, Inc., 
Building 6, 7895 Convoy Court, San 
Diego, CA 92111. 714-560-0433. 



For more information about the 
Strasenburgh Planetarium, contact: 
Donald S. Hall, Director, Strasen- 
burgh Planetarium, Rochester 
Museum & Science Center, 657 East 
Ave., PO Box 1480, Rochester, NY 
14063. 716-271-4320. 



the ultimate computer accessory 

Your own MICROCOMPUTER CHIP! 
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84 Microcomputing, January 1982 




Begin your search in the 
index of Computer Shop- 
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Locate the category and 
page number of items 
that interest you from 
TRS-80 and Apple to soft- 
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Start or add to your com- 
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You've got your computer 
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As you outgrow your 
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Computer Shopper is THE nationwide magazine for buy- 
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Microcomputing, January 1982 85 



Immune to the effects of poisonous substances, the Apple microcomputer is a perfect lab assistant to 

measure toxic health hazards. 



The Toxic Apple 

By Paul E. Gurba, Rolf A. Deininger and Carl F. Berger, Jr. 







REM AMINCO DATA LOGGING PROGRAM 


10 


GOTO 110 


20 NS = 


30 


FOR I = 1 TO 300 


40 NS = NS + 1 


50 X = PEEK ( - 16384): IF X > 127 THEN 360 


60 


POKE AP1,CH:R(I) = PEEK (A) 


70 


PRINT R(I) * .0483 


80 


FOR D = 1 TO DL: NEXT D 


90 


NEXT I 


100 


GOTO 360 


110 


HOME : PRINT " THIS PROGRAM STORES" 


120 


PRINT " DATA TAKEN FROM THE AMINCO" 


130 


PRINT " SPECTROPHOTOMETER" 


140 


FOR I = 1 TO 1500: NEXT I 


150 


HOME :A = - 14592 :AP1 = A + 1 :D$ = CHR$ (4):CH = 2 


160 


DIM R(300) 


170 


PRINT "WHAT IS THE SAMPLE NAME": INPUT SN$ 


180 


PRINT "ENTER DATE": INPUT DT$ 


190 


PRINT "NAME OF OPERATOR": INPUT NO$ 


200 


PRINT "WHAT TIME BASE ARE YOU USING": INPUT T 


210 


IF T > =5 AND T < = 50 THEN GOTO 230 


220 


PRINT "THE TIME BASE SHOULD BE BETWEEN 5 AND 50": GOTO 200 


230 


IF T = 5 THEN DL = T * 21.7 


240 


IF T = 50 THEN DL = T * 120 


250 


IF T = 20 THEN DL = T * 28.6 


260 


IF T - 10 THEN DL = T * 24.7 


270 


PRINT "ABSORBTION SCALE"; 


280 


INPUT AB 


290 


PRINT "DO YOU WANT TO SAVE THE DATA": INPUT SV$ 


300 


FAC = .0483 


310 


PRINT "TO START OR STOP TAKING DATA, PRESS ANY KEY" 


320 


X = PEEK ( - 16384) 


330 


IF X < 127 THEN 320 


340 


POKE - 16368,0 


350 


GOTO 20 


360 


PRINT NS;" DATA POINTS TAKEN." 


370 


IF SV$ = "Y" THEN 390 


380 


GOTO 460 


390 


PRINT D$;"OPEN";SN$ + "." + DT$ 


400 


PRINT D$; "WRITE" ;SN$ + "." + DT$ 


410 


PRINT SN$: PRINT DT$ : PRINT NO$ : PRINT T: PRINT AB: PRINT NS 


420 


FOR I = 1 TO NS 


430 


PRINT R(I) 


440 


NEXT I 


450 


PRINT D$; "CLOSE" ;SN$ + "." + DT$ 


460 


END 




Listing 1. Program used to collect and save data generated by the Aminco analyzer. 


86 Microcomputing, January 1982 



Toxicology is the science which 
deals with the effects of toxic 
substances (such as pesticides) on liv- 
ing organisms. 

To determine the potential and ac- 
tual health hazard, scientists often 
measure enzymatic reactions. Many 
of the pesticides are commonly evalu- 
ated for their ability to inhibit acetyl- 
cholinesterase (an enzyme), which is 
important in nervous system func- 
tions. The enzyme activity is moni- 
tored by the light absorption of a col- 
ored complex of DTNB (dithionitro- 
benzoic acid) and thiocholine, which 
is released during the course of the 
reaction. The change in light absorp- 
tion is monitored continuously with 
time at 412 nm (nanometers), and the 
result is recorded on an x-y recorder. 

The enzyme activity is then com- 
puted using the slope of the tracing 
along with other parameters such as 
cuvette volume, amount of protein 
and molar extinction coefficient. Ma- 
terials which are inhibitory to acetyl- 
cholinesterase will show a lower ac- 
tivity than a control compound. 

Although the computation of such 
enzyme activities is not difficult, the 
task can be time-consuming when a 
large number of compounds need to 
be screened. Additionally, the tracing 
obtained is not always linear, so there 
is a need for some way of obtaining a 
slope by methods less biased than 
eyeballing it. Once the raw data is 
collected, statistics and report gener- 



Address correspondence to Paul E. Gurba, Rolf A. 
Deininger, and Carl F. Berger, Jr., Department of 
Environmental and Industrial Health, School of 
Public Health, The University of Michigan, Ann 
Arbor, Michigan 48109. 




Photo 1. Aminco recording spectrophotometer with Apple II. 



ation are often necessary. We de- 
cided therefore to explore the use of 
an Apple microcomputer for data log- 
ging and analysis. 

The System 

Photo 1 shows the instrument used 
in our studies: a recording spectro- 
photometer marketed by the Ameri- 
can Instrument Company under the 
name Aminco. It consists of a photo- 
multiplier, dual monochrometers 
and an x-y recorder. The signals to 
the recorder are available at an out- 
put port. A small operational ampli- 
fier system (shown with an Interac- 
tive Structures A/D converter in 
Photo 2) scales the output voltage of 
the Aminco by a factor of about 80. 
The circuit consists of an LM308 op- 
erational amplifier with an input re- 
sistance of 13k ohms and a 1 Megohm 
feedback resistor to produce the 
desired amplification. A .01 
microfarad capacitor is used for noise 
and internal compensation. The sam- 
ple is then processed by an eight-bit 
A/D converter. 

Listing 1 shows the program used 
to collect the data from the instru- 
ment. Statements 110 through 340 ac- 
quire information on the sample, op- 
erator and analysis. Statements 230 
through 260 set the delay times for 
various speeds of analysis. Statement 
150 sets the proper slot addresses of 
the A/D converter, channel number 
and amplification factor. In response 
to pressing a key, the actual sampling 
loop begins at statement 20 and ends 
at statement 100. Up to 300 samples 
(which is much more than enough) 
can be taken. Statements 360 through 
460 record all data and the other in- 
formation on the disk. 

Listing 2 shows the program used 



REM AMINCO DATA ANALYZER 
10 0NERR GOTO 80 
20 DIM R(400) 

30 INPUT "WHAT DATA FILE DO YOU WANT? ";FI$ 
40 D$ = CHR$ (4) 

50 PRINT D$;"0PEN";FI$: PRINT D$;"READ";FI$ 
60 INPUT SN$: INPUT DT$: INPUT N0$: INPUT T: 
70 FOR I » 1 TO NS: INPUT R(I): NEXT I 
80 PRINT D$ ;" CLOSE" ;FI$ 

90 CALL - 936: HGR : HC0L0R- 3: SCALE- 3: ROT- 
100 HPLOT 0,0 TO 279,0 TO 279,159 TO 0,159 TO 0,0 
110 XINC - 279 / NS:YINC = 159 / 255 
120 FOR I * 1 TO NS 

130 X - XINC * I:Y » 159 - YINC * R(I) 
140 HPLOT X,Y: NEXT I 
150 GET T$ 

160 VTAB 21: PRINT "ADJUST PADDLE FOR LOW DATA POINT, 
170 GOSUB 440 

180 IB - INT (X / 255 * NS) 

190 VTAB 21: PRINT "ADJUST PADDLE FOR HIGH DATA VALUE, 
GOSUB 480 

NS) 



INPUT AB: INPUT NS 



PRESS A KEY" 



PRESS ANY KEY" 



200 

210 

220 

230 

240 AD 

250 SX 

260 

270 

280 

290 N 

300 SX 



0:XY - 0:X2 - 0:N 



";X,"Y- ";R(I) * AD 



IE - INT (X / 255 

TEXT 

REM SLOPE 
.0445 
0:SY 

FOR I - IB TO IE 
X « I / 20 

PRINT "X« 
N + 1 

» SX + X:SY = SY + R(I) * AD 
310 XY « XY + X * R(I) * AD:X2 - X2 + X * X 
320 NEXT I 

330 SL - (SX * SY - N * XY) / (SX * SX - N * X2) 
340 AS - AB * SL 

350 PRINT "THE SLOPE IS ";SL: PRINT "YOU USED ";N;" DATA POINTS" 
360 PRINT "INPUT MILLILITERS VOLUME": INPUT MV 
370 PRINT "INPUT THE MOLAR EXTINCTION COEFICIENT": INPUT E 
380 PRINT "INPUT MILLIGRAMS PROTEIN": INPUT P 
390 MO - (AB / 10) * (1 / E) * (MV / 1000) 
400 TI - T * (1 / 60) 
410 SP - SL * (MO / TI / P) 

PRINT "THE SPECIFIC ACTIVITY IS ";SP 

END 

REM LINES 1010-1030 DEFINE CURSOR 

FOR I - TO 11: READ BYTE: POKE 768 + I, BYTE: NEXT I 

DATA 1,0,4,0,63,9,9,63,18,36,36,0 

POKE 232,0: POKE 233,3 
X - PDL (0) * 1.0941:Y - PDL (1) * .6235 

XDRAW 1 AT X,Y 

FOR D - 1 TO 60: NEXT D 

XDRAW 1 AT X,Y 
520 U - PEEK ( - 16384): POKE - 16368,0 
530 IF U < 127 THEN 560 

HPLOT X,0 TO X,159 

RETURN 

GOTO 480 



420 
430 
440 
450 
460 
470 
480 
490 
500 
510 



540 
550 
560 



Listing 2. Program used to analyze the data. 



Microcomputing, January 1982 87 



■"" CHEAP CHIPS ARE NO BARGAIN 

I BUYING ADD-ON MEMORY? 
I GET THE BEST!!! 

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We offer 4116 chips by Fujitsu, NEC, Hitachi, Toshiba 
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We'll beat any legitimate price for comparable chips Hi- 
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132 




Photo 2. Amplifier board with AID converter. 



for analyzing the data. Statements 30 
through 80 read the data from the 
specified file. Statements 90 through 
140 plot the data on the Apple high- 
resolution screen. Using the paddles, 
the operator defines with a flashing 
cursor on the screen the range of data 
to be selected. Statements 450 
through 470 define the cursor shape, 
and statements 480 through 550 draw 
the cursor on the screen and then 
delineate the range of the data 
selected. Statements 230 through 330 
calculate the slope of a least squares 
line through the data. Statements 360 
through 380 ask for further pertinent 



information, and lines 390-410 final- 
ly calculate the desired result of 
specific activity. 

Conclusion 

Use of the Apple for measurement 
of enzyme activity saves us time in 
the laboratory. Besides collecting the 
raw data, we can easily do data re- 
duction, statistics, and report genera- 
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Apple. Furthermore, we can transfer 
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analyses by attaching our modem to 
the Apple. ■ 



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88 Microcomputing, January 1982 




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Microcomputing, January 1982 89 




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(from page 59) 



There are two fundamental prob- 
lems with the study of these criteria 
in that article. First of all, much of the 
information is just plain false, and 
secondly, the most significant use of 
microcomputers in a large (or small) 
business application is not even 
considered. 

Let's take a look at what I consider 
to be some of the misinformation. 
One expert points out that the typical 
16-bit micro offers substantially less 
arithmetic precision that a 32- or 
48-bit mini or supermini. "The run- 
of-the-mill 16-bit micro might offer 
seven digits of accuracy, which 
would be fine for payroll, but 
wouldn't do in the stress analysis of 
an aircraft element/ he says. "The 
48-bit Harris 800 supermini (which 
sells in full-system configuration for 
about $400,000) offers 20 decimal 
digits of precision, which can be a big 
help to an engineer." 

Well, IBM's new Personal Comput- 
er offers 17-digit precision at a cost of 
under $3000. That's quite a price dif- 
ference for three decimal places. 
(Also the Atari 800 and the TRS-80 in 
double-precision mode offer 16-digit 
precision.) 

"Typically, the user can address 
256 bytes of memory in the typical 
16-bit micro .... This limits the size 
of the programs that can be used and 
the amount of data the program can 
compute on at any one time." 

In a strictly technical sense that's 
absolutely true. Minis can directly 
address millions of bytes of memory. 
But with a good disk operating sys- 
tem (especially using hard disks) and 
good I/O programming, a micro can 
handle the same applications and the 
same amount of data with some time 
difference and with a huge cost 

difference. 

A mini manufacturer is quoted as 

saying, "One of the biggest dif- 
ferences between a micro and a mini 
is that today's micros have very 
limited capabilities .... Minis, on the 
other hand, are inherently more flexi- 
ble and generally expandable in 
terms of software migration to bigger 
systems." Another key factor, he 
says, is that minis have a friendly 
operating system and the user can 
readily run multiple applications. 

Granted, no single micro has the 
capabilities of a good mini— but in 
many applications a system of micros 



can offer the same capabilities as a 
mini at a significant cost difference. 
Such micro systems can be just as 
flexible and expandable as a mini. 
And micros, just as minis, have 
friendly operating systems and can 
run multiple applications (see, for ex- 
ample, "Multiprocessor or Multi- 
task" by Ken Barbier in the June 1981 

Microcomputing, p. 34). 

Another mini user quoted in Sea- 
man's article says, "If I wanted to 
build a flight simulator for a Boeing 
747, there is no micro or micro soft- 
ware that can handle the algorithms 
involved." 

True. If I had to build a Boeing 747 
flight simulator I too would want to 
use a mini (though, in fact, a system 
of micros could do a very respectable 
job), but how many businesses need a 
computer system with the capability 
to build a flight simulator for a Boeing 
747? Also, you can buy, off the shelf, 

A system of micros 

can offer the same 

capabilities as a mini 

at a significant cost difference. 



flight simulators for smaller aircraft 
that run on small micros. 

"General Automation' s (Anaheim, 
CA) Nocode software system permits 
development of applications soft- 
ware in a much shorter time and with 
a smaller staff. Nocode runs on GA's 
Instacode computer system.... 
Nocode will not run on micro- 
computers." 

Nocode sounds like a fine system 
that does the same job as software 
like Pearl II and The Last One, which 
run on a variety of microcomputers. 
By the way, the Nocode system sells 
for $40,000 to $150,000— that's two 
to three decimal places of difference 
from the cost of the micro software. 

This is only an indication of the 
misinformation that the computer 
customer has to sift through. 
Whether it results from ignorance of 
what micros can do, or from a desire 
to sell more costly products for 
higher commissions, is an open ques- 
tion. Let the buyer beware. The sec- 
ond problem with Seaman's article is 
one of omission. There is no discus- 
sion of the use of microcomputers in 
a networked environment with ei- 
ther a mini or larger micro as a sys- 
tem host. 



A network of microcomputers, 
which may or may not include a 
mini, can be the ideal solution for 
many applications. It is an alternative 
that renders most of the mini-vs- 
micro arguments moot. If network- 
ing is brought into the discussion, 
there is virtually no difference be- 
tween mini systems and systems of 
micros except, possibly, price. The 
cost of a micro network in which the 
micros can also serve as terminal 
work stations for a mini would ac- 
tually be more costly than a conven- 
tional mini/terminal system, but the 
differences in computing power, 
number of possible work stations and 
productivity could well be worth the 
difference for very large applications. 
(For more information on networking 
see Brandt and Bodner's article on 
distributed intelligence networking 
and the Oct. 1981 issue of BYTE.) But 
for most applications networking will 
present a significantly less costly 
alternative. 

Networking also offers a different 
perspective on the questions of ser- 
vice and down time. The good mini 
manufacturers by and large have ex- 
cellent service organizations. Many 
micro manufacturers are working to 
catch up. But use of a network greatly 
diminishes the significance of the ser- 
vice and down-time issues. Put quite 
simply, if one computer in a network 
is down the entire system is not 
brought to a grinding halt. The others 
can, in the worst case, still be used as 
stand-alone systems. Some power 
may be lost while service or replace- 
ment is carried out, but some produc- 
tion can continue. This makes a net- 
work a truly attractive alternative to 
either a mini or a micro single-com- 
puter system that is completely down 
when the one processor is down. 

Minicomputers are excellent ma- 
chines and indispensable for many 
jobs— it would be foolhardy to argue 
otherwise. But there are a significant 
number of applications where micros 
and networking are the answer. 
Micros will not completely replace 
minis, just as minis have not com- 
pletely replaced mainframes. The 
propagation of misinformation about 
what different systems can and can't 
do has to be harmful to the entire 
computer industry in the long run 
(and it isn't helping faculties to con- 
vince their administrations of the 
need for a variety of equipment to 
best prepare their students for work 
in that industry. ■ 

Microcomputing, January 1982 93 




" It's becoming very clear now. . . 

Your microcomputing life is going to be very 

exciting. . .Money! I see much 

ub||\ money for you. Perhaps it is the 

money you will gain when 
Instant Software's new 
business applications 
guide your financial 
endeavors. I see 
travel . . . you will 
journey to distant 
worlds in distant 
times. You will build 
kingdoms from des- 
erts and armies 
from slaves. Never 
will you be bored, 
adventurous one! Your 
programming burdens will 
lighten with new utilities— new 
tools. I see color! Many 
bright colors! I see new 
packaging for all these trea- 
sures. . .everything new! 
And... yes, a tall, hand- 
some stranger who will 
guide you to these won- 
ders. It will be your In- 
stant Software dealer— 
a wise one indeed. All 
awaits you — all is 
yours for the asking. 
Soon. . .very soon!" 



THIS MANY DEALERS CANT BE WRONG 



THE COMPUTER SHOP Gadsden 
OLENSKY BROS 



COMPUTER TALK Ancnorege 



CERF Phoanti 
COMPUTER STORE. Phoenu 
MESA ELECTRONICS. Mm 
MILLETS ELECTRONICS. Mesa 
PERSONAL COMPUTER PLACE. Mas* 
SIMUTEK Tucson 
TOT SOX. Swi Vista 



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AMCO ELECTRONIC SUPPLY. Aiusa 

ASAP COMPUTERS Signal Hill 

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COMPUTER STORE San Leendro 

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HUNTINGTON COMPUTING. Corcorsn 

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MALIBU MICROCOMPUTING Melrbu 

MARFAM CO . San Joss 

MICROCOMPUTING. Corcoran 

NET PROFIT COMPUTERS. Torranca 

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OPPORTUNITIES FOR LEARNING Chatsworth 

PC COMPUTERS. El Carnto 

I COMPUTERS INC . Lawndale 

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RADIO SHACK. El Ceion 

RADIO SHACK. Palm Springs 

RADIO SHACK. San Diago 

RAV SOUND (R/S DEALER). Fortuna 

SALINAS HOBBY CENTER Salinas 

SHAVER RADIO. San Joss 

SILVER SPUR ELECTRONICS. Ch.no 

SOFTWARE PLUS. El Toro 

STACEY S BOOKSTORE. San Francisco 

STRAWFLOWER ELECTRONICS I R/S DEALER) 

Halt Moon Bay 

THE COMPUTER STORE. Santa Monica 

THE FEDERATED GROUP. Commarca 

THE SOFTWARE STORE. Huntington Beech 

THE SOFTWARE STORE. Los Angalas 

WABASH APPLE El Toro 

WENNER BUSINESS SYSTEMS. Los Altos 

COLORADO 

APPARAT Oanvsr 

FISTEL S MICRO ELECTRONICS. Denver 

POOR RICHARDS CALCULATORS. Fort Collins 

CONNECTICUT 

BYTE ME COMPUTER SHOP New London 

COMPUTER LAB. Na* London 

INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEMS COMPUTERS. 

Manchester 

TECHNOLOGY SYSTEMS Bathal 

THE COMPUTER STORE Slamlord 

DELAWARE 

MICRO PROOUCTS Wilmington 

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 

THE PROGRAM STORE Washington D C 

FLOMOA 

ALL SYSTEMS GO. Wintar Gardan 

AMF MICROCOMPUTER CENTER. Tampa 

COMPUTER CENTER. Wast Palm 

COMPUTER HAVEN Melbourne 

COMPUTER JUNCTION. Fort Laudardaia 

COMPUTER SYSTEM RESOURCES. Gainasvills 

COMPUTER WORLD Clearwater 

COMPUTERLAND. Jecksonvills 

COMPUTERLAND Saraaola 

COMPUTERLAND Tsmpa 

COMPUTERLAND Wsst Palm Baacn 

CREATIVE COMPUTING. Orlando 

DATA UNLIMITED. Matbourna 

HAH HOBBY SALES. Sarasots 

HEATHKIT ELECTRONIC CENTER. Hialaah 

HIS COMPUTERMATION Malbourna 

KOBY S KORNER. Pansacoia 

MICROCOMP LTD . Miami 

MICROCOMPUTER SYSTEMS INC Tsmpa 

MINI CONCEPTS Holly Hill 

MICRO DATA BASE. Lakeland 

RAYS AMATEUR RADIO. Claarwatar 

RICK S TV Ocaia 

SOUND IDEAS GainaavilM 

SOUTH EAST MICRO DATA. Onsndo 



ATLANTA COMPUTER MART Ailanis 

BAILEY S COMPUTER SHOP Augusts 

DELTA DATA DYNAMICS Tuchar 

ENERGY LOGIC Columbus 

FLEMING DRUG CO Wrens 

HAWAII 

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MILLS ELECTRONICS Lahaina 

RADIO SHACK ASSOC STORE Honolulu 

MM 

COX A NELSON. Moaco* 

DENNIS STONE ENTERPRISES Fruitland 

ELECTRONIC SPECIALTIES. Boise 

IDAHO MICROCOMPUTER. Buhl 

RAL DATA SYSTEMS Idaho Falls 

ILLINOIS 

ALPINE COMPUTER CENTER. RocMorO 

CHICAGO MAIN NEWSTANO. Evsnston 

COMPREHENSIVE MICRO SYSTEMS Chicago 

COMPUTER JUNCTION. Elmhurst 

COMPUTER STORE. Rocktord 

COMPUTERLAND. Nilas 

CREATIVE PROGRAMMING. Charleston 

GARCIA A ASSOCIATES. Chicago 

ILLINOIS CUSTOM COMPUTERS. Hamsburg 

JNL COMPUTER SYSTEMS. Downers Grove 

MIDWEST MICRO COMPUTERS Lombard 

THE PILOT HOUSE. Gladstone 

WALLACE COMPUTERS Paoria 

ABC HOBBY. Evansville 

DAD ELECTRONICS Angola 

DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY Lafayette 

FALL CREEEK ELECTRONICS. Pendleton 

GAME HUT. Bloomington 

GAME PRESERVE. Indianapolis 

PROFESSIONAL MICROCOMPUTER 

SOFTWARE. Muncie 

SIMONTON LAKE DRUGS. Elkhart 

THE BOARDROOM. Indianapolis 

THE HAM SHACK. Evsnsville 

IOWA 

BEACON ELECTRONICS Ames 

LENWOOO SYSTEMS Center Point 

MEMORY BANK INC . Battandorl 

SERNETT LEISURE CENTER. Carroll 



MINNESOTA SOFTWARE White Bear Lake 
RURAL AMERICA ENTERPRISES. Marshsll 
ZIM COMPUTERS Brooklyn Center 



AMATEUR RADIO EQUIPMENT Wichita 

CENTRAL KANSAS COMPUTERS Herington 

COMMUNICATIONS CENTER Lincoln 

GOSUB INTL. Wichita 

HATCH COMPUTER CENTER. Alliance 

HIGH TECHNOLOGY Wichita 

KENTUCKY 

CBM. INC . Laiington 

COMPUTER MAGIC. Louisville 

PERRY S COMPUTER Bremen 

LOUISIANA 

ACME BOOK CO . Baton Rouge 

COMPUTER SERVICES OF SHREVEPORT 

Shrevaport 

COMPUTER SHOPPE Metairte 



FRYEBURG COMPUTER CENTER. Fryeburg 

MAINE COMPUTRONICS. Bangor 

MAINE MICRO SYSTEMS INC . Auburn 

MIDMAINE COMPUTER COMPANY Auburn 

MARYLAND 

COMM CENTER Laursl 

PROGRAM STORE. Baltimore 

SOFTWARE ETC Frederick 

WILLS COMPUTER STORE Mario* Heights 

MASSACHUSETTS 

LAND OF ELECTRONICS. Lynn 

MARK GORDON COMPUTERS Cambridge 

MIDDLEBORO MUSIC (R/S DEALER) 

Mtddiaboro 

MICROCON Watartown 

OMNITEK SYSTEMS. Tewksbury 

SOUND COMPANY Sp-.ngtield 

STAR COMPUTING. Framingham 

THE GAME SHOP East Acton 

MICHIGAN 

ALL FOR LEARNING. W Bloomlield 

ALTERNATE SOURCE Lansing 

A M ELECTRONICS. Ann Arbor 

COMIC KINGDOM. Detroit 

COMPUTER CENTER. Gardan City 

COMPUTER CONNECTION Farmmgton Hills 

COMPUTER MART Clawson 

COMPUTER MART Flint 

COMPUTERLAND Kantwood 

COMPUTERLAND Southltetd 

COMPUTRONICS. Midland 

EIGHT BIT CORNER. Muskegon 

FERRIS RADIO Haral Park 

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HOBBY HOUSE Battle Creak 

LEARNING CENTER LTD Ann Arbor 

MAIN SYSTEMS. INC . Flint 

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NEWMAN COMMUNICATIONS Grand Rapids 

NEWMAN COMPUTER EXCHANGE Ann Arbor 

TRI COUNTY ELECTRONICS A SOUNO 

CENTER. Fenton 

WEATHERWAX DRUGS Brooklyn 

WIZARD'S ARSENAL. East Lansing 

YE OLDE TEACHERS SHOPPE Ypsilanli 

MINNESOTA 

CODE ROOM. Edan Prairie 

LANTOS COMPUTER CORP Minneapolis 



C-COM Jackson 

OYER S INC . Wast Point 

SOFTWARE HOUSE Jackson 

MISSOURI 

CENTURY NEXT COMPUTERS Columbia 

COMPUTER CENTER. Joplin 

COMPU TRS Florissant 

CRC COMPUTERS. Joplin 

D S. Cameron 

HOUSE OF COMPUTERS. Joplin 

MOORE SOFTWARE. Parkville 

SOFTWARE SHACK Helton 

MONTANA 

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THE COMPUTER PLACE Kalispetl 

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RADIOS UNLIMITED. Somerset 

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NEW MEXICO 

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STEVENS RADIO SHACK DEALER. PhoennvtWe 

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COLONIAL ENTERPRISES (R/S DEALER). 

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AUDIO WORKS. Lufkin 

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Microcomputing, January 1982 95 



Radio Shack 's gamble on the 6809 over the Z-80 pays off in a 
full-featured Color Computer at a low price. 



Changing Chips 

In Midstream 



By Michael A. Wolf 



If you're like me, a dyed-in-the- 
wool 68XX user, you've been 
wishing a big company would select a 
68XX microprocessor for a low-cost, 
serious home computer. You've been 
gritting your teeth every time some- 
one announces a new 6502 or Z-80- 
based product. 

Well, Radio Shack has done it— 
their TRS-80 Color Computer has a 
6809 microprocessor. Not only that, 
but look at these features: color graph- 



ics, RS-232, joystick and cassette in- 
terface, sound, 4K bytes of program- 
mable random-access memory (RAM) 
expandable to 16K and an 8K byte 
read-only memory (ROM) BASIC. All 
for $399. I bought it on the spot and 
took it home. 

The Color Computer comes in a 
13% by 14 3 A by 3V2 inch package 
weighing about five pounds. It has a 
53-key keyboard, and displays 16 
lines of 32 characters on a standard 




TV set. A slot in the right side accepts 
a plug-in ROM pack for prepackaged 
programs. If they don't suit you, you 
can write your own, using the excel- 
lent Microsoft BASIC provided. 

Also included are a user's manual, 
a learner's guide to Color BASIC (as 
good or bad as the TRS-80 Level I 
book) and a quick reference card list- 
ing all the commands in the BASIC. 

I hooked it up to a TV, using the 
supplied cable and antenna switch, 
and started running some sample 
programs. My first impressions were 
favorable. The keyboard takes some 
getting used to— it feels different 
from a regular keyboard— but it isn't 
bad. My old TV took some adjusting 
to get a good display, but when prop- 
erly set up, it was quite satisfactory, 
giving vivid colors and nice black-on- 
green characters. The standard graph- 
ics are coarse at low resolution (64 by 
32 pixels), but finer resolution (up to 
256 by 192 pixels) is possible with 
16K machines and Extended BASIC. 

The Package 

About this time, curiosity got the 
better of me and I opened the case to 
see how they could sell so much for 
so little. What I found is an example 
of how large-scale integrated (LSI) 



Address correspondence to Michael A. Wolf, 
Atomic City Electronics, Arizona Ave., Los 
Alamos, NM 87544. 



Color Computer screen displays using Extended Color BASIC. (Photos by Harold Nelson.) 
96 Microcomputing, January 1982 



circuits have simplified computer de- 
sign in the past few years. Not count- 
ing the power supply, the Color Com- 
puter has just 23 integrated circuits 
(ICs). By comparison, a TRS-80 
Model I has about 80 ICs. 

The Color Computer is based on 
three main chips. One is the processor 
itself, a 6809E (the E means external 
clock). Another is the 6847 video-dis- 
play generator (VDG) chip. It contains 
nearly all the circuitry necessary to 
interface with the TV. The other is a 
74LS783 synchronous-address multi- 
plexer (SAM), which is a combination 
clock generator, dynamic-RAM con- 
troller and memory mapper. 

In addition to these LSI chips, there 
are eight RAM chips (4027s for the 4K 
machine, 4116s for the 16K version); 
two 6821 parallel-interface adapter 
(PIA) chips, which handle most of the 
I/O; and a single 68364 ROM contain- 
ing the 8K Color BASIC. Also includ- 
ed is a handful of support chips. The 
power supply occupies about one- 
third of the single circuit board, 
and the computer section of the 
board is enclosed in a metal shield 
to conform to the Federal Commu- 
nication Commission's radio fre- 



quency interference standards. 

There are four jacks on the rear for 
two joysticks, a cassette recorder and 
an RS-232 interface. The RS-232 is a 



600 bits-per-second (bps) interface 
suitable for a printer. Radio Shack of- 
fers software and a modem to make 
your Color Computer useful as a ter- 




CON TROL 



HALT 




NMI 



\e\ Iao-aisI [q] 



DO -07 



RESE 



.JUL 



r 



CPU 
6809 



A A 
[FIRQl (IRQ) 



(16) 



Y 



FIRQ<«- 



(2) 



COLOR 
BASIC ROM 



(13) 



o 



EXTENDED 
BASIC ROM 



14.316MHz 



A 



HE) 



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BASIC ROM 

XBASIC ROM 



IBUSI 

raUsI 



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PIA 2 




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PIA I 



n 







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^ 




f 



5V 



IRQ 



m: 



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PIA 2 



60Hz 



KEYBOARD 



D/A 
CONVERTER 




(2) 



MUX 




A > AMPLIFIER 



[BUS 1 EXTERNAL BUS 
(8) NUMBER OF LINES 



74LS373 



Li 



CASSETTE 





5V 



JOYSTICKS 



5V 



MUX 




< lftUDIO 11^ 



m> 



HSYNC' 



(8) 



VSYNC 



6847 



P.58MHZD - 



MCI372 
MOD 



RF 0SC 



rO) TV OUT 



Fig. 1. Block diagram. 



Microcomputing, January 1982 97 




minal for videotext. The data rate is 
easily changeable up to 2400 bps by a 
POKE statement from BASIC. 

The cassette port is a 1500 bps in- 
terface to a standard cassette record- 
er, with motor control, and it operates 
similarly to a TRS-80 Model I. It is 
three times as fast (and it doesn't have 
the dependence on volume settings 
that the earlier model had). It took 
only three tries to get the proper set- 
ting on my recorder (not the recom- 
mended model), and I've had few 
problems since then that weren't 
caused by me. 

The video interface is a compro- 
mise. To get 32-character lines re- 
quires all the video bandwidth you 
can get out of a color TV through the 
antenna input. To get more characters 
would require a color monitor, which 
cost 3 about twice as much as the Color 
Computer. Also, the VDG's character 
generator doesn't put out lowercase 
letters. They compromise by allow- 
ing lowercase in strings. The comput- 
er displays them in reverse video. 

However, when you send them out 
the RS-232 interface, they go out as 
lowercase and are printed as such on 
a printer. This is better than a TRS-80 
Model I, which had no provision for 
lowercase at all. Several modifica- 
tions were designed to overcome this 
in the Model I, and it would be possi- 
ble to modify the Color Computer 
too, since the 6847 allows for an ex- 
ternal character generator. 

The connector for the external pro- 

98 Microcomputing, January 1982 



gram packs is a 40-pin edge connec- 
tor, which has more signals available 
than just those necessary for a ROM 
pack. Radio Shack did their home- 
work on this. Not only are all the ad- 
dress, data and important control 
lines available; there are two decod- 
ed select lines for programs and I/O. 

Also, a signal on one of the pins lets 
you disable any of the internal re- 
sources and substitute external I/O 
or memory anywhere in the address 
space. This allows such tricks as 
overlaying special routines on top of 
the BASIC, adding external RAM 
anywhere in memory or substituting 
an external I/O port for the one that's 
in the box. It looks like they planned 
for a future expansion bus. 

Control may be easily transferred 
to your own machine-language rou- 
tines upon interrupt by poking a 
jump instruction at the appropriate 
memory location. 

How Does It All Tie Together? 

First, look at the block diagram in 
Fig. 1 . The microprocessor and VDG 
share the RAM, using a technique 
called interlacing. During part of a 
machine cycle, memory is accessed 
by the video generator, and during 
the rest of the cycle by the processor. 
This is made possible by the consis- 
tent machine cycle length of the 68XX 
family of processors. Each machine 
cycle has two memory cycles. The 
first provides the data for the video 
generator; the data is latched halfway 



through the cycle. The second access 
is for the processor. All this juggling 
is handled by the SAM. 

The SAM has provisions that let 
you select either graphics mode, the 
base address of the display memory, 
the type of memory used (up to 96K is 
possible) and even select between 
two types of memory maps. 

The joysticks use a six-bit digital-to- 
analog (D/A) converter and a compar- 
ator to generate numbers from 0-63 
proportional to the voltage on the joy- 
stick connectors. This could be used 
for a number of things in addition to 
joysticks. The voltage must be be- 
tween and +5V. 

VDG 

Let's look further at the 6847 vid- 
eo display generator (VDG). The 
VDG has two alphanumeric, two 
semigraphics and eight full-graph- 
ics modes. 

• A/G (alpha/graphics) switches from 
alpha/semigraphics mode to full- 
graphics mode. 

•A/S (alpha/semigraphics) switches 
from alpha to one of the two semi- 
graphics modes. 

• INV causes the alpha display to 
be reversed (green-on-black or black- 
on-green). 

• INT/EXT lets you use an external 
character generator in the alphanu- 
meric mode, and switches between 
the two semigraphics modes. 

• GM0, GM1 and GM2 are the full- 
graphics control lines, and control 
the various graphics options, from 
64 by 32 pixels (picture elements) to 
256 by 192. 

• CSS, color set select, switches sets 
of graphics colors and background 
color for the graphics modes with 
limited color selections. 

The machine comes up in the alpha/ 
semigraphics mode, and is in semi- 
graphics 4 when in semigraphics. 
Each character space is divided into 
four pixels, which can either be black 
or one of eight colors, but the whole 
character space must be the same col- 
or. A POKE 65314,16 switches to 
semigraphics 6, which limits you to 
two sets of four colors but gives you 
64 by 48 pixels. These are more near- 
ly square, and thus make graphics 
look better. However, Set, Reset and 
Point don't work in this mode. It also 
switches to external character mode, 
so alphanumerics are not usable. 

The graphics modes are also avail- 
able but require more memory than 
BASIC allows in a 4K machine, so are 
limited to a 16K box. They also re- 




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Wayne Green Books 







A COURSE 
INWOTAL 
tlKCIUDNlCS 
where you 
build jour 




*TRS-80 is a trademark of 

Radio Shack Division of Tandy Corp. 



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vides you with a solid background in electronics— and you'll own a computer that 
you built yourself! 

Kilobaud Klassroom contains Getting the Ball Rolling, Gates and Flip-Flops Explained, J.K. Flip-Flops and 
Clocked Logic, PC Boards and Power Supplies, Hardware Logical Functions, Voltage, Current and Power Sup- 
plies, Transistors, Diodes and OP Amps, Pulses and More Pulses, Counters and Registers, Bus Traffic Con- 
trol, ROM and RAM Memories, I/O Circuitry, Parallel and Serial I/O Ports, Computer I/O III, Computer I/O IV, 
Computer I/O V, Processor Connections, Finally. . .The Kilobaud Krescendo, Eproms and Troubleshooting, 
Expansions and Programming, Machine-Language Programming, Assembly-Language Programming, Con- 
necting to the Outside World. 

isbn 0-88006-027-1 (available December) BK7386 $14.95 

The New Weather Satellite Handbook 

By Dr. Ralph E. Taggart WB8DQT 

Here is the completely updated and revised edition of the best-selling Weather 
Satellite Handbook— containing all the information on the most sophisticated 
spacecraft now in orbit. Dr. Taggart has written this book to serve both the ex- 
perienced amateur satellite enthusiast and the newcomer. The book is an introduc- 
tion to satellite watching that tells you how to construct a complete and highly effec- 
tive ground station. Not just ideas, but solid hardware designs and all the instruc- 
tions necessary to operate the equipment are included. An entire chapter is devoted 
to microcomputers and the Weather Satellite Station. And for the thousands of ex- 
perimenters who are operating stations, The New Weather Satellite Handbook 
details all the procedures necessary to follow the current spacecraft. 

Weather Satellite contains Operational Satellite Systems, Antenna Systems, Weather Satellite Receivers, A 
Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) Monitor for Satellite Picture Display, A Direct-Printing Facsimile System for Weather 
Satellite Display, How to Find the Satellite, Test Equipment, Microcomputers and the Weather Satellite Station, 

station operations. ,sbn c-88oo6^)i 5^ available now! BK7383 $8.95 



FOR TOLL-FREE ORDERING CALL 1-800-258-5473 
WAYNE GREEN BOOKS • PETERBOROUGH NH 03458 



KB01 



Use the order card or itemize your order on a separate piece of paper and mail to Wayne Green Book Att: Sales • Peterborough NH 03458. Be 
sure to include check or detailed credit card information. (Visa, Master Charge or American Express accepted.) No C.O.D. orders accepted. All 
orders add $1.50 for the first book; $1.00 each additional book for handling. Please allow 4-6 weeks after publication for delivery. Questions 
regarding your order? Please write to Customer Service at the above address. 



Microcomputing, January 1982 99 



quire that the SAM be set up for the 
proper mode by writing to the control 
addresses in the proper pattern for 
the selected mode. 

BASIC 

Color BASIC is an 8K Microsoft BA- 
SIC which compares closely with 
TRS-80 Level II BASIC, with special 
instructions for the color, sound and 
joystick functions, plus a few en- 
hancements. Since Level II is 12K 
BASIC and Color BASIC is only 8K, 
there are also some functions not pres- 
ent in Color BASIC. But it shouldn't 
be too difficult to adapt programs 
from one system to the other. 

Missing in Color BASIC are the 
AUTO, TRACE and EDIT functions, 
which makes entering and debugging 
programs more difficult. Only one 
cassette is supported, but the cassette 
control takes eight-character file 
names and includes the SKIPF instruc- 
tion, which will skip files on a cassette 
and go to the end of the last file on the 
tape to add new files. CLOADM per- 
mits loading machine-language files 
with an offset, if desired. 

SYSTEM is replaced by EXEC (a), 
which allows going to a machine-lan- 



guage program at address (a). PRINT 
USING is missing, as are the DEF 
functions and the error traps. In the 
string functions only STRINGS is 
missing in Color BASIC. The nine- 
digit floating-point arithmetic is a 
compromise between Level II' s six- 
digit single-precision and 16-digit 
double-precision arithmetic. Missing 
are all the instructions relating to de- 
fining variable types. 

Most common statements are pres- 
ent in standard Color BASIC. Also 
available is Extended Color BASIC, 
which includes high-resolution graph- 
ics, complex sounds, extensive graph- 
ics commands, a real-time clock, pro- 
gram editing, user-defined functions 
and machine-language routines, plus 
most of the statements missing in 
Color BASIC. It costs $99. 

You can also buy several canned 
programs, including chess, checkers, 
music composing, personal finance, 
pinball, a diagnostic for ROM and 
software to convert the Color Com- 
puter to a terminal. Compatible hard- 
ware includes a printer, a telephone 
modem and joysticks. 

RAM expansion to 16K bytes is eas- 
ily done by replacing the 4K RAM 



chips with 4116s and changing two 
jumpers clearly labeled on the board. 
These are available from several 
sources for less than $30. 

RAM expansion beyond 16K is pos- 
sible but not as easy. You can get 32K 
by adding another set of 4 1 16 RAMs— 
the problem is mostly mechanical. 
Obtaining 64K is possible with great- 
er difficulty, as some software has to 
be changed. Kits to enable these ex- 
pansions are available from Atomic 
City Electronics, 3195 Arizona Ave., 
Los Alamos, NM 87544. 

Conclusions 

The Color Computer is a low-cost, 
full-function computer suitable for 
most general-purpose computer use. 
Although limited by the restrictions 
of the display for some uses, it is 
well-suited for video games, and is 
easily expanded for more memory 
and I/O devices. 

Radio Shack says they will soon of- 
fer a disk, and I know of accessories 
being designed at several companies. 
So it looks like a good start for a nice 
system. And the low price should 
mean a lot of sales, and soon, a lot 
of software. ■ 



TRS-80 



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48 k ^2 1 00 6 K 850 

2 DISK RS-232 (ALL RADIO SHACK EQUIPMENT) 



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OUT-OF-STATE TAXES AND SHIPPING COSTS 

WARRANTIES HONORED BY ALL COMPANY OWNED 
RADIO SHACK STORES OR COMPUTOR CENTERS 

WE ALSO CARRY A FULL LINE OF PRINTERS, 
COMPUTORS AND ACCESSORIES 



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137 NORTH MAIN ST., PERRY, MICHIGAN 48872 PHONE (517) 625-4161, MICH. 

WE OWN AND OPERATE A RADIO SHACK— DEALERSHIP R162 

FOR OUR PRICES, PLEASE CALL TOLL FREE 1 -800-248-3823 



^266 



100 Microcomputing, January 1982 



i 



f 



74LS00 

74LS01 

74LS02 

74LS03 

74LS04 

74LS05 

74LS08 

74LS09 

74LS10 

74LS11 

74LS12 

74LS13 

74LS14 

74LS15 

74LS20 

74LS21 

74LS22 

74LS26 

74LS27 

74LS28 

74LS30 

74LS32 

74LS35 

74LS37 

74LS38 

74LS40 

74LS42 

74LS47 

74LS48 

74LS49 

74LS51 

74LS54 

74LS55 

74LS63 

74LS73 

74LS74 

74LS75 

74LS76 

74LS78 

74LS83 

74LS85 

74LS86 

74LS90 

74LS91 

74LS92 

74US93 

74LS95 

74LS96 

74LS107 

74LS109 

74LS112 

74LS113 

74LS114 

74LS122 



HANLEY ENGINEERING CORP. 

We Will Beat All Competitor'* Prices!!! 

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74LS00 



4000CMOS 



.25 74LS123 

.25 74LS124 

.25 74LS125 

.25 74LS126 

.25 74LS132 

.25 74LS136 

.» 74LS138 

.25 74LS139 

25 74LS145 

.30 74LS147 

.30 74LS148 

.40 74LS151 

.75 74LS153 

.» 74LS155 

25 74LS156 

.30 74LS157 

25 74LS156 

.30 74LS160 

.35 74LS161 

.35 74LS162 

.25 74LS163 

.35 74LS164 

.55 74LS165 

.50 74LS166 

.35 74LS168 

25 74LS169 

.50 74LS170 

.75 74LS173 

.75 74LS174 

.75 74LS175 

25 74LS181 

.35 74LS189 

.35 74LS190 

120 74LS191 

.35 74LS192 

.40 74LS193 

.50 74LS194 

.40 74LS195 

.50 74LS196 

.75 74LS197 

1.10 74LS221 

.40 74LS240 

.60 74LS241 

.80 74LS242 

.65 74LS243 

.60 74LS244 

.80 74LS245 

.80 74LS247 

.40 74LS248 

.40 74LS249 

.40 74LS251 

.40 74LS253 

.50 74LS257 

.45 74LS258 



.90 74LS259 

2.95 74LS260 

.90 74LS261 

.80 74LS266 

.75 74LS273 

.50 74LS275 

.75 74LS279 

.75 74LS280 

1.10 74LS283 

225 74LS290 

125 74LS293 

.75 74LS295 

.75 74LS298 

.90 74LS299 

.90 74LS323 

75 74LS324 

.75 74LS347 

.90 74LS348 

.90 74LS352 

.90 74LS353 

.90 74LS363 

.90 74LS365 

.90 74LS366 

2.00 74LS367 

1.70 74LS368 

1.70 74LS373 

1.70 74LS374 

.75 74LS375 

.90 74LS377 

.90 74LS385 

2.10 74LS386 

9.95 74LS390 

.95 74LS393 

.95 74LS395 

.80 74LS399 

.90 74LS424 

.95 74LS447 

.90 74LS490 

.80 74LS630 

.80 74LS640 

1.15 74LS641 

1.15 74LS642 

1.15 74LS645 

1.85 74LS66B 

1.85 74LS669 

1.00 74LS670 

1.95 74LS674 

.75 74LS682 

1.20 74LS683 

.95 74LS684 

1.25 74LS685 

.80 74LS668 

.80 74LS689 

.80 74LS152 



2.80 

.60 

2.45 

.50 

1.60 

3.30 

.50 

1.95 

.95 

120 

1.80 

1.00 

95 

2.50 

3.95 

1.75 

1.95 

1.95 

1.50 

1.50 

1.35 

.90 

.90 

.65 

.65 

1.15 

1.75 

.65 

1.40 

1.85 

60 

1.85 

1.85 

1.60 

1.65 

2.95 

.35 

1.90 

75.00 

3.00 

3.00 

3.00 

3.00 

1.65 

1.85 

2.15 

9.60 

3.15 

225 

2.35 

2.35 

2.35 

2.35 

1.25 



74S00 



4000 
4001 
4002 
4006 

4007 
4008 
4009 

4010 
4011 
4012 
4013 
4014 
4015 
4016 
4017 
4018 
4019 
4020 
4021 
4022 
4023 
4024 
4025 
4026 
4027 
4028 
4029 
4030 
4031 
4032 
4033 
4034 
4035 
4037 



7805CT 

781 2CT 
7815CT 

7805KT 
7812KT 
781 5KT 
78L05 
78L12 
790SCT 
7912CT 
791 5CT 

7905K 
791 2K 
79U05 
79L12 
79L15 



.35 4040 

.35 4041 

.35 4042 

.95 4043 

.35 4044 

.95 4046 

.45 4047 

.45 4048 

.35 4049 

.35 4050 

.45 4051 

.95 4052 

.95 4053 

.45 4055 

.95 4056 

.95 4059 

.45 4060 

.95 4066 

.95 4068 

.95 4069 

.35 4070 

.75 4071 

.35 4072 

1.95 4073 

.65 4075 

80 4076 

.95 4078 

.45 4061 

1.50 4082 

2.75 4085 

275 4086 

2.75 4093 

.85 4094 

2.50 4099 



.95 4501 

.96 4502 

.75 4503 

85 4505 

85 4506 

.95 4507 

.96 4508 

.75 4510 

.55 4511 

.55 4512 

.95 4514 

.95 4515 

.96 4516 

275 4518 

2.75 4519 

9.95 4520 

1.25 4522 

.75 4526 

.40 4527 

.40 4528 

.40 4531 

.30 4532 

.30 4539 

.30 4543 

.30 4553 

.95 4555 

.50 4556 

.40 4558 

.40 4568 

.95 4581 

.95 4582 

.95 4584 

3.95 4585 

1.75 4702 



LINEAR 



.85 LM301V 
LM308V 
85 LM309K 
.95 LM311V 
LM317T 
1.40 LM317K 
1.40 LM318N 
1.40 LM323K 
65 LM324N 
.65 LM337K 
.95 LM339 
.95 LM377 
1.15 LM380 

LM386V 
1.50 

1.50 LM555V 
.75 LM556 
.75 LM565 
.75 LM566V 



.75 LM567V 

.75 LM723 

1.50 LM733 

.60 LM741V 

1.90 LM747 

3.75 LM748V 

1.50 LM1414 

3.75 LM 1458V 

.60 DS1488N 

3.95 DS14890 

.75 LM1889 

2.25 LM3900 

125 LM3909 

125 LM3914 
LM3915 

.40 LM3916 

.70 DS75451 

.95 DS75452 

1.50 DS75453 



.50 

95 

65 

8.95 

125 

.95 

1.95 

.95 

.95 

.96 

225 

225 

1.50 

125 

125 

125 

125 

125 

1.75 

125 

.95 

1.75 

1.75 

1.95 

4.95 

.96 

.95 

225 

5.95 

1.95 

1.95 

.95 

.95 

9.95 



125 

.50 

.95 

.30 

.75 

.60 

1.50 

.65 

1.00 

1.00 

2.45 

.60 

.90 

3.75 

3.75 

3.75 

40 

.40 

.40 



74C00 CMOS 



74S00 


40 


74S132 


74S02 


.45 


74S133 


74S03 


45 


74S134 


74S04 


.75 


74S135 


74S06 


.75 


74S138 


74S08 


.45 


74S139 


74S09 


.75 


74S140 


74S10 


65 


74S151 


74STT 


.80 


74S153 


74S15 


.65 


74S157 


74S20 


.65 


74S158 


74S22 


.75 


74S161 


74S30 


45 


74S162 


74S32 


.96 


74S163 


74S37 


1.85 


74S168 


74S38 


1.65 


74S169 


74S40 


.40 


74S174 


74S51 


.75 


74S175 


74S64 


.75 


74S181 


74S65 


120 


74S182 


74S74 


.65 


74S188 


74S85 


2.35 


74S189 


74S86 


1.40 


74S194 


74S112 


1.55 


74S195 


74S113 


1.95 


74S196 


74S114 


1.45 


74S197 


74S124 


2.75 





4 K STATIC RAM 
8/ $20.00 

16 K Memory 
8/ $16.00 



8200 



8060A 


3.95 


8085A 


8.95 


8085A-2 


11.95 


8086 


99.95 


8088 


39.95 


8155 


1125 


8185 


29.95 


8202 


45.00 


8205 


3.96 


8212 


1.90 


8214 


3.85 


8216 


1.80 


8224 


2.50 


8226 


1.80 


8228 


4.90 


8238 


4.90 


8243 


4.50 


8251 A 


5.45 


8253 


9.80 


8255A-5 


520 


8257-5 


8.95 


8259A 


6.96 


8271 


60.00 


8272 


39.95 


8275 


29.95 


8279-5 


10.00 


8282 


6.60 


8283 


6.60 


8284A 


5.75 


8286 


6.60 


8287 


6.60 


8288 


25.00 


8289 


49.96 


8755A 


45.00 


8748 


30.X 



HITACHI 
2K x 8 CMOS RAM 150NS 
Pin Compatible with 2716 

HM6116P-3 
$13.00 

8 For $88.00 



4118 
STATIC RAM 

1K x8 
$15.00 



AUGAT LOW PROFILE SOCKETS 

These Are High 
Reliability Industry 
Standard Sockets 



RPIN 
14PIN 
16PIN 
18PIN 
20PIN 
22PIN 
24PIN 
28PIN 
40PIN 



208-AG29D 
214-AG29D 
216-AG29D 
218-AG29D 
220-AG29D 
222-AG29D 
224-AG29D 
228-AG29D 
240-AG29D 



.10 
.16 
.18 

20 
22 
24 
26 
28 
42 



6800 



4164 

64K Dynamic Ram 

200 NS 16 pin 

$15.00 



3242 
3480 
6800 

6802 
6809 

68B09 

6809E 

6810 

6821 

6840 

6843 

6845 

6847 

6850 

6852 

6875 

6880 

6882 



68488 



8.00 

9.00 

5.75 

11.00 

25.00 

45.00 

36.00 

3.50 

3.50 

9.00 

41.00 

22.00 

1225 

3.50 

3.50 

7.00 

1.80 

4.70 

1.80 

1.80 

1.80 

1250 



Z80 



Z8 

2S132 

Z80 

ZB0A 

Z80B 

Z80 

ZB0A 

Z80B 

Z80 

ZB0A 

Z80B 

Z80 

2B0A 

Z80 

Z80A 

Z80 

ZB0A 

ZBO 

ZBOA 



PIO 

PHD 

PIO 

CTC 

CTC 

CTC 

DMA 

DMA 

SIO/0 

SIO/0 

SIO/1 

SIO/1 

SIO/2 

SIO/2 



50.00 

40.00 

6.70 

725 

19.00 

6.00 

7.10 

15.50 

6.00 

7.10 

15.50 

18.50 

22.50 

1850 

22.50 

1850 

2250 

1850 

2250 



6502 



6602 

6502A 

6504 

6504A 

6512 

6512A 

6520 

6521 

6521 A 

6522 

6522A 

6532 

6532A 

6545-1 

6545A-1 

6551 

6551 A 



7.90 

10.00 

8.45 

9.30 

9 20 

10.00 

4.40 

6.15 

6.70 

8.75 

11.70 

1125 

12.40 

2250 

28.95 

11.95 

12.96 



Microprocessor Crystals 
$3.00 Each 



EPROMS 



120 


74S201 


14.90 
















95 


74S225 


8 90 


74C00 


.35 


74C161 


1.96 


74C908 


200 




.65 


74S240 


3.95 


74C02 


.35 


74C162 


1.95 


74C909 


2.70 




1.45 


74S241 


3.70 


74C04 


.36 


74C163 


1.95 


74C910 


9.90 




1.06 


74S251 


1.86 


74C08 


.35 


74C164 


196 


74C911 


990 




1.20 


74S253 


740 


74C10 


.35 


74C165 


1.95 


74C912 


9.90 




1.40 


74S257 


1.35 


74C14 


1.45 


74C173 


1.96 


74C914 


1.90 




1.15 


74S258 


1.45 


74C20 


.35 


74C174 


220 


74C915 


1.90 




1.15 


74S260 


1.80 


74C30 


.35 


74C175 


2.20 


74C917 


2.70 




1.15 


74S274 


19.90 


74C32 


50 


74C192 


220 


74C918 


1.90 




1.40 


74S275 


19.90 


74C42 


1.70 


74C193 


2.20 


74C920 


16.00 




2.80 


74S280 


2.85 


74C48 


2.05 


80C97 


.90 


74C922 


5.90 




3.70 


74S287 


4.70 


74C73 


.65 


82C19 


4.95 


74C923 


5.90 




3.70 


74S288 


4.40 


74C74 


85 


74C195 


220 


74C925 


6.70 




4.60 


74S289 


6.95 


74C76 


1.90 


74C221 


2.20 


74C926 


7.90 




5.40 


74S301 


6.90 


74C83 


1.90 


74C240 


2.20 


74C927 


7.90 




1.05 


74S373 


3.40 


74C86 


.90 


74C244 


220 


74C928 


7.90 




1.05 


74S374 


340 


74C89 


4.50 


74C373 


2.70 


74C929 


7.90 




4.45 


74S381 


7.90 


74C90 


1.70 


74C374 


2.70 


74C930 


7.90 




2.90 


74S387 


5.70 


74C93 


1.70 


74C901 


.80 


74C932 


1.96 




3.90 


74S412 


2.95 


74C96 


1.70 


74C902 


80 


74C941 


2.75 




14.90 


74S471 


9.90 


74C107 


.96 


74C903 


.80 


74C969 


9.90 




2.90 


74S472 


16.80 


74C150 


5.70 


74C904 


.80 


80C95 


.85 




1.85 


74S474 


17.80 


74C151 


2.20 


74C905 


10.90 


80C96 


.90 




4.85 


74S482 


15.50 


74C154 


3.20 


74C906 


.90 


88C30 


3.96 




4.20 


74S570 
74S572 


7.75 
7.75 


74C157 
74C160 


1.75 
1.96 


74C907 


.90 


88C29 


3.96 





3.579545MHZ 

4.0MHZ 

4.0MHZ 

5.0MHZ 

6.0MHZ 

6.144MHZ 

8.0MHZ 

10.0MHZ 

15.0MHZ 

18.0MHZ 

18.431 MHZ 

48.0MHZ 



Parallel 

Parallel 

Series 

Parallel 

Parallel 

Parallel 

Series 

Series 

Series 

Series 

Series 

Series 



2708 

2716 

2716 

2716 

2716-1 

2716 

2716 

2732 

2732 

2732 

2732A 

2732A-2 

2732A-2 

2532 



AMD 

Hitachi 

National 

Intel 

Intel 

T.I. 

Motorola 

NEC 

Mitsubish 

Intel 

Intel 

Intel 

Intel 

Hitachi 



3 Supply 
+ 5 
+ 5 
+ 5 
+ 5 

3 Supply 
3 Supply 
+ 5 
+ 5 
+ 5 
+ 5 
+ 5 
+ 5 
+ 5 



450NS 
450NS 
450NS 
450NS 
350NS 
450NS 
450NS 
450NS 
450NS 
450NS 
250NS 
30ONS 
20ONS 
450NS 



3.50 

7.00 

7.X 

7.00 

9.50 

7.50 

7.50 

16.00 

16.X 

17.00 

17.X 

16.X 

20.X 

18.00 



master charge 



: 




We reserve the right to substitute manufacturers. 

Prices subject to change without notice. 

Our inventory is completely managed by computer. 



HANLEY ENGINEERING CORP, 

13400 Northup Way #20 
Bellevue, WA 98005 

800-426-2668 

206-643-0792 

Minimum Order 15.00 

Include 4.00 for UPS Blue 

Include 3.00 for UPS Ground 

Include 4.00 for 1st Class Mail 

Include 12.00 for Foreign Country Orders 

Washington State add 5.4% Sales Tax 




A PET computer and a Pioneer video disk player combine to open up a voide range of applications in the 

educational field. 



A Computer/Video Disk 
Combo That Really Works! 



By Paul Anderson and 
Everett Q. Carr 



People have been waiting for a 
practical video disk since they 
were first announced by Philips and 
RCA almost ten years ago. Film stu- 
dios saw big bucks in marketing films 
that had already run in the movie 



houses and on TV. Computer manu- 
facturers hoped for a cheap $10 
crash-proof archival memory consist- 
ing of a billion and a quarter bytes of 
ROM. Some educators believed that 
the video disk was a critical element 



Laser Illuminated/Optically Scanned 

1 . Pioneer of Japan 

2. Pioneer Electronics of the US 
Laserdisk VP-1000 

3. MCA Discovision (IBM and MCA) 

4. Magnavox (No Remote Control) 

5. Sony of Japan 

6. Philips of Holland 

7. Thompson CSF of France (Disks not 
compatible with those of 1-6) 

Software: All except Magnavox 
Thompson CSF 



Needle in a Groove 

1. RCA 

2. Zenith 

3. CBS 

Software: RCA 



Grooveless with Needle 

1. JVC of Japan 

2. GE 

3. Thorn/EMI of England 

Software: JVC 



Characteristics 

All players have 1/2-hour and one-hour playing 
time per side, use a HeNe 1 MW gas laser, two- 
channel stereo (40 Hz to 20 Hz), have 
pushbutton controls, can operate single frame 
(freeze action), slow, fast forward and reverse 
and have picture frames numbered (1/2-hour 
only). The 1/2-hour versions operate at constant 
angular motion with disk rotating at 1800 rpm. 
The one-hour play time is obtained by changing 
disk rotation from 1800 rpm at the inside of the 
disk to 600 rpm at the outside of the disk, 
therefore operating on constant linear velocity 
for double play time. 

Thompson CSF uses transparent information 
coating and system refocuses to read both disk 
sides without turnover. Software unknown. 



The needle has a capacitor plate on its face 
forming a variable capacitor as a function of the 
disk groove variations with respect to the 
conductive vinyl base of the record. Needle is 
subject to wear and disk cannot be played 
continuously on a single frame. Disk grooves 
are 40 x closer than on a hi-fi record. 



Needle position is servo-controlled and tracks an 
information band next to the signal band. There 
is needle wear, and continuous play on a single 
track may not be feasible. 



Table 1. Video disk systems comparison. 



in the information technology revolu- 
tion that would transform schools, 
maybe even eliminate them entirely. 

To find out if this latter notion had 
any basis in fact, we built our own in- 
formation transfer system. It consists 
of a 32K PET 2001 computer and an 
adapter that allows the PET to control 
the Pioneer video disk player (fig. 1). 
We have also developed software 
that controls the disk player. The re- 
sult is that we have been able to con- 
struct an instructional program in 
which the student interacts with the 
computer and the disk on the player. 

The first program is called Weather 
and uses an MCA-Discovision disk 
entitled "What Makes it Rain?" 
(#64-006). It costs just $9.95. The de- 
scription that follows should allow 
anyone interested to duplicate the 
system and verify our test results as 
an example of computer-aided video 
disk instruction. 

The Computer/Video Disk System 

The Pioneer video disk system is a 
superb piece of electronic and elec- 
tromechanical wizardry. It uses a 1 
MW HeNe gas laser to illuminate the 
video disk information tracks and has 
a 4002 internal microprocessor and a 
4001 data processor for the logic and 



Paul Anderson, an unpaid member of the planetar- 
ium staff, has been a student at Rensselaer Poly- 
technical Institute at Troy, NY. Everett Q. Carr is 
director of the Herkimer BOCES Planetarium 
(Herkimer, NY 13350) and responsible for its hon- 
ors student programs and a microcomputer in- 
structional program series that lends out computers. 



102 Microcomputing, January 1982 



control of 25 switching functions that 
affect the player operations. The elec- 
tromechanical system not only takes 
care of vertical motion in the disk ro- 
tating at 1800 rpm, but also follows 
individual TV picture tracks 1.6 mi- 
crometers (63 microinches) apart. A 
full half-hour of TV contains 54,000 
TV pictures (30 frames per second x 
60 seconds per minute x 30 minutes 
per half hour). 

Pioneer manufactures video disk 
players for Discovision Associates 
and Magnavox. Almost 11,000 of the 
Discovision players have been sold to 
General Motors and its car dealers. In 
single quantity, this player costs 
$3000. The big advantage is that a 
computer interface and connector are 
built-in. Another version packaged 
for Magnavox is supplied without an 
interface or remote control. 

The Pioneer player with its remote 
control access has proved straightfor- 
ward to adapt to computer control. 
The only exception is covered later. 
However, the Pioneer player is only 
one of four competitive video disk 
systems. All of them are incompat- 
ible, with differences much like those 
between cassette and magnetic disk 
recording systems of the leading 
manufacturers. For example, we can- 
not interchange tapes or disks among 
the three leading manufacturers. A 
comparison of the systems is given in 
Table 1. It should be obvious that the 
noncontact readout systems from 
Philips, Pioneer, Sony, Magnavox 
and MCA-Discovision, all of which 
have interchangeable disks, are supe- 
rior for classroom and other instruc- 
tional uses. 

The chief reason for our preference 
of the noncontact systems is the 
wear-out mechanism. RCA uses a 
diamond stylus that contains a capac- 
itor piate to sense signals in the rec- 
ord groove recorded on a 900 MHz 
carrier signal. The JVC scheme uses a 
sapphire stylus that has a capacitor 
plate but is servo-controlled to track 
signal information in a grooveless re- 
cording system. While there are no 
tests to confirm the data, the life of a 
diamond stylus is approximately 
3000 hours, compared to 2000 hours 
for the sapphire stylus and 100,000 
hours for the gas laser. The choice is 
therefore obvious. 

But more than that, the MCA Dis- 
covision disks have each of the 
30,000+ frames of "What Makes It 
Rain?" numbered, and they can be 
selected for display by remote control 
or with the built-in keyboard using a 



numeric keypad. The internal micro- 
processor is programmed to allow 
slow motion, fast scan, variable- 
speed scan and single-frame index- 
ing, all in forward or reverse motion. 



It is also possible to select an indi- 
vidual frame by number for freeze- 
frame viewing. There is no wear to 
the disk, because there is no disk con- 
tact for readout. 




PET 2001 


PTP-I 


PIONEER 


COLOR TV 


32K COMPUTER 


PET-TO 


VD-IOOO 






PIONEER 


VIDEO 

DISO 

PLAYER 





Fig. 1. A computer /video disk system. 



c, 

o 0I M F 



si 



S2 S3 



S4 



S5 



56 



^ 



J±l 



■u 



SI3 



J- 



SI9 



J- 



X 



S25 



X 



J- 



JZMJ. 



J. 



S26 



JXL 



M 



J. 



<A /A /<A 



Ji 



^ /^ /</' 



J. 



J- 



S28 



u. 



1 



Jl 



JCJ- 



M 



S29 



M 



Jl 



J- 



SI2 



SIS 



S24 



12 



II 



SWITCH FUNCTIONS 



lY 



16 



V SS 
OA 

OB 

OC 

00 

OE Zl 

II 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

IN 



VDD 



OUT 



OSC 
OUT 



♦4 5V 

± 



470^F 

£ 63V 



Rl 
39 



15 



:> I00K :>R7 V, ^f 

±, ' 33 




SI 


=X3FWD 


SI2 ■ RUN 


2 XI |3 


S2 


= X3REV 


SI3 * SLOW FWD 


.Ht. 


S3 


= SEARCH 


SI4 > SLOW REV 


S4 


' 


SI5 'AUDIO 2/R 


-L. C3 -±-C4 


S5 


« 5 


SI6 ■ 2 


^T68pF ^T68PF 


S6 


■ FRAME 


SI7 »7 


S7 


■ SCAN FWD 


SIS * SINGLE 




S8 


■ SCAN REV 


SI9 * STILL/STEP FWD 




S9 


* CHAPTER 


S20 * STILL/STEP REV 




SIO 


> 1 


S2I ■ AUDIO l/L 


S25 * PLAY 


Sll 


-6 


S22- 3 


S26 ■ PAUSE 






S23*8 


S28 * 4 






S24 « PGM # 


S29 ' 9 



XI « 


455 KHz RESONATOR 


Ql * 


2SCI8I5Y 


02 = 


2SC2334 


Zl > 


M50IIOP 


Dl- 


D4« EL-IL2 


D6* 


IS2075 



Fig. 2. RU- 1000 Pioneer remote control. The switches Si toS29are the functional push buttonson there- 
mote control as the figure shows. The IC-1 appears to be a custom chip to convert switch closures to a 
chain of 38 kHz pulses as an output. The crystal XI is a 455 kHz piezo-ceramic resonator, used generally 
in AM radio IF stages to replace IF transformers. The transistors Ql and Q2 are a Darlington-connected 
line driver. The remote control can be used as a wired unit by connecting an audio connector cable tojl. 
The diodes Dl to D4, however, are LEDs operating at about 9400 A, well into the infrared range. D6 is a 
visible region LED. 



O 23ms 



233 M s 

0.23m 



njnjTJTTLnjn_rLrLn. 

_ 38K Hz 




ONE DATA PULSE STRING 
ONE DATA PULSE 

CODE "0" 



O 93ms 



|« I86m> ,| 



n 



CODE "I 



23ms 



tO tl t2 pO pi p2 p3 p4 p5 p6 

n-jLJLJi n_n itjt-ji-j-lj-u, 

H 



ONE WORD 



A WORD STRING 



to ■ 

tl ■ 

II • I 

P5 ' O 
P6 • O 



Fig. 3. Pioneer player control signals. One data pulse string is ten cycles of an approximately 38 kHz 
clock. The coding for a logical is 0. 93 ms, a short period between data pulse strings. The logical 1 is twice 
the logical period, 1.86 ms. The word string delivered to the player is ten bits long; therefore it consists of 
1 1 actual data pulses. Of the ten bits used, five bits are a fixed code; the remaining five bits can form up to 
a maximum of 32 commands. 

Microcomputing, January 1982 103 



Video Disk Adapter 

Pioneer's remote control unit 
(RU-1000) was a parts bin for a new 
adapter between the PET and the 
disk player. The RU-1000 contains 
both a wired connection to control 
the player and an infrared wireless 
link. A schematic of the RU-1000 is 
shown in Fig. 2. IC-1 is apparently a 
custom MOS chip which scans the 
keyboard of the RU-1000 and outputs 



CASSETTE 
PORT 



♦ 50V 

L 



2(A)( 
I (A)< 



♦ 5 0V 
■GNO 



O 

a 



in 

Z3 



oS- 



II 



10 



_E_1 



1 



IC2 



J 



14 



14 



15 



13 



12 



II 



10 
12 



H I* 



10 



♦5.0V 



IC3 



14 



IS 



12 



ICI* M50II0P 
IC2 * IC3» CD405I 
01= Q2 = 2N2222 
Xl*455 KHz CERAM 
CI.C2 68pF 



C RESONATOR 



a coded 38 kHz chain corresponding 
to up to 30 different switch closures. 
The pulse chain sequences are shown 
in Fig. 3. 

In our adapter, the switch closures 
are simulated by the two CD 4051 cir- 
cuits, IC-2 and IC-3, which accept the 
eight-bit inputs from the PET user 
port. The PTP-1 PET to PIONEER 
adapter schematic is shown in Fig. 4. 
The circuit board layout is given in 



♦ 5 

1 



16 



1 



ICI 



OUT 



S 



C3 

470 M F 

6.3V 



15 



R6 

IK 

-vw- 



R8 

I00K 



XI 



HIH' 



CI 
68 




C2 
68 



Fig. 4. PET to Pioneer adapter. In our adapter the IC-1, M501 10P, was removed from the original remote 
control because the separate IC was not available from Pioneer. The infrared optical link was eliminated 
and only the wired link was used. The reason was the IR LEDs have peak current requirements of nearly 1 
A, and the power we used was the PET (200 mA maximum! second cassette 5 V source. IC2 and 3 are 
multiplexers which, to the custom ICI, look like switch closures which, on the input to the PET, are logi- 
cal load for the user port VIA. 



Fig. 5. Power for the adapter is taken 
from the second cassette source, 
which is rated for at least 200 mA; the 
adapter draws less than 50 mA. 

The Video Disk Driver Program 

The Video Disk Driver program 
was written to exercise a Pioneer disk 
player regardless of what disk is in 
place on the player. It allows, for ex- 
ample, the command to the player 
S1950 in response to the program 
query COMMAND STRING— >); the 
player searches for TV picture frame 
number 1950 and waits, with frame 
1950 displayed continuously. An al- 
ternative command of S1950S would 
command the player to search for TV 
picture frame 1950 and run the play- 
er forward from that frame. 

The Weather Instruction Program 

For the Discovision disk "What 
Makes It Rain?" we have given an in- 
teractive program, Weather, which 
uses some 3600 frames or about two 
minutes of disk play time. The brief 
program contains four questions 
from lines 1010-1260, 2020-2041, 
3010-3270 and 4010-4250. In each 
question, the student has three possi- 
ble answers. The computer responds 
positively to a correct answer, lets the 
student try again if the response is 
wrong or reviews the video informa- 
tion before trying the question again. 

The review of the video is con- 
trolled by the specification of the 
variable Q8, and a delay loop begin- 
ning at line 13000 determines how 
long the player is allowed to operate. 
A calculation in line 13030 accounts 



+ 

TOP 



O 

o 



+ 





o o o o o o 

O — ro & <j> o> 



PTP-I 
11/80 
ADN 



+ 



Fig. 5. Full-size PTP-1 printed circuit board layout. 



104 Microcomputing, January 1982 



^220 



TO ORDER: SEE YOUR LOCAL DEALER, IF HE DOES NOT 
HAVE THE PROGRAM YOU WANT THEN CALL; 

TOLL FREE 1 800 327 7172 (Orders Only) OR WRITE US. 



A DIVISION Of SCOl 1 AIjAM', INC 

BOX 'AV, LONGWOOU FL 32750 
i 105) 862 6917 

WRIT* FOHOURF-Rn CATALOG 



• 




BY CHAMELEON SOFTWARE 






BALROG 

Meet the Chromatic Dragon face to-flame in BALROG. the first in the MACES & MAGIC Series. This fantasy adventure features one of 
the largest data bases ever created for a microcomputer role playing game Not only can you create completely individual characters, but 
you may also choose from a huge inventory of specific weapons and armor items Freeform input combined with choices suggested by the 
program makes the discovery of the more secret areas of the dungeon a real challenge! 

STONE OF SISYPHUS 

The STONE OF SISYPHUS carries you to a thinking man's" dungeon, wherein you must apply your skills to effect survival and to realize 

it goals This is an unfriendly subterranean world populated by hideous monsters, and dripping with fabulous treasures - - the latter 

enticing you to face the former' Your survival hinges upon hard intellect, as opposed to the wispy uncertainty of chance, so be prepared to 

draw deeply from your intellectual reservoir' And — the responsiveness of the program to the individual qualities of your character make this 

ind adventure frustratingly enjoyable for hundreds of hours before all of its elusive secrets can be unlocked! 

MORTON'S FORK 

The third entry in the Maces & Magic series. MORTON S FORK transports you into a world bereft of natural laws — a realm populated by 

magic al beings and strange creatures The scenario is set within the confines of an ancient wizard s fortress Through your keyboard input. 

. our warrior with armor, weapons, and gold, as well as with desirable personal att^butes Only then will you be able to face the 

rs of MORTON S FORK' Features include multiple skill levels and a comprehensive manual describing the colorful Maces & Magic 

world 



MACES & MAGIC are fantasy adventures involving you and your computer Armed only with your wits, a microcomputer, and the 
• ttware provided, you can become the hero or the meal your destiny dictates You create a character, equip him (or her) with suitable 
weapons and armor, and enter the dungeon in search of fame and fortune Neither is particularly easy to obtain 

If you are successful in avoiding or conquering the various monsters, traps, enchantments and illusions set by our nefarious 
dungeonmasters. you may escape with riches and glory Your name and deeds will be recorded for posterity in the records of the 
dungeon More importantly, you'll be alive You may then use the same character in his more experienced and wealthy form when 
you enter dungeons on later occasions 

In each dungeon there are random events which occur, but in the vast majority of cases the skill of the player in mak 
ing correct choices determine the outcome of the game The majority of instructions are furnished within the program in 
the form of appropriate prompts 

There are many ways to meet an untimely demise in the dungeon Monsters and such are just one of the lines of 
defense between you and the treasures stored there Various traps await the unwary (and the wary too). Some are lethal, 
while others are merely unpleasant or inconvenient It pays to be suspicious. Beware of ores bearing gifts 
[ The object of the whole exercise is not just to fight the monsters and collect treasure You have to get out alive to en- 

^ joy it In every dungeon there is at least one exit It is possible to escape from each and every dungeon with a whole skin 

^ We state that fact here because players often believe this not to be true We really aren't out to get you. Not really 
^ Once you successfully -exit from the dungeon you will have an opportunity to save your character for further adven- 

\ tures in this and other dungeons. Your treasures will be converted to their gold equivalent and your weapons and armor 
( stored in bat guano. When you start another adventure, you may call up your experienced character for another trip. The on- 
ly limitation is that once a character is killed, he may re-incarnated three times, after that, he is gone forever. No second 
chances, no tears, no breast beating. Gone. Kaput Finished You will have the distinction of adding to the dungeon 
statistics, however A sort of second hand immortality in recognition of a nice try No glory or cash though. 
CHARGE!' 

Maces & Magic Series STONE OF S,SYPHUS 

lviaces & lviagic aei ie* Works on 1 or 2 drive system s 

By Chameleon Software tr^aii i?k ni<;K Morioi 1 minion *29 9S 



BALROG 

requires 2 drive system 

TRS 80 32K DISK Model 1 012 0099 

TRS 80 48K DISK Model 3 012 0099 



$29 95 
$29.95 



Works on 1 or 2 drive systems 

TRS 80 32K DISK Model 1 012 0100 

TRS 80 48K DISK Model 3 012 0100 

ATARI 40K DISK 052 0100 

APPLE 2 PLUS or APPLE 2 48K 

with Applesoft in ROM 

WORKS ON 3.2 OR 3.3 042 0100 



$29.95 
$2995 
$34 95 



$29 95 



J?:fe_ 



MORTONS FORK 

Works on 1 or 2 drive systems 

TRS 80 32K DISK Model 1 012 0113 $29 95 

TRS 80 48K DISK Model 3 012 0113 $29 95 

APPLE 2 PLUS or APPLE 2 48K 

with Applesoft in ROM 

WORKS ON 3 2 OR 3 3 042 0113 $29 95 



for search time lags that may be a 
function of our particular Pioneer 
player dynamics. We would have 
preferred to be able to advance the 
disk to a specific frame. The calcula- 
tion is necessary because there is no 
data line available from the player 
which indicates the frame number. 
Undoubtedly, it is available internal- 
ly at the microprocessor but it would 
be necessary to open the player and 
modify the circuits. The system 
shown seems accurate within a few 
frames over short time intervals. 
Moreover, it can be made precise 
with a small amount of effort. 

The program uses about 15,380 
bytes of RAM. It could be compressed 
into fewer bytes with a little effort. 

We have used simple graphics that 
often hint to the children the correct 
answer. Our third-grade visitors to 
the planetarium seem pleased with 
what they see and hear. When the 
correct answer is given, it is rein- 
forced visually with a printed text of 
the words of the disk monologue. A 
child will receive several reviews of 
new words. This is especially helpful 
when third-grade children are ex- 
posed for the first time to terms like 



vj 



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Order 3 or more programs 
For another 10% discount! 



1-814-734-4122 (Voice) 
1-716-594-1284 ( BBS) 



CHECK, MO, COD, VISA, MC ACCEPTED. 
SPECIFY DISK OR TAPE & SYSTEM TYPE. 
ADD $1.50 SHIPPING. ADD $2.00 COD. 
PA. RESIDENTS ADD 6%. 



/ ' < 

Write for our free catalog. 

I/O SYSTEMS, INC. ^242 

DEPT. K12 

BOX 131 

EDINBORO PA 16412 

TRY OUR NEW 

BULLETIN BOARD. 



<. 
^ 



precipitation, rendezvous, evapora- 
tion and reservoirs. 

Authoring a Disk Program 

Authoring a disk program means a 
systematic approach to developing an 
instructional program. This, of course, 
involves both the video disk and the 
computer program. Of necessity, we 
did not create an original video disk. 
That cost was well beyond our own 
resources. Our project therefore in- 
volved construction of a useful com- 
puter instruction around an available 
disk. 

Within that constraint, the major 
task was to use the disk player as an 
audiovisual editing machine with the 
weather disk. Both frame numbers 
and the monologue were recorded 
manually, using the disk player's reg- 
ular remote control. This is a working 
script from which it is possible to iso- 
late factual information, the individ- 
ual concepts and principles involved. 
This is an iterative process. It took a 
half-dozen or more passes and un- 
counted isolated playbacks. How- 
ever, we became more proficient 
with time. 

The method we used in the com- 
puter program development was to 
design two program modules. The 
first was the Quiz Module, in a multi- 
ple choice format. The second was 
the Disk Driver module. The combi- 
nation of the two modules is a practi- 
cal approach to an authoring system 
using available low-cost disks and the 
common language resident in the 
popular microcomputers, BASIC. 

The PET, with its user port so ac- 
cessible and easy to program, is a 
powerful tool in this enterprise. For 
those not interested in a construction 
project, ADN Co. (62 Benedict Ave., 
Ilion, NY 13351) has an adapter that 
works with the PET. It can also be 
supplied for the Commodore VIC-20. 



Test Results 

Two groups totalling 137 third- 
grade students were exposed to the 
first two minutes of the video disk 
"What Makes It Rain?'' Sixty-seven 
percent of the first class of 74 stu- 
dents and 72 percent of the second 
class of 73 answered test questions 
correctly. These children were at- 
tending our regular planetarium lab- 
oratory class about weather. The re- 
sults were 12 percent and 14 percent 
higher than with a conventional teach- 
ing session consisting of a chalkboard 
and lecture. 

The combination of computer and 
video disk appears to be superior to 
conventional methods. The work con- 
tinues. We hope interested teachers 
will attempt to duplicate the 
experiments. ■ 



D9=50 

REM VIDEO DISK DRIVER WRITTEN 
REM 10/30/88 BV PAUL D. ANDERSON 
REM COMMAND SUMMRRV AT LINES 
REM 13000-14800 



" command STR i no— :•■ " ; cs$ 

10000 



GOSUB 11000 



11020 



11068 



10 DIM TX<19) 

20 GOSUB 12000 

38 INPUT 

35 PRINT 

40 GOSUB 

50 PRINT PRINT 

60 GOTO 30 

14088 FOR Ql=l TO LEN<CS*> 

10010 Q2=ASC<MID$<CS$,G1,1>> 

18020 NEXT 

10030 RETURN 

11000 IF Q2>57 OR Q2<48 THEN 

11010 Q3=TX < 02-47 ) GOTO 1 1 060 

1102O IF G2>72 OR Q2<70 THEN 1104© 

11030 G3=TX< 02-59 > GOTO 

11040 Q3=0 

IF Q2-80 THEN Q3=TX<14> 
IF Q2=83 THEN G3=TX<15> 

11060 PRINTCHR*<Q2>; POKE 5947 1,Q3 

11070 FOR J«l TO D9 NEXT 

11 0SO POKE 59471,0 

11090 FOR J=l TO D9 : NEXT 

11100 RETURN 

12010 DATA 86,22,38,78,54,82,13,34,66 

12820 DATA 50,31,52,69,53,83 

12020 FOR J=l TO 15 READ TX<J) : NEXT 

12030 POKE 59459,255 

12048 RETURN 

COMMAND SUMMARY *** 

" " — " Q" 

"S" 

lip II 

I.Q.I 
MC II 

"H" 



11045 

11050 



13000 REM **** 
13010 REM NUMBERS 
13820 REM SEARCH 
13030 REM PAUSE 
13040 REM PLAV 
050 REM FRAME 



1 



<G0> 



13060 REM STILL 



<HALT> 



Video Disk Driver program. 



Weather interactive video disk/computer program. 



10 GOSUB 12000 REM INITIALIZE VIDEO 

20 REM DISK STUFF 

35 PR I NT "3" POKE 59468,12 

98 PRINT PRINT: PRINT PRINT PRINT 

1000 PR I NT "T POKE 59463, 12 

PRINT" r> ,-^--s ,-^-. ,-. 



1010 
1020 
1030 
1040 
1050 
1200 

1210 
1220 
1230 
1240 
1250 
1260 
1270 
1288 
1290 

1300 



r\ 



PRINT" t, 
PRINT" < 
PRINT" •-"-' 
PRINT" ^ 
PR I NT "WHAT 









\.> v_> 



} 



ARE CLOUDS?" 



) 

> 



PRINT"<1> 

PRINT" <2> 

PRINT" 

PRINT" <3> 

PRINT" 

PRINT"TVPE 

INPUT AA 

IFAA=2 GOTO 1700 

PR I NT " 3" : PR I NT : PR I NT : PR I NT POKE 59468 

PR I NT " SORRV , THAT IS I NCORRECT " PR 1 NT 



CLOUDS ARE MADE 
HUGE RESERVOIRS 
AIRBORNE WATER" 
CLOUDS ARE DUST 
HELD UP BV COLIi 
1, 2 OR 3, 



PRINT 
OF ICE PARTICLES" PRINT 
OF" 
PRINT 
PARTICLES" 
AIR AND WIND." PRINT 



14 




More 



106 Microcomputing, January 1982 



Listing continued. 

1310 PR I NT "MOULD VOU LIKE TO TRY AGftIN? 

1320 PRINT"TVPE V OR N" PRINT 

1340 INPUT *B$ 

1350 IFflBt="V"THEN 1000 

1500 PR I NT "MOULD VOU LIKE TO REV I EM THE VIDEO" PRINT 

1510 PRINT"TVPE V OR N" PRINT 

1520 INPUT RC* 

1530 IF AC*="N" THEN 50OOO 

1550 K=0 

1 570 CS$= " S 1 950S " GOSUB 1 0OOO FOR I =0102000 NEXT 

1575 CS$="G" GOSUB 1000O 

1 580 Q8= 1 20 GOSUB 1 3O0O 

1610 GOTO 1O0O 

1 700 PR I NT " n" POKE 59468 , 1 4 PR I NT PR I NT PR I NT 

1705 K=0 

1710 PRINT"GREHT THRT'S CORRECT" PRINT PRINT PRINT 

1800 PRINT"CLOUDS HUGE RESERVOIRS OF HlRBORNE WATER." 

1801 CS*="S1950S" GOSUB1OO00 FORI=OTO20OO NEXT 

1882 CS*="G" GOSUB 10000 

1 883 Q8= 1 20 GOSUB 1 3000 

1810 FOR I=0TO200O NEXT PRINT C R I NT 

1820 PRINT'XOME ON NOM BHCK TO WORK" FOR 1=1 TO 3000 NEXT PRINT PRINT 

2000 PR I NT "T POKE 59468,12 

2010 PRINT 

2020 PRINT" * » 

2021 PRINT" 

2022 PRINT" 

2023 PRINT".* . / \ . 

2024 PRINT" S 

2025 PRINT" 

2026 PRINT" 

2027 PRINT" 
2828 PRINT" ♦ . I I . 

2029 PRINT". I I 

2030 PRINT" \ / . * 

2031 PRINT" \ •* 

2032 PRINT" . > / 

2033 PRINT PRINT 

2034 PRINT" MHEN THE EHRTH BEGAN, 

2035 PRINT" BEFORE THERE MERE OCEANS- 

2036 PRINT" MHERE MAS ALL THE MATER ? 

2037 PRINT PRINT 



\ 
I I 

I EARTH I 



IN THE ROCKS OF EARTH 
IN CLOUDS AROUND EARTH 
IT MAS NOT FORMED VET" PRINT 
2 OR 3" INPUT B 



2038 PRINT" <1> 

2039 PRINT" <2> 

2040 PRINT" <3> 
2841 PRINT"TVPE 1 
2042 IF B=2 THEN280O 

2380 PR I NT " 73" PR I NT PR I NT PR I NT PR I NT P0KE59468 , 1 4 

2310 PR I NT "OOPS' THAT'S NOT RIGHT. TRV AGAIN'"' PRINT 

2320 PRINT" TVPE V OR N, PLEASE" 

2330 INPUT BB$ 

2350 IF BB$="V" THEN 2O0O 

2400 PR I NT "MOULD VPOU LIKE TO SEE THE VIDEO AGAIN?" PRINT 

2410 PRINT" TVPE V OR N, PLEASE." 

2420 INPUT BC* 

2430 IF BC*="N" THEN 5OOO0 

2500 CS*="S2100S" GOSUB 1O80O FOR J=1TO20OO NEXT 

2505 CSS="G" GOSUB 1000O 

25 1 Q8=2&0 GOSUB 1 3000 

2570 GOTO 2000 

2880 PR I NT " T POKE 59468 , 1 4 PR I NT PR I NT PR I NT 

2818 PRINT" VES, ITS TRUE ! " PRINT PRINT PRINT 

28 1 1 CS*= " S2 1 OOS " GOSUB 1 OOOO FOR J* 1 T02000 : NEXT 

28 1 2 CS*= " G " GOSUB 1 OOOO 
28 1 4 Q8=20O GOSUB 1 3000 

2820 PRINT" IN THE BEGINNING MOST OF THE EARTH'S" 

2838 PR I NT "MATER MAS STORED IN CLOUDS, FORMING "PRINT 

2840 PRINT"A DENSE MHITE ENVELOPE AROIUND THE PLANET" F0RI=0T03000 NEXT PRINT 

2850 PRINT"ZIPPING ALONG TO THE NEXT PROBLEM. " FORI =0T02000 NEXT 

3000 PR I NT " n" POKE 59468 , 1 2 PR I NT 

<*/ v •••.'.•, <■>->■' *»****) ( ) " 

tJWSJJS) (.'<•. •-' -■■ -•' ) ( -' -■■ v V) •• 

////////// //// //////////" 



3010 PRINT" < > 
3020 PRINT" < v> 
3830 PRINT" 
3040 PRINT" 
3058 PRINT" 
3060 PRINT" 
3070 PRINT" 
3880 PRINT" 
3090 PR I NT m /\ 
3100 PRINT" 



//// 

// / 

/// 

/// , 



/// / / / / // // 



/" 



/// / / /// /// // /// /" 
// / 



V 



// / // 

/ \ /\ / / // / / / 

/ / / /\ 



\^ 



\ 



PRINT 



3200 PRINT"MHAT HAPPENED TO THE EARTH THAT" 

3210 PRINT" CAUSED THE OCEANS TO FORM'"' PRINT 

3220 PRINT" <1 > RAINS CAME FROM OUTER SPACE" PRINT 

3230 PRINT" <2> SPRINGS FORMED STREAMS A RIVERS" 

3240 PRINT" TO FILL THE OCEANS" PRINT 

3250 PRINT" <3> THE EARTH COOLED AND RAINS" 

3260 PRINT" FILLED THE OCEANS" PRINT 

3270 PRINT" TVPE 1, 2 OR 3", 

3288 INPUT CA IF CA=3 THEN 3780 

3300 PR I NT " 3" PR I NT PR I NT : PR I NT POKE 5946S , 1 4 

3310 PR I NT "OH, OH. THAT'S HRONG. TRV AGAIN?" PRINT 

3320 PRINT" TVPE VES OR NO" 

3330 INPUT CB$ 

3340 IF CB*="V" THEN 380O 

3580 PR I NT "MOULD VOU LIKE TO SEE THE VIDEO AGAIN'" : PRINT 

3510 PRINT" TVPE VES OR NO" 

3520 INPUT CC* 

3530 IF CC*="N" THEN 5O00O 

3540 CS$="S230OS" GOSUB10O0O FOR J=1TO30OG NEXT 

3550 CS$= " G " GOSUB 1 OOOO 

3560 Q8=680 GOSUB 13O0O 

3610 GOTO 3000 

370O PR I NT "IT POKE 59468, 14 

3710 PR I NT "BEAUTIFUL! VOU'VE DONE IT AGAIN" FOR I=0T03000 NEXT PRINT PRINT 

3715 CS*="S230OS" G0SUB10000 FORJ=1TO20OO NEXT 

37 1 6 CS$= " G " GOSUB 1 OOOO 

3717 Q8=306 GOSUB 1300O 

3880 PRINT "GRADUALLV AS THE EARTH COOLED" PRINT 
3818 PRINT "THE FIRST RAINS FELL, CONTINUING PRINT 
3828 PRINT "WITHOUT PAUSE FOR THOUSANDS OF" PRINT 
3838 PRINT "CENTURIES FILLING THE OCEAN" PRINT 

" BAS I NS . . . NOW , THME OCEANS " PR I NT 

"HOLD MOST OF THE EARTH'S MATER. " PRINT 
3868 FOR: I=0TO5O80 NEXT PRINT PRINT 
3878 PR I NT "NELL, BACK TO THE FRAV" FOR 1=8 
400O PR I NT "1" P0KE59468, 12 



3848 PRINT 
3858 PRINT 



TO 1580 NEXT 




MMSFORTH VERSION 2.0: 

MORE FOR YOUR RADIO SHACK 
TRS-80 MODEL I OR MODEL III ! 

if MORE SPEED 

10-20 times faster than Level II BASIC 

it MORE ROOM 

Very compact compiled code plus VIRTUAL 
MEMORY maKes your RAM act larger Variable 
number of block buffers 31 char unique word 
names use only 4 bytes in header' 

it MORE INSTRUCTIONS 

Add YOUR commands to its 79 STANDARD plus 

instruction set' 

Far more complete than most Forths single & 

double precision, arrays, string-handling, clock. 

more 

• MORE EASE 

Excellent full-screen Editor, structured 4 

modular programming 

Word search utility 

THE NOTEPAD letter writer 

Optimized for your TRS-80 with keyboard 

repeats, upper/lower case display driver, full 

ASCII, single- & double-width graphics, etc 

if MORE POWER 

Forth operating system 

Interpreter AND compiler 

8080 Assembler 

(Z80 Assembler also available) 

Intermix 35 to 80-track disk drives 

Model III System can read, write & run Model I 

diskettes' 

VIRTUAL I/O for video and printer, disk and tape 

dO Megabyte hard disk available) 




FORTH 



See List of Advertisers on page 178 



THE PROFESSIONAL FORTH 
FOR TRS-80 

(Over 2,000 systems in use) 

MMSFORTH Disk System V2 (requires 1 disk drive & 
16K RAM. 32K for Model III) $129.95* 

AND MMS GIVES IT 
PROFESSIONAL SUPPORT 

Source code provided 

MMSFORTH Newsletter 

Many demo programs aboard 

MMSFORTH User Groups 

Inexpensive upgrades to latest version 

Programming staff can provide advice, modifications 

and custom programs, to fit YOUR needs 

MMSFORTH UTILITIES DISKETTE includes FLOATING 
POINT MATH (L.2 BASIC ROM routines plus Complex 
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Degrees mode, more), plus a full Forth sty le Z80 ASSEM 
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Forth words by block and line All on one diskette 
(requires MMSFORTH V2 0. 1 drive & 32K RAM) S39.95* 

FORTHCOM: communications package provides RS-232 
driver, dumb terminal mode, transfer of FORTH blocks, 
and host mode to operate a remote TRS-80 (requires 
MMSFORTH V2 0. 1 drive & 32K RAM) $39 95' 

THE DATAHANDLER V1.2: a very sophisticated data 
base management system operable by non-pro- 
grammers (requires MMSFORTH V? 0. 1 drive & 32K 
RAM) $59.95* 

MMSFORTH GAMES DISKETTE real-time graphics & 
board games w/source code Includes BREAKFORTH. 
CRASHFORTH. CRYPTOQUOTE. FREEVMAY. OTHELLO 
& TICTACFORTH (requires MMSFORTH V2 0. 1 drive & 
32K RAM) $39.95* 

Other MMSFORTH products under development 

FORTH BOOKS AVAILABLE 

MMSFORTH USERS MANUAL without Appendices, for 
non-owners $17.50* 

STARTING FORTH best companion to our man- 
ual $15.95* 

INVITATION TO FORTH - detailed beginner book on 
figFORTH $17.50* 

THREADED INTERPRETIVE LANGUAGES advanced, 
excellent analysis of MMSFORTH like lan- 
guage. $18.95* 

PROGRAM DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION intro to struc 
tured programming, good for Forth $13.95* 

FORTH 79 STANDARD MANUAL official reference to 
79STANDARD word set. etc $13.95* 

FORTH SPECIAL ISSUE, BYTE Magazine (Aug 1980) 
we stock this collector's item for Forth users and begin 
ners $4.00* 

* ORDERING INFORMATION Software prices include 
manuals and require signing of a single system, single- 
user license SPECIFY for Model I or Model III! Add 
$2 00 S/H plus $3.00 per MMSFORTH and $1 00 per addi 
tional book, Mass orders add 5% tax Foreign orders 
add 20% UPS COD. VISA & M/C accepted, no unpaid 
purchase orders, please 

Send SASE tor tree MMSFORTH information 
Good dealers sought 

Get MMSFORTH products from your 
computer dealer or 

MILLER MICROCOMPUTER 

SERVICES (K11) 

61 Lake Shore Road, Natick, MA 01760 
(617)653-6136 ^255 



Microcomputing, January 1982 107 



Now with added words! # 

ELECTRIC MOUTH 




for SI 00, Elf II, Apple CQQ Ol 

TRS-80, Level II* twm Ocf if .51 3 k " 

Now — teach your computer to talk, 
increasing interaction between you 
and your machine. 

That s riant the ELECTRIC MOUTH actually lets your computer talk! Installed 
and on-line in just minutes, it's ready for spoken language use in office, busi- 
ness, industrial and commercial applications, and in games, special project:. 
RAD. education, security devices— there's no end to the ELECTRIC MOUTH's 
usefulness Look at these features: 

• Supplied with 143 letters/words/phonemes/numbers, capable of producing 
hundreds of words and phrases 

• Expandable onboard up to thousands of words and phrases with additional 
speech ROMs (see new speech ROM described below) 

• Four models, that plug directly into S100. Apple. Elf II and TRS-80 Level II 
computers. 

• Get ELECTRIC MOUTH to talk with either Basic or machine language (very 
easy to use. complete instructions with examples included) 

• Uses National Semiconductor s "Digitalker ' 

• Includes onboard audio amplifier and speaker, with provisions for external 
speakers. 

• Installs in just minutes. 

Principle of Operation: The ELECTRIC MOUTH stores the digital equivalents 
of words in ROMs When words, phrases and phonemes are desired, they 
simply are called for by your program and then synthesized into speech. The 
ELECTRIC MOUTH system requires none of your valuable memory space ex- 
cept for a few addresses if used in memory mapped mode In most cases, output 
ports (user selectable) are used. 

SPOKEN MATERIAL INCLUDED (Vox I) 



one 


eighteen 


at 




dollar inches 


number 


ss c t 


two 


nineteen 


■■■I 


down is 


of 


second d u 


three 


twenty 


case 




equal it 


off 


set e v 


four 


thirty 


cent 




error kilo 


on 


space f w 


five 


forty 


400hertz tone 


feet left 


out 


speed o x 
star h y 


SIX 


fifty 


aohertz tone 


flow less 


over 


seven 


sixty 


20ms silence 


fuel lesser 


parenthes' 


s start i z 


eight 


seventy 


40ms 


silem.e 


gallon limit 


percent 


stop j 
than k 


nine 


eighty 


80ms 


silence 


go low 


please 


ten 


ninety 


180ms silence 


gram lower 


plus 


the I 


eleven 


hundred 


320ms silence 


great mark 


point 


time m 


twelve 


thousand 


centi 




greater meter 
nave mile 


pound 


try n 


thirteen 


million 


check 




pulse* 


up 


fourteen 


zero 


comma 


high mill! 


rate 


volt p 


fifteen 


again 


control 


higher minus 


re 


weight q 


sixteen 


ampere 
ana 


danger 


hour minute 


ready 


a r 


seventeen 


degree 


in near 


right 


b s 


ADDITIONAL VOCABULARY NOW AVAILABLE (VOX II) 


abort 


complete 


fifth 


light 


put 


station 


add 


continue 


fire 


load 


quarter 


switch 


adjust 


copy 




first 


lock 


range 


system 


alarm 


i.orre«;t 




floor 


longer 


reached 


emperalure 


alert 


crease 




fourth 


more 


receive 


test 


all 


"de" 




forwarc 


move 


record 


"th 


ask 


deposi 


1 


from 


next 


reverse 


thank 


assistance 


dial 




gas 


no 


red 


third 


attention 


door 




** 


normal 


repair 


this 


blue 

brake 

button 


east 




going 


north 


repeat 


turn 


•ed' 
emergency 


green 
hale 


not 
notice 


replace 
room 


under 
use 


buy 
call 
called 


enter 
entry 

"er" 




heat 

hello 

help 


open 

operator 

or 


safe 

second 

secure 


waiting 
warning 


caution 


"eth" 




hurts 


pass 


select 


water 


celsius 


evacuate 


hold 


pet" 


send 


west 


centigrade 


exit 




hot 


power 


service 


wind 


change 


fail 




in 


press 


side 


window 


circuit 


failure 




incorrect pressure 


slow 


yellow 


cigar 


fahrenheil 


intruder 


process 


slower 


yes 
zone 


close 


fast 




key 


pull 


smoke 


cold 


faster 




level 


push 


south 




*R(}}>ist< 


nod Tradamu 


*a 









■ Continental U.S.A. Credit Card Buyers Outside Connecticut 

: TO ORDER 

• Call Toll Free: 800-243-7428 

To Order From Connecticut, or For Technical 
; Assistance, call (203) 354-9375 

il^NETRONICS R&D LTD. 

■ ■MA 333 Litchfield Koad, New IMilford.CT 06776 

Dept K8 

5 Please send the items checked below: 

■ 

■ C I S100 "Electric Mouth" kit w Vox I $ 99.95 

S □ Elf II "Electric Mouth" kit w/Vox I $ 99.95 

■ C ) Apple "Electric Mouth" kit w/Vox I $119.95 

■ □ TRS-80 Level II "Electric Mouth" kit w/Vox I $119.95 

I D VOX II (Second Word Set) $ 39.95 

Add $20 00 for wired tested units instead of kits VOX II postage A insurance 
B $1 00 all others %.i 00 postage and insurance Conn res add sales tax 

I Total Enclosed $ 

■ 

;C Personal Check D Cashier's Check/Money Order 
"□ Visa □ Master Charg.- (Bank No. ) 

■.Acct.No. Exp. Date 

■ 



Signature 
Print 
Name 



I Address 

| City 

■ State _ 



Zip- 



PR I NT" 
PRINT" 
PRINT" 
PRINT". 



SUN 



PRIW'SSSSS SS 
PRINT'SSSSSS S 



"WNttt 



Listing continued. 

4010 PRINT" 

4820 

4836 

4848 

4050 

4055 

4060 

4070 

4088 

4898 

4100 

4208 

4210 

4220 

4230 

4240 

4250 

4260 

4270 

4308 

4310 

4320 

4330 

4340 

4500 

4510 

4520 

4530 

4540 

4550 

4560 

4610 

4700 

4710 

4711 

4712 

4714 

4820 

4838 

4848 

4850 

4868 

4870 

4875 

4880 

4898 

4900 FORX=0TO5080 

10000 REM PARSING 

19010 FOR 01=1 TO 



NS 

SS 

AS 

ASS 

ASS v 



< o )> 

ft t t t t t t 
t tt t t t t 

t t t f t t /N 

t t t t t 11/ \ 
t It 1 t / \ 

ttt ttt ttttAAAA 



"PRINT 

WHERE DOES THE WATER TO MAKE 
CLOUDS COME FROM''" PRINT 
<1>THE WATER IS ALWAVS IN THE AIR" PRINT 
<2>WATER EVAPORATES FROM THE OCEANS" PRINT 
<3>WATER VAPOR FROM THE POLAR CAP" PRINT 
TVPE 1,2 OR 3 



PRINT" 

PRINT" 

PRINT" 

PRINT" 

PRINT" 

PRINT" 

PRINT" 

PRINT" 

PRINT" 

PRINT" 

INPUT DA 

IF DA=2 THEN 4788 

PRINT'TT PRINT : PRINT PRINT : P0KE59468, 14 

PRINT" OH DEAR, THATS WRONG. TRV AGAIN - " PRINT 

PRINT" TVPE VES OR NO 

INPUT DB$ 

IF DB$="V" THEN 4800 

PR I NT "WOULD V0U LIKE TO SEE THE VIDEO AGAIN?" PRINT 

PRINT" TVPE VES OR NO" 

INPUT DC$ 

IF DC*="N" THEN 50000 

CS*="S2780S" GOSUB 18868 F0RJ=1T02888 NEXT 

CS*="G" GOSUB 10008 

08=586 GOSUB 13008 

GOT 04000 

PR I NT "1" P0KE59468, 14 

PR I NT "GREAT! YOU'VE DONE 



I T AGA I N" FOR I =8T02888 NEXT PR I NT PR I NT PR I NT 



EVAPORATES" 
ATMOSPHERE" 



CS$="S2788S" GOSUB 18888 F0RJ=1T02686 NEXT 

CS$="G"GOSUB10000 

08=685 GOSUB 13880 

PR I NT "FROM THE OCEANS SURFACE WATER 

PR I NT "CONTINUOUSLY RETURNING TO THE 

FOR 1=8 TO 3800 NEXT PRINT 

SOMETIMES FORMING CLOUDS. " FORI=0TO3080 NEXT PRINT PRINT 

TIME LAPSE PHOTOGRAPHY ENABLES US TO" PRINT 

OBSERVE THE DEVELOPMENT OF CLOUDS" PRINT 

IN DET A I L . " PR I NT PR I NT PR I NT 
NEXT PRINT 
MOVE ALONG " FORI =0TO 1 500 NEXT 



PRINT" 

PRINT" 

PRINT" 

PRINT" 

FOR I=0TO4000 

PRINT"TIME TO 



NEXT G0T085 
ROUTINE FOR 
L£N<CS$) 



est 



10028 
10030 

10048 
11000 
11010 
11020 
11030 

11048 
11045 

11058 

11060 

11070 

11088 
1109O 

11100 
12000 
12010 

12028 
12030 
12040 
12058 
12060 

13000 
13010 

13020 
13030 
13040 
13060 

19000 

19010 
19020 
19030 
19035 
19040 
19050 
19060 

20000 
20010 

20020 
20030 

21000 

21010 
21020 
2103O 
21040 
21045 
21950 
21060 
21070 
21080 
2109O 
21100 
22000 
22810 
22028 
22030 
22040 
23000 
23010 
2302O 
23030 
23040 
23050 

50000 
50010 

5002O 



01,1 >> GOSUB 11 880 



Q2=ASC(MID$'XS$ J 
NEXT 
RETURN 

IF Q2>57 OR Q2<48 THEN 11020 
G3=TX< 02-47 > GOTO 1 106O 
IF Q2>72 OR 02<70 THEN 11848 
G3=TX< 02-59 > G0T01 1868 
03=8 

IF 02=88 THEN 
IF 02=83 THEN 
POKE 59471,03 
FOR J=l TO Q9 
,8 
09 



G3=TX<14> 
Q3=TXU5> 



NEXT 



NEXT 
POKE 59471 
FOR J=l TO 
RETURN 
DIM TX<15> 

DATA 86 , 22 , 38 , 78 , 54 , 82 , 1 8 , 34 , 66 
DATA 58,81,52,69,53,83 
FOR J=i TO 15 READ TX<J> : NEXT 
09=58 

POKE 59459,255 
RETURN 

REM WAIT ROUTINE TO ALLOW PLAYING 
REM 08 FRAMES. PICTURE THEN STOPS 
04=<08*2>+TI 

IF 04>TI THEN 04=04+8.365 GOTO 13838 
CS$="H" : GOSUB 18888 RETURN 
REM STILL "H" CHflLT) 
D9=58 
DIMTXU5) 
G0SUB22888 

I NPUT "COMMAND STR I NG~> " , CS» 
PRINT 

GOSUB28800 
PRINT PRINT 
GOTO 19030 
FOR Q1=1T0LEN(CS$> 
02=ASC<MID$<CS$,Q1 
NEXT 
RETURN 

IF Q2>57 OR Q2<48 THEN *j 
Q3=TX < 02-47 > GOTO 21868 
IF Q2>72 OR Q2<78 THEN 21840 
03=TX < 02-59 > G0T02 1668 
03=8 

IF02=88 THEN 03=TX<14> 
IFQ2=33 THEN Q3«TX<15> 
PRINT CHR$<Q2>, POKE 59471,03 
F0RJ=1 TO D9 NEXT 
P0KE59471,8 
F0RJ=1 TO D9 NEXT 
RETURN 

DATA 86,22,38,78,54,82,18,34,66 
DATA 58,81,52,69,53,83 
F0RJ=1 TO 15 READTXCJ) NEXT 
POKE 59459,255 
RETURN 



1>> GOSUB21800 



SI 020 



REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 



*** COMMAND SUMMARY *** 



NUMBERS 
SEARCH 
PAUSE 
PLAY 
FRAME 
PRINT PRINT 
PR I NT "MAYBE 
PRINT" BYE 



»Qi'_"9» 



ii r- ii 

O 
ii p ll 

"G" (GO) 

■ I c " 

PRINT PRINT" 
VOU WILL FEEL 
FOR NOW!" 



SORRY ABOUT THAT." PRINT 
BETTER TOMORROW. " PRINT 



108 Microcomputing, January 1982 



SAVE 
$$$ 



TRS-80 

MICROCOMPUTERS 

v^ r\LL Uo • • • 

SAVE MONEY 



SAVE 
$$$ 



xm&mr m 



Model II 
64 K 

$3270.00 
up to 16% 
discount off 
retail 



CALL COLLECT: 

512 - 689-5536 

Master Electronics, Inc. 

154 N. 5th, Raymondville, Tx. 78580 



master charge 



Form F48 Provided 
Standard Warranty On Merchandise 



Authorized TRS-80 Dealer. Store #F-723 



-72 






Model EP-2A-87 



EPROM Programmer 

The Model EP-2A-87 EPROM 
Programmer has an RS-232 
compatible interface and in- 
cludes a 2K, 4K or 8K buffer. 
Seventeen RS-232 commands 
allow another computer to 
download or remotely control 
the Programmer. INTEL, 
TEXTRONIX OR MOTOROLA 
formats are supported. The 
buffer may be edited directly 
from a CRT and EPROMS can 
be copied off-line. Power re- 
quirements are 115v 50/60 
Hertz at 15 watts. 

EP-2A-87-1 Programmer with 2K Buffer $575.00 

EP-2A-87-2 Programmer with 4K Buffer $650.00 

EP-2A-87-3 Programmer with 8K Buffer $725.00 

Non-Standard voltage (220v,240v, or 100) $ 15.00 




Personality Modules 



PM-0 

PM-1 

PM-2 

PM-2A 

PM-3 

PM-4 

PM-5 



TMS2708 $18.00 

2708 18.00 

2732 34.00 

2732A 34.00 

TMS2716 26.00 

2532 34.00 

2716 18.00 



PM-5E 

PM-6 

PM-7 

PM-8 

PM9 

PM-10 



2816 $36.00 

2704 18.00 

2758 18.00 

MCM68764 36.00 

2764 36.00 

2564 36.00 



SA-64-2 2564 39.00 



SA-64-3 2764 39.00 



Optimal Technology, Inc. 

Phone (804) 973-5482 " 29 

Blue Wood 127 Earlysville, VA 22936 



Your Pascal too slow? 

Not anymore . . . 



with the PASCAL SPEED-UP KIT, which includes THE MILL: the easiest 
way to give your Pascal system a tremendous performance boost. 

Here is how it works: 

1) Plug in THE MILL 

2) Run our configuration program one rime 

3) That's oil 

You now have a 30 to 300% foster Pascal P-mochine, and you 
don't hove to recompile, reprogram or relink. FORTRAN users may 
also take advantage of THE PASCAL SPEED-UP KIT. Contact your 
local Apple dealer for more information. 

THE ASSEMBLER DEVELOPMENT KIT 

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Microcomputing, January 1982 109 



The TRS-80 and the IP-225 get together with this simple interface circuit 



Upgrade Your IDS Printer 



By Peter E. Noeth 



The Integral Data Systems 
IP-225 is a good dot matrix print- 
er with graphics capability. Unfortu- 
nately, as delivered, it will not direct- 
ly interface to the TRS-80 Model I 
line-printer port. The following cir- 
cuitry will allow this interface with a 
minimum of effort and cost. 

Basic Problem 

The difficulty lies in two areas. 
First, the strobe pulse in the TRS-80 is 
only 1.5 fis long and the IP-225 re- 
quires a minimum of 4 jis pulse. Sec- 
ond, the acknowledge pulse occurs 
100 /is after the strobe is active. The 
printer status routine in the TRS-80 
checks for this pulse to be active ap- 
proximately 35-40 /is after it outputs 
a character (strobe active). If it does 
not see an active pulse the printer 
routine assumes the printer is ready 
and outputs the next character. (See 
Figs. 1 and 2.) 



4 M sec 



STROBE 



ACK 



100 fit%c 



Fig. 1. IP-225 input timing. 



TRS-80 
STROBE 



STROBE PULSE 
STRETCHER 



ACK TO 
TRS-80 



"II 



"1 



7>i tec 



_J 



Solution 

The circuit as shown in Fig. 3 will 
correct the above problems. In the 
circuit, the 74121 is used as a pulse 
stretcher to provide a 7 /is strobe 
pulse to the printer logic board. 
When the strobe from the TRS-80 
goes low, the set input on the 7474 
forces the Q output high. This will re- 
main until cleared. When the ACK 
pulse from the IP-225 returns high 
(printer ready), it clocks the D input, 
which is tied low, and resets the Q 
output low. The result of this action 
provides an ACK active pulse to the 
TRS-80 as soon as the strobe is active, 
so no delay is evident to the printer 
status routine in the TRS-80 and no 
characters will be lost. 

Interconnection 

I built my circuit on a two-inch- 



♦ 5V 
A 



IK 
FROM 
TRS-80 Q f I f — 
STROBE 



IS 




TO 

(D PRINTER 

~\T~ STROBE 



♦5V 



k 1 



TO 

TRS-80® 

BUSY J j 




FROM 
<4) PRINTER 
ACK 



square piece of perfboard using 
sockets for the two integrated cir- 
cuits. I insulated the underside of the 
board with a piece of light cardboard 
and mounted it to the support be- 
tween the transformer and the print- 
er logic board on the bottom side of 
the IP-225, using RTV adhesive. This 
position allows you to break the leads 
coming from the printer logic board 
to the 25-pin interface connector on 
the back of the IP-225 to insert the 
new interface board. I also ran two 
wires from the ground and 5 V power 
bus on the printer logic board to pro- 
vide the required power for the new 
interface. (See Fig. 4 for the con- 
nections.) 

Although I designed this interface 
for the IP-225, it also could be used 
with any parallel I/O printer to be in- 
terfaced to the TRS-80 that does not 
meet the as-originally-designed tim- 
ing requirements of the strobe and 
acknowledge pulses. ■ 



Address correspondence to Peter E. Noeth, 6906 
Lenwood Way, San Jose, CA 95120. 



2 WHT 



IP-225 
l/F CONN 




Fig. 2. Timing activity on interface circuit. 



Fig. 3. IP-255 interface circuit. 



Fig. 4. Interface board interconnection. 



110 Microcomputing, January 1982 



H 
& 

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Software 



100 Ready-To-Run 
Business Programs 



(ON CASSETTE OR DI SKETTE) includes 110 Page Users Manual 5 Cassettes (Or Diskettes) 

Inventory Control. ....Payroll. Bookkeeping System. Stock Calculations. 

Checkbook Maintenance.. ...Accounts Receivable.....Accounts Payable..... 



BUSINESS 100 PROGRAM LIST 



1 
2 

3 

4 
5 
6 

7 



RULE78 

ANNU1 

DATE 

DAYYEAR 

LEASEJNT 

BREAKEVN 

DEPRSL 

8 DEPRSY 

9 DEPRDB 

10 DEPRDDB 

11 TAXDEP 

12 CHECK2 

13 CHECKBK1 

14 MORTGAGE/A 

1 5 MULTMON 

16 SALVAGE 

17 RRVAR1N 

18 RRCONST 

19 EFFECT 

20 FVAL 

21 PVAL 

22 LOANPAY 

23 REGWTTH 

24 SIMPDISK 

25 DATEVAL 

26 ANNUDEF 

27 MARKUP 

28 SINKFUND 

29 BONDVAL 

30 DEPLETE 

31 BLACKSH 

32 STOCVAL1 

33 WARVAL 

34 BONDVAL2 

35 EPSEST 

36 BETAALPH 

37 SHARPE1 

38 OPTWRITE 
RTVAL 
EXPVAL 
BAYES 
VALPRINF 
VALADIMF 
UTILITY 
SIMPLEX 
TRAMS 
EOQ 
QUEUE 1 
CVP 

CONDPROF 
OPTLOSS 
FQUOQ 



39 

40 

41 

42 

43 

44 

45 

46 

47 

48 

49 

50 

51 

52 



NAME 

53 FQEOWSH 

54 FQEOQPB 

55 QUEUECB 

56 NCFANAL 

57 PROFIND 

58 CAP1 



Interest Apportionment by Rule of the 78s 

Annuity computation program 

Time between dates 

Day of year a particular date falls on 

Interest rate on lease 

Breakeven analysis 

Straightline depreciation 

Sum of the digits depreciation 

Declining balance depreciation 

Double declining balance depreciation 

Cash flow vs. depreciation tables 

Prints NEBS checks along with daily register 

Checkbook maintenance program 

Mortgage amortization table 

Computes time needed for money to double, triple, 

Determines salvage value of an investment 

Rate of return on investment with variable inflows 

Rate of return on investment with constant inflows 

Effective interest rate of a loan 

Future value of an investment (compound interest) 

Present value of a future amount 

Amount of payment on a loan 

Equal withdrawals from investment to leave over 

Simple discount analysis 

Equivalent & nonequivalent dated values for obiig. 

Present value of deferred annuities 

% Markup analysis for items 

Sinking fund amortization program 

Value of a bond 

Depletion analysis 

Black Scholes options analysis 

Expected return on stock via discounts dividends 

Value of a warrant 

Value of a bond 

Estimate of future earnings per share for company 

Computes alpha and beta variables for stock 

Portfolio selection modei-i.e. what stocks to hold 

Option writing computations 

Value of a right 

Expected value analysis 

Bayesian decisions 

Value of perfect information 

Value of additional information 

Derives utility function 

Linear programming solution by simplex method 

Transportation method for linear programming 

Economic order quantity inventory model 

Single server queueing (waiting line) model 

Cost-volume-profit analysis 

Conditional profit tables 

Opportunity loss tables 

Fixed quantity economic order quantity model 



DESCRIPTION 

As above but with shortages permitted 

As above but with quantity price breaks 

Cost-benefit waiting line analysis 

Net cash-flow analysis for simple investment 

Profitability index of a project 

Cap. Asset Pr. Model analysis of project 



etc. 



59 WACC 

60 COMPBAL 

61 DISCBAL 

62 MERGANAL 

63 FINRAT 

64 NPV 

65 PRINDLAS 

66 PRINDPA 

67 SEASIND 

68 T1METR 

69 T1MEMOV 

70 FUPRINF 

71 MAILPAC 

72 LETWRT 

73 SORT3 

74 LABEL 1 

75 LABEL2 

76 BUSBUD 

77 TTMECLCK 

78 ACCTPAY 

79 INVOICE 

80 INVENT2 

81 TELDIR 

82 T1MUSAN 

83 ASSIGN 

84 ACCTREC 

85 TERMSPAY 

86 PAYNET 

87 SELLPR 

88 ARBCOMP 

89 DEPRSF 

90 UPSZONE 

91 ENVELOPE 

92 AUTOEXP 

93 INSFILE 

94 PAYROLL2 

95 DILANAL 

96 LOANAFFD 

97 RENTPRCH 

98 SALELEAS 

99 RRCONVBD 
100 PORTVAL9 



Weighted average cost of capital 

True rate on loan with compensating bal. required 

True rate on discounted loan 

Merger analysis computations 

Financial ratios for a firm 

Net present value of project 

Laspeyres price index 

Paasche price index 

Constructs seasonal quantity indices for company 

Time series analysis linear trend 

Time series analysis moving average trend 

Future price estimation with inflation 

Mailing list system 

Letter writing system-links with MAILPAC 

Sorts list of names 

Shipping label maker 

Name label maker 

DOME business bookkeeping system 

Computes weeks total hours from timeclock info. 

In memory accounts payable system-storage permitted 

Generate invoice on screen and print on printer 

In memory inventory control system 

Computerized telephone directory 

Time use analysis 

Use of assignment algorithm for optimal job assign. 

In memory accounts receivable system-storage ok 

Compares 3 methods of repayment of loans 

Computes gross pay required for given net 

Computes selling price for given after tax amount 

Arbitrage computations 

Sinking fund depreciation 

Finds UPS zones from zip code 

Types envelope including return address 

Automobile expense analysis 

Insurance policy file 

In memory payroll system 

Dilution analysis 

Loan amount a borrower can afford 

Purchase price for rental property 

Sale- leaseback analysis 

Investor's rate of return on convertable bond 

Stock market portfolio storage-valuation program 



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Microcomputing, January 1982 111 



In this and the following article, Kilobaud Microcomputing takes a close look at this highly touted 

printer from C. Itoh. The consensus is. . . 



Spotlight on the Starwriter 



By Mark J. Borgerson 



If you can wait a minute, we can 
save you $1000," claims C. Itoh 
about its Starwriter printer. But how 
much is a minute? After connecting 
my new Starwriter to my Apple II, I 
decided to find out. 

I printed a page of text on the Star- 
writer, and then printed the same 
text on a Qume. The result: the Qume 
($3415) took 123 seconds, while the 
Starwriter ($2230) took 173 seconds. 
The Starwriter, then, took about 42 
percent longer than the Qume. 

In a large office, where speed is im- 
portant to efficiency, the extra print- 
out time might not be worth the sav- 
ings. But as a consultant and free- 
lance writer, I can always find some- 
thing to do while the printer cranks 
out my latest manuscript. I can also 
find a lot of things to do with $1185. 

Two Steps 

The engineers at C. Itoh took two 
steps to achieve the $1000 price re- 
duction. First, they replaced the 
expensive and complicated servo 
drive mechanism that Qume, NEC 
and Diablo printers use to position 
the printhead with a high- resolution 
stepping motor. The motor's limited 
stepping speed is probably responsi- 
ble, at least in part, for the lower 



print speed of the Starwriter. Second, 
they used an 8085 microprocessor as 
a system controller and minimized 
the complexity of the printer's 
electronics. 

As far as I can tell, they cut no cor- 
ners in the mechanical assembly of 
the printer. The case is cast-alumi- 
num, well-covered inside with 
sound-deadening foam. The printer 
frame is a hefty aluminum casting, 
and the bearings, guide rails and ca- 
bles controlling the printhead all 
seem comparable in quality to the 
more expensive daisywheel printers. 

My printer came with a standard 
Centronics parallel interface. An 
RS-232 serial interface is also avail- 
able as an option. The printer is plug- 
compatible with a number of inter- 



faces for the Apple— I chose the Ep- 
son interface (generally sold with the 
Epson MX-80) because it costs about 
$90 less than the Apple Centronics in- 
terface. The Epson card is completely 
hardware- and software-compatible 
with the Apple interface. 

The Starwriter has several internal 
switches which allow you to select 
operating modes for the printer. A 
toggle switch inside the front cover 
lets you select ten or 12 characters 
per inch. The standard printer is 
equipped with a ten-pitch Courier 
print wheel. (The printer uses the 
widely-available Diablo print wheels 
and ribbons.) A set of DIP switches 
inside the rear cover control func- 
tions such as default form length and 
auto line-feed. 



Address correspondence to Mark J. Borgerson, 
1624 NW Kings Blvd., Corvallis, OR 97330. 



@b 



@- 



Bold-Face Print can be used 

to accent words. 
Underlining also makes words 

stand out. 



@u, @d These commands give su P er and subscr i pts 
@s!0,20,30. This sets tab stops at columns 



et 



10,20 and 30. 
This command moves the print head to 
the next tab stop. 
Example 1. 



112 Microcomputing, January 1982 







The Starwriter /Starwriter II daisywheel printer. 



One of the most important option 
switches controls the printer mode. 
This switch has two positions: serial 
mode and line mode. In the line 
mode, the printer will not print any 
characters until the full line is re- 
ceived. The printer will then print bi- 
directionally and use logic-seeking to 
minimize printhead movement. Se- 
quences of space characters are con- 
verted to a single, continuous head 
movement. This mode is about 17 
percent faster than the serial mode (I 
used the serial mode in the print 
speed comparison), but the printer 
will respond to only a few special 
commands. 

In the serial mode, the printer re- 
sponds to all the Qume control se- 
quences, but prints unidirectionally. 
This cuts the print speed, but lets you 
use the reverse line- feed, tabbing and 
direct carriage control features the 
same as you would with a Qume. 
Since a lot of word processing soft- 
ware uses these features, you will 
probably want to use this mode most 
of the time. If however, you plan to 
do a lot of long program listings, the 
line mode may appeal to you. 

Example 1 shows some of the spe- 
cial features available in the Qume 



emulation mode. It's a portion of the 
demonstration text provided with a 
software package I wrote called 
Stardriver, which extends the capa- 
bilities of the Apple-Writer word pro- 
cessor to let you include special print 
mode commands in your text. 

Only One Problem 

In the first six weeks that I owned 
Starwriter, I printed a number of 
short articles and two drafts of a 
150-page book. With one small ex- 
ception, the printer performed flaw- 
lessly. The exception had to do with 
the paper advance motor: the stepper 
motor which drives the platen and 
tractor feed is a little less powerful 
than I would like. At one time it 
stalled under load and caused several 
lines to overprint. I discovered that 
this is only a problem with heavy pa- 
per. The paper guide puts the paper 
under tension by running it between 
a metal plate and several foam pres- 
sure pads. The combination of heavy 
paper, friction and the weight of the 
paper (which sits in a box on the 
floor) was too much for the motor. I 
removed the paper guide (which I 
didn't need anyway) and have had no 
problems since. 

A second problem might arise if 



you intend to implement a graphics 
program that uses extensive forward 
and reverse paper movements. The 
Starwriter tractor feed grips the 
paper only after it passes the platen. 
The Qume tractor, on the other hand, 
grips the paper both before and after 
it goes around the platen. This means 
that the Qume actually pulls the pa- 
per back when doing reverse line 
feeds. The Starwriter tractor will on- 
ly pull the paper forward. Reverse 
movements depend on the platen 
friction. Thus, a possible registration 
problem may arise if you try multiple 
reverse paper movements. 

Conclusion 

If you can tolerate the loss in printer 
throughput and want to save a thou- 
sand dollars or more, take a close 

look at the Starwriter from C. Itoh. It 
is a well-designed, ruggedly con- 
structed printer with a number of 
nice features. Among the most im- 
portant of these is the printer' s ability 
to imitate the Qume printer in appli- 
cations where the special control 
codes of the Qume are employed. 
The printer also uses Diablo print 
wheels and ribbons, which are avail- 
able through computer stores and of- 
fice supply outlets in most cities. ■ 

Microcomputing, January 1982 113 



. . . it's a lotta printer for the money. 



Letter-Quality Printer 
For the Budget-Minded 



By William L. Colsher 



The C. Itoh Starwriter has been a 
reliable and easy-to-use printer 
for my Apple III system, and I recom- 
mend it to anyone who needs letter- 
quality output on a budget. 

I bought an Apple III back in De- 
cember of 1980, primarily for word 
processing. The dealer warned me 
that the software would not be avail- 
able for some time, but I went ahead 
with the purchase so I could become 
familiar with the system as quickly as 



Transmission Speed 
BPS SI S2 



2400 

1200 

600 

300 



open 
closed 
open 
closed 



Parity S5 



open* 
open 
closed 
closed 

S6 



even open 


open 


odd open 


closed* 


none closed 


open 


Character Length 


S3 


7 Bits 


closed* 


8 bits 


open 



Stop Bits 

1 
2 



S8 

closed* 
open 



* Indicates factory setting. 

Table 1. Printer settings. (From C. Itoh Elec- 
tronics' Starwriter User's Manual, pp. 4-5.) 



Address correspondence to William L. Colsher, 
1711 Robin Lane, Lisle, IL 60532. 



114 Microcomputing, January 1982 



possible. I decided to forego a printer 
until Word Painter, Apple's word 
processor, came to market. 

I soon discovered the power of 
VisiCalc III and Business Basic, and 
almost as quickly realized that I still 
needed a printer. What good is a Visi- 
Calc back order report if you can't 
print it out? 

Since I planned to use the Apple III 
for word processing, it seemed sensi- 
ble to purchase a letter-quality print- 
er. Apple distributes the Qume, but I 
felt that it was a little high-powered 
(and expensive) for my needs. A little 
research turned up the C. Itoh Star- 
writer. At a price about $1000 less 
than the other letter-quality printers 
on the market, it looked like the ma- 
chine for me. 



Naturally, something had to be sac- 
rificed for that much money. My 
Starwriter prints at 25 characters per 
second, roughly half the speed of the 
more costly machines. But for my 
purposes, time is not critical. 

The Starwriter is a massive unit. It 
weighs 19.5 kiloL almost 43 pounds. 
A look inside the ousing reveals the 
reason: the mechanism is supported 
by a massive die-cast aluminum 
frame. This printer is solid. 

Since the Apple III does not yet 
have a parallel printer interface card, 
connecting the Starwriter was not 
quite the plug-it-in-and-print opera- 
tion it often is with Centronics-type 
machines. Further, since the Apple 
III does nearly everything with soft- 
ware, getting the built-in serial port 




My Apple III and a C. Itoh Starwriter, being checked out at my dealer. Note the size of the printer relative 
to the 12-inch monitor and the Apple. 



to talk with the outside world in- 
volves more than flipping a couple of 
switches to set the data rate. 

The Apple III serial port is config- 
ured as data terminal equipment 
(DTE). This allows the Apple III to 
function with the correct software as 
a smart terminal. Since a printer is al- 
so a DTE device, you need a modem 
eliminator, which is simply a short 
piece of cable that connects the pin 
the Apple III is sending on to the pin 
the printer expects to receive data on. 
Without the modem eliminator, the 
Apple III would send data on the 



same pin that the printer is trying to 
send data on— something like two 
deaf and blind people talking to each 
other. 

Apple supplies a modem eliminator 
with each Apple III, so the wiring is 
simple. Plug the eliminator into the 
Apple and then plug the printer cable 
into the other end of the modem 
eliminator. 

As I mentioned earlier, the Apple 
III uses software to control operation. 
There are no DIP switches to set the 
data rate and format. Instead, there 
is a device driver. All of the Ap- 



In addition to the usual capabilities one expects from any printer, the 
Starwriter has a number of interesting features that add considerably to it's 
versatility. For example, by transmitting the sequence: ESC D, the 



Starwr iter will f 

e 
e, 

up half a space. The ESC U 

It is also possible to set the vertical spacing 

the carrier pitch in 1/123 inch increments. By 

possible to use this machine as a graphics printer... 



d back down! 

e 

■ 11 I* 

sequence will 

in 1/48 inch increments and 
using these commands it is 




( 



PRINT#1;CHR$(27) ; ' E02' fCHft$ (27) ; ' L01 

pi=3. 14159 

FOR theta=0 TO 2*pi STEP (1/24) 
tabfactor=INT(SIN( theta) *48)+lO0 
PRINT!} 1; TAB(tabf actor) ;'. ' 
NEXT theta 



N. 



Sample 1. Printout showing Starwriter's sub- and superscript abilities. 



Value 

03 
04 
06 
07 
08 
09 
0A 
0C 
OE 



Value 1— Data Rate 

Speed 

110 baud (Teletype speed) 

134.5 baud (Selectric speed) 

300 baud (normal telecommunications speed) 

600 baud 

1200 baud (normal printer speed) 

1800 baud 

2400 baud (C. Itoh printer speed) 

4800 baud 

9600 baud 

Value 2— Data Format 



Value 

22 
26 
2A 
2E 
00 
42 
46 
4A 
4E 



Format 



7 bits, odd parity 
7 bits, even parity 
7 bits, mark parity 

7 bits, space parity 

8 bits, no parity 
6 bits, odd parity 
6 bits, even parity 
6 bits, mark parity 
6 bits, space parity 



L 



Table 2. Apple III PRINTER control values. (Tables from Apple III Standard Device Drivers./ 



pie Ill's input-output operations are 
handled by these routines. This al- 
lows enormous freedom in writing 
applications programs, since all de- 
vices look the same to the program 
(e.g., by calling a disk driver ".PRINT- 
ER" your 10M Winchester can be 
used to spool printed output for later 
physical printing). 

In order to alter a device driver, use 
a program called the System Config- 
uration Program (SCP) that is sup- 
plied on the Apple III utilities disk. 

I personally dislike poking around 



1 . Boot the Apple III using the System 
Utilities disk. 

2. Select option 3— System Configuration 
Program (SCP). 

3. Select SCP function 1— add a driver 
file. 

4. Place the disk with the driver file you 
want to alter in disk drive 2. If you 
have only one disk drive, remove the 
System Utilities disk and use that disk 
drive. (Be sure to substitute ".Dl" for 
".D2" when it appears below.) 

5. In response to the prompt "enter 
driver file name:" type: .dl/sos. driver 
and press return. 

6. Press return when the file has loaded 
to go back to the SCP menu. 

7. Select SCP function 3— edit driver 
parameters. 

8. Enter the number of the ".PRINTER" 
driver when the program asks for it. 

9. Select item 5— configuration block 
data— when you are asked for a 
number. 

10. Use the cursor keys to move the box 
to the value you want to alter. 

1 1 . Press return when you have made all 
the changes you want. 

12. Press return to leave the edit driver 
parameters screen. 

13. Press return to leave the select driver 
to be edited screen. 

14. Select SCP function 5— generate new 
system. 

15. Enter a new driver file name; for ex- 
ample, .d2/new. driver. 

16. When the new driver file has been 
written, press return to go back to the 
SCP menu. 

17. Select option 7— Quit. 

18. Select option 4— Quit. 

19. Reboot the Apple III with the disk 
containing your new driver file. In 
Business Basic: 

UNLOCK SOS.DRIVER (return) 

RENAME SOS.DRIVER,OLD.DRIVER 

(return) 

RENAME NEW.DRIVER.SOS.DRIVER 

(return) 

When you boot using that disk you 

will be using your new drivers. 

Table 3. Changing a device driver. 



Microcomputing, January 1982 115 



in hardware with lots of moving 
parts. For me, the simplest course 
was to alter the device driver to agree 
with what my new printer expects. 
Table 3 shows the procedure for 
changing a driver. As you can see 
from Table 2, Apple has allowed for 
just about any printer that uses RS- 
232C interfacing. Just a few key- 
strokes and you're ready to print. 

After setting up the new device and 
connecting the printer, I was ready to 
check it all out. So after booting Busi- 
ness Basic I opened the ".PRINTER" 
file and sent out a print command. 
Nothing happened. I checked the ca- 
bles. (There are no screws on the 
eliminator cable to hold it, the Apple 
III and the printer cable together: one 
of Apple's few oversights with this 
machine!) 

After considerable head-scratch- 
ing, I discovered the rather unusual 
"paper-out" mechanism on the Star- 
writer. It's incorporated into the pa- 
per feed rack rather than into the 
platen support, as on my Epson 
MX-80. I put the paper in correctly 
and printed out "test. . .test. . .test" 
a few times, and then began to ex- 
plore some of the other capabilities of 
my new machine. 

I had expected a very basic printer 
for my money, but I soon found that 
the Starwriter has some interesting 
capabilities. Table 4 lists the various 
control codes available on the Star- 
writer. The most interesting are the 
vertical and horizontal spacing con- 
trols. 

Sample 1 shows some of the things 
that I've learned to do so far. I expect 



to make good use of the super- and 
subscripting feature, particularly if 
Apple brings out a graphing package 
for use with this type printer. You 
can do some pretty fair plotting on 
the Starwriter. Apple has a plotting 



package for the old Apple II that uses 
the Qume printer in much the same 
manner. If control codes are univer- 
sal, as implied in the Starwriter man- 
ual, it should be easy to adapt the ex- 
isting code to the Apple III. ■ 





Starwriter at a Glance 


Printing Speed 
Horizontal Spacing 
Vertical Spacing 
Carriage return time 
Line feed time 


25 characters per second 

1/120 inch min. 

1/48 inch min. 

1 second 

40 msec (1/6 inch) 


Paper width 


381 mm maximum 


Number of copies 

Font 

Power 


3 

Diablo plastic wheel compatible 

90-127 VAC, 50/60 Hz, 70 W 


Dimensions 


625 mm wide, 380 mm deep, 258 mm high 


Weight 19.5 kg 
Address: C. Itoh Electronics, 5301 Beethoven St., Los Angeles, CA 90066. 



Code 



Function 



FF 


Form feed 


ESCD 


Half line feed down 


ESCU 


Half line feed up 


ESCSP 


Printing 


ESC1 


Set horizontal tab 1 to present position 


ESC 2 


Clear all H tabs 


ESC 9 


Left margin set 


ESC0 


Right margin set 


ESC L (dl) (d2) 


vertical spacing set in 1/48-inch increments 


ESC E (dl) (d2) 


horizontal space set in 1/120-inch increments 


ESC ( (list) 


Tab set list where list is of the form dld2 . . . 




to a maximum of 16 locations. 




Tabs are absolute 


ESC SUB I 


Reset 



Table 4. Printer control codes. (From Starwriter User's Manual./ 



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CP/M is a trademark of Digital Research. 



116 Microcomputing, January 1 982 



CRT CONTROLLER 







This intelligent CRT Controller 
uses an 8085A CPU & an 8275 In- 
tegrated CRT Controller, it 
features: 

• 25lines(80char./line) 

• 5x7 dot matrix 

• Upper & lower case 

• Two 271 6's (controller & char, 
generator) 

• Serial interface RS232 & TTL 

• Baud rates of 110, 150,300,600, 
1200, 2400, 4800 and 9600 

• Keyboard scanning system 

• Unencoded keyboard required 

• Uses + 5V & + 12V Power Sup- 
plies 

• Does not have graphic 
capabilities. 

Documentation includes program 
listing and composite video cir- 
cuit. 
Bare Board only 

(with doc] $39.95 

2716Char.6en.A7 $19.95 

2716 Program A 12 $19.95 



AD CONVERTER 



m 






J BEs 16 channel A-D Converter plugs in- 
to your Apple II computer. It uses an 
ADC081 7 which incorporates a 1 6chan- 
nel multiplexer and an 8 bit A-D Con- 
verter. The 16 inputs are high im- 
pedance and the voltage range is to 
5.12volts. Conversion time is<100>isec. 
The resolution is 8 bits or 256 steps, 
linearity is ± 1/2 step. Two 16 pin DIP 
sockets are used for input, GND & 
reference voltage connections. There 
are 3 single bit TTL inputs. Doc, Includes 
sample program. 

81-132AAssm. $89.95 

81-132KKit $69.95 

81 -1326 Bare Board $29.95 



EPROM PROGRAMMER 




JBE's EPROM Programmer Is designed 
to program5V 2516's,2532's &2716's. It 
interfaces to the JBE Parallel I/O card 
using four ribbon cables. An LED in- 
dicates when the EPROM is being pro- 
grammed. A textool zero insertion force 
socket is used for the EPROM. Comes 
with complete documentation for 
writing and reading EPROM's in the Ap- 
ple II or Apple M Plus. Cables available 
separately. 

80-244 A Assm. $49.95 

80-244KKit $39.95 

80-244 B Bare Board $24.95 



PARTS 



6502 MPU 

6522 VIA 

Z-80MPU 

Z-80 PIO 

TW02114RAM 

2716 

50 pin conn. 

Dip Jumper 2 ft. 



$9.95 
$9.95 
$9.95 
$9.95 
$9.95 
$14.95 
$5.95 
$4.95 



6522 APPLE II INTERFACE 




The JBE6522 Parallel Interface for 
the Apple II Computer, plugs 
directly into any slot 1 through 7 in 
the Apple. This card has 2 6522 
VIA's that provide: 

• Four 8 bit bi-directional I/O 
ports 

• Four 16 bit programmable 
timer/counters 

• Serial shift registers 

• Handshaking 

A 74LS05 is for timing. Four 16 pin 
sockets provide easy connections 
to other peripheral devices. (Dip 
jumpers with ribbon cables are 
also available from J BE) The 6522 
Parallel I/O card interfaces to the 
JBE EPROM programmer. 
Understanding of machine 
language required to use this 
board. Inputs and outputs are TTL 
compatible. 

79-295 A $69.95 Assembled 

79-295K $59.95 Kit 

79-295B $19.95 Bareboard 



SPEECH SYNTHESIZERS 




J BEs Speech Synthesizers use 
the Votrax SC-01 Phoneme Syn- 
thesizer chip. The SC-01 
phonetically synthesizes con- 
tinuous speech of unlimited 
vocabulary. The SC-01 contains64 
different phonemes and 4 levels of 
inflection accessed by an 8 bit 
code. It requires 10 Bytes per se- 
cond for continuous speech. Both 
boards have an audio amp fc 
direct connection to an 8 ohm 
speaker. 

Documentation includes basic 
user programs, a phoneme chart 
and listing of coded words to help 
you get started. Documentation 
for the Apple II* Speech Syn- 
thesizer i nciudes a disk with many 
user programs. 

81-088 Apple il Speech 

Synthesizer $139.95 

81-120 Parallel Input Speech 

Synthesizer $149.95 

Prices include the SC-01 Chip 
SC-01 sold separately for $ 75.95 



81-260 "SLIM" 



EPROM EXPANSION CARD 




JBE EPROM Expander for the Apple II 
holds six 5V 2716s for a total of 12K 
bytes of EPROM. This board takes the 
place of the on board ROM in the Apple. 
It is software switchable by the same 
technique used by the Apple II firmware 
card. Solder jumpers are for reset to the 
Apple ROM or EPROM Expansion Card. 
Use JBE EPROM Programmer and 
Parallel I/O to program your EPROMs. 
EPROMs sold separately. 



81-085AAssm. 

81-085KKK 

81 -085B Bare Board 



$59.95 
$49.95 
$39.95 




Single board large scale Integra- 
tion Microcomputer. This 4.5 x 6.5 
board uses the 6502 
Microprocessor, two 6522 VIA's, 
four 2114 RAM's, 2516, 2716 or 
2532 EPROM. The fully buffered 
22/44 pin bus is similar to the 
KIM® , SYM® , and AIM® expan- 
sion connector. The four 8 bit I/O 
ports connect through 16 pin dip 
sockets. This board was designed 
for control and is ideal for Per- 
sonal and OEM use. 

6502 MPU 

Two 6522 VIA's 

Four 21 14 RAM's (2K bytes) 

One EPROM 2516 or 2532 

Crystal clock 1 Mhz 

Requires 5V 1 AMP Power 

4.5 x 6.5 card 

Power on reset 

Fully buffered-expandable 

Solder mask-both sides 

Use your Apple II Computer, JBE 
6522 Parallel Interface card and 
EPROM Programmer as a 
development system for SLIM. 

Prices: M 

81-260A 

81-260K 

81-260B 



$1 99.95 Assembled 

$149.95 Kit 

$ 39.95 Bare Board 



6502 MICROCOMPUTER 



j-— 
«W ; 







6502 MPU, 6522 VIA, 2716 EPROM, 21 14 
RAM single board computer. Single 5 
voit power supply at 400 Ma. Two In- 
dependent 8 bit I/O ports with hand- 
shake lines. RC controlled 1 Mhz clock. 

Complete documentation. I/O lines use 
50 pin edge connector. Data and ad- 
dress lines are not accessible. Mod. for 
2532 is included. EPROM is not includ- 
ed. 1K RAM, 2K EPROM, 2 I/O ports. 



80-1 53 Assm. 
80-153 Kit 
80-153 Bare Board 



$110.95 
$ 69.95 
$ 19.95 



Z-80 MICROCOMUTER 




JBE I MICROCOMPUTER 



Z-80 MPU, Z-80 PIO, 2716 EPROM, 21 14 
RAM single board computer. Single 5 
volt power supply at 300 Ma. Two in- 
dependent 8 bit I/O ports with hand- 
shake lines. RC controlled 2Mhz clock. 

Complete documentation. I/O lines use 
50 pin edge connector. Data and ad- 
dress lines are not accessible. Mod. for 
2532 is included. EPROM is not includ- 
ed. 1K RAM, 2K EPROM, 2 I/O ports. 



80-280 Assm. 
80-280 Kit 
80-280 Bare Board 



$129.95 
$119.95 
$ 19.95 




JBE's 7.75 x 11.75 6502 base 
Microcomputer has the 
capacity for 16K of EPROM, 
4K of RAM, 8 Parallel Ports 
and 1 Serial Port. Monitor and 
Tiny Basic are also available. 
The fully populated version 
includes: 

• 16502 CPU 

• 4 6522 VIA (8 Parallel I/O 
Ports) 

• 1 AY5-1013 (Serial I/O 
Ports) 

• 8 2114 RAM (4K) 

• 2 2716 EPROM (Monitor & 
Tiny Basic) 

The partially populated ver- 
sion includes: 

• 16502 CPU 

• 1 6522 VIA (2 Parallel I/O 
Ports) 

• 1 AY5-1013 (Serial I/O Port) 

• 2 2114 RAM (1K) 

• 1 2716 EPROM (with 
Monitor) 

Both versions include 
sockets for 2716s or 2532s, 8 
16 pin sockets for I/O interfac- 
ing and a DB25 connector for 
RS232. 

All address and data lines are 
brought off the board to the 50 
pin edge connector, (similar 
to the Apple ii bus) 

This board also features 
power on reset and cassette 
interface. 



81-030 C Fufty 

Populated $349.95 

81-030M Partially 

Populated $249.95 

81-030B Bare Board $ 89.95 
2716 EPROM 

(with Monitor) $ 19.95 

2715 EPROM 

(with Tiny Basic $ 19.95 




John Bell Engineering, Inc. 



MC 



ALL PRODUCTS ARE AVAILABLE FROM JOHN BELL ENGINEERING • P.O. BOX 338 • REDWOOD CITY, CA 94064 
ADD SALES TAX IN CALIFORNIA • ADD 5% SHIPPING & HANDLING 3% FOR ORDERS OVER $100 
SEND FOR CATALOG (415) 367-1137 10% OUTSIDE U.S.A. 



VISA 



You'll be amazed at how gregarious your North Star can be with this communications program to send 
and receive data and communicate with remote time-share systems or other microcomputers. 

m ~— ■ — — 



Expand Your Horizon 



By Patrick Corry 



It should be easy! Many intriguing 
projects begin with this thought. So 
it was when we decided to transfer a 
BASIC program from a time-shared 
minicomputer to our North Star Hori- 
zon microcomputer. 

Of course, I knew that there are 
several dialects of BASIC, many of 
which are customized for a specific 
environment. But in some cases edit- 
ing problems are minimal. For exam- 
ple, Hewlett-Packard BASIC and 
North Star BASIC are similar. 

We planned to move the program 
without retyping. The time-shared 
system listed a program. Then we 
promptly shifted the connector from 
the acoustic coupler to the console 
port of the Horizon. After waiting an 



4 
5 
6 
7 
20 



5 

4 

20 

7 

6 



Fig. 1. Crossover cable. Use 25 pin connectors. 



appropriate time we connected the 
terminal to the Horizon and tried to 
list the acquired text. Surprisingly, 
nothing had been received! Since 
then the mystery has been solved. 

We have written a program which 
enables the operator of the Horizon's 
terminal to conveniently: 

• Exchange data with information 
networks and computerized bulletin 
boards 

•Store data received in program- 
mable random-access memory 
(RAM) or on disk for subsequent 
display, transmission or printout 

• Download programs transmitted 
by remote time-share computers or 
other personal computers. 

• Edit text by means of a BASIC pro- 
gram 

• Cause BASIC to accept a sequence 
of ASCII characters contained in 
RAM as an input program. 

There are three categories of prob- 
lems associated with our method of 
data transfer. 



To specify operation of both serial ports with one stop bit and a seven-bit code we 
modified DOS 5.2 (origin zero) as follows: 

1. Boot DOS and type LF DOS 4000 

2. Type GO M0E00 and use the DS command to change the bytes at 4892 (hexadecimal) 
and 4896 from EC to 7 A 

3. Type OS to return to DOS 

4. Type SF DOS 4000 

5. Reboot DOS 

Table 1. Stop bit modification of North Star DOS 5.2. 



The Connection Problem 

According to the widely-used RS- 
232C convention, both computers 
and modems transmit data on line 3 
of the connecting cable. They both re- 
ceive data on line 2. Therefore, the 
connecting cable between the Hori- 
zon's second serial port and the 
acoustic coupler must cross-connect 
lines 2 and 3. 

A direct solution is to buy or make 
a crossover cable (see Fig. 1). Another 
solution is to wire a switch to the 
motherboard of the Horizon which 
will let you change the status of the 
second serial port between modem 
and terminal modes. If you select the 
latter option, consult the hardware 
manual (HRZ-D, p. 72) supplied with 
your Horizon. 

The Timing Problem 

Most systems with which we 
communicate exchange data at the 
rate of 300 bits per second 
(bps)— about 30 characters per sec- 
ond. Therefore after accepting a 
character from the modem the 
Horizon must be ready to receive trie 
next character after a delay of no 
more than 1/30 of a second. Within 
this allotted time the received 
character must be processed and 
transmitted to the terminal for dis- 



Address correspondence to Patrick Corry, 11 
Beechwood Drive, Shirley, NY 11967. 



118 Microcomputing, January 1982 



play. Since our terminal also operates 
at 300 bps, it requires 1/30 of a second 
after receiving one character before it 
can accept the next. 

The consequences of these timing 
constraints are illustrated in Fig. 2. As 
shown, the terminal must accept 
characters at least as fast as the re- 
mote source sends them. Otherwise, 
characters will not only be absent 
from the display but also will not be 
stored in the Horizon! Therefore, it is 
critical that the Horizon send charac- 
ters to the terminal using the mini- 
mum number of stop bits. 

The DOS supplied with the Hori- 
zon can be easily personalized to send 
one stop bit. All that is needed is to 
change two bytes of DOS 5.2 from EC 
(hexadecimal) to 7A. See Table 1 for 
specific instructions. If your terminal 
operates at a higher data rate than 
that of the remote (sending) com- 
puter, this modification should not be 
necessary. In any case, the Horizon 
must not use too much time before 
sending received characters to the 
terminal. The fastest procedure is to 
have the Horizon simply store the 
character in a RAM buffer and imme- 
diately transmit the character to the 
terminal. The NSCOM program, 
which is written in BASIC, uses ma- 
chine-language subroutines to 
achieve the speed necessary for this 
procedure (see Listing 1). 

The Software Problem 

For communication with an exter- 
nal source we connect the data cables 
as shown in Fig. 3. In addition, 
special software is needed to allow 
the Horizon to simultaneously accept 
input from two sources. Further- 
more, we want the capability of stor- 
ing part or all of the communicated 
data. If the data is the text of a pro- 
gram it should be accessible to the 
North Star interpreter. These opera- 
tions are selected by input to the BA- 
SIC program, NSCOM. The relevant 
command menu is given in Table 2. 

Our solution is to partition the 
available RAM space by use of the 
MEMSET command so that the 
directing program, NSCOM, and the 
stored communications may coexist. 
(See Table 3.) The upper limit of 
space available to NSCOM is chosen 
to yield the maximum room in mem- 
ory for the ramfile. This limit was 
found by experimentation and is de- 
fined by the variable M in the sec- 
ond line of NSCOM. The start of the 
ramfile is labeled S and satisfies 
S = M + 50. 



Communication: This command allows full 
duplex communication between the con- 
sole terminal and a computer or modem 
connected to the Horizon's second serial 
port. 

Display: The contents of the ramfile is listed 
on the console terminal. Control C may be 
used to stop the listing. 
Echo: The contents of the ramfile is trans- 
mitted out the second serial port by means 
of a subroutine called ECHO. This sub- 
routine will only transmit a character after 
the preceding character has been echoed 
back by the remote system. A control "C" 
entered at the console will abort the 
transfer and invoke the communication 
mode. 

Feed: This command causes the set of 
ASCII characters stored in the ramfile to be 
sent to the BASIC interpreter which is cold- 
started. 

Garbage removal: This command calls a 
machine-language subroutine which writes 
nulls over any sequence of characters in the 
ramfile that are not bounded by a number 
and a carriage return. 

Kill: The end of file marker is filled in the 
first cell of the ramfile. Therefore new data 
will be written over previously received 
data. 

Load: A request is sent to the DOS to load 



into RAM the diskfile whose name is input. 
The usual DOS naming conventions and re- 
sponses are observed. 

Message: This command will send the 
message specified by the data in the third 
line of NSCOM to the second serial port. In 
the DATA line, control characters are indi- 
cated by a leading " + " sign. For example, a 
carriage return is specified by a " +M". See 
Appendix 4 of the North Star Software Man- 
ual for the control codes. At the completion 
of the message the communication mode is 
entered. 

Print: The contents of the ramfile is sent 
out the second serial port. Use a standard 
data cable to connect this port to a printer. 
Alternatively the ramfile could be sent out a 
parallel port if one is implemented. 

Save: A request is sent to DOS to save the 
ramfile on diskette. The usual DOS naming 
conventions and responses are observed. 

Unkill: The command negates the effect 
of the kill command by replacing the char- 
acter at the first cell of the ramfile. 

Where?: The end of the ramfile and the 
highest available RAM address are found. 
The user should not attempt to store data 
beyond this address. 

NOTE: A disk directory may be obtained 
by typing a 1 or a 2 depending on the drive 
of interest. 



Table 2. NSCOM commands— type only the first letter. 





Listing 1. 




1 REM -> NSCOM BY PATRICK CORRY - 9/2/81 




5 IF EXAM(95)<>237 THEN CHAIN "SETUP" \ REM->VERIFY INITIALIZATION 


OF USR'S 


10 DATA " +M SIGN-0N MESSAGE +M" 




15 W1«237\C1-100\F1«44\G1=0\D1=50\Z1=211\REM->USR STARTS 




20 M«21000\ REM->ADDRESS OF HIGHEST BYTE AVAILABLE TO BASIC 




30 S-M+50 \REM->S IS THE START OF THE RAMFILE (S= 21050=523AHEX) 




35 REM->RESERVE 50 BYTES FOR DOS COMMANDS 




40 DIM M$(50) 




50 ] 


[F EXAM(3593)+256*EXAM(3594)=M THEN 80 




60 J 


("PLEASE MEMSET TO ",M," AND RUN AGAIN"\END\ REM->ALLOW ROOM FOR 


RAMFILE 


80 ] 


CF Q9-0 THEN 920\ REM->CHECK FOR AVAILABLE RAM 




90 ] 


[F FREE(0) > 75 THEN 100\1\1\1 "***RUN AGAIN***"\END 




100 


I FREE (0) 




110 


1" COMMAND", 




120 


INPUT C$ 




130 


IF C$="S" THEN 410 




140 


IF C$="K" THEN 1070 




150 


IF C$«"U" THEN 1090 




170 


IF C$»"F" THEN 580 




180 


IF C$="C" THEN 300 




190 


IF C$="P" THEN 680 




200 


IF C$="L" THEN 410 




220 


IF C$="M" THEN 800 




230 


IF C$="D" THEN 680 




240 


IF C$«"W" THEN 920 




250 


IF C$«"G" THEN 1060 




255 


I* C$="l" THEN 1100\IF C$="2" THEN 1100 




257 


IF C$«"E" THEN 1200 




260 


!"(C)OMMUNICATE OR (D) ISPLAY OR (F)EED " 




265 


!"OR (G)ARBAGE REMOVAL OR (K) ILL OR (L)OAD OR" 




270 


!"(M)ESSAGE OR (S)AVE OR (P)RINT OR (W)HERE OR (1) OR (2)" 




290 


GOTO 90 




299 


REM-> COMMUNICATIONS MODE 




300 


E«CALL(W1,S)\ REM->FIND CURRENT END OF RAMFILE 




310 


1 "CURRENT END OF RAMFILE ",E 




320 


I "COMMUNICATION MODE"\ El«E 




330 


E«CALL(C1,E) 




350 


IF E-El THEN 370 




360 


IF EOC1 THEN 380 




370 


!"NO EXTERNAL DATA FILED IN RAM." 




380 !\ 1"NEXT BYTE AT " , E 




390 


GOTO 90 




400 


REM-> CREATE DISK IMAGE OF RAMFILE OR LOAD RAMFILE FROM DISK 




410 


IF C$<>"L" THEN 440 \REM-> C$ IS "L" OR "S" 




420 


l"LOAD RAM FROM WHICH DISK", \GOTO 480 




440 


E»CALL(W1,S) 




450 


B« INT((E-S+l)/256)+l\ REM->CALCULATE # OF BLOCKS 




460 


1"SAVE RAMFILE ENDING AT ",E," IN WHICH DISK", 




480 


!"FILE",\INPUT F$\IF C$="L"THEN 510 


f N 


1 490 


CREATE F$,B,10 


(A/o^v____. 



Microcomputing, January 1982 119 



The end of the ramfile is the first 
address which holds the value 06. 
These definitions result in 50 bytes of 
free space which can be used to store 
commands issued to North Star DOS 
5.2. By use of this command buffer 
we have dramatically reduced the 
time needed to save and load files. 
Programmers should note that this 
technique can be applied to give DOS 
a sequence of commands in a more 
general context. 

How to Set Up NSCOM 

To use the unmodified version 
of NSCOM given here you need a 
computer running North Star DOS 
5.2 with origin 0000 (hexadecimal) 
and BASIC with origin 0E00. Also re- 
quired is a minimum of 24K bytes of 
continuous RAM starting at zero and 
two serial ports addressed in the stan- 
dard manner. The user subroutines 
called occupy memory locations to 
255. 

To enter NSCOM and its satellite 
machine-language routines you must 
type and save two BASIC programs: 
NSCOM and SETUP (see Listings 1 
and 2). When SETUP is run the ma- 
chine-language routines are filled in- 
to RAM starting at address 0000, and 

a chain to NSCOM is executed. When 
you type NSCOM you may omit the 
REM statements since they are not 
destinations for branch statements. 

The boundaries of NSCOM, the 
command buffer, and the ramfile 
may be changed by modifying lines 
20 and 510 of NSCOM. You should 
redefine M in line 20 and the com- 
mand string in line 510. These 
changes will allow you to increase 
the size of the ramfile if you shrink 
BASIC or use floating-point BASIC. 
The command string must contain 
the value of S expressed in hexadeci- 
mal notation. A useful modification 
for users having parallel printers is to 
change the device code in line 720. 
Users of single-density systems 
should modify line 450. 

How to Use NSCOM 

NSCOM has three modes of opera- 
tion: command, communication and 
storage. After SETUP is completed 
the command mode is entered. As 
shown in Table 2, the C command 
will invoke the communication 
mode. In this mode two-way com- 
munication with an external source is 
possible. Two control characters 
have special meaning. Control Q will 
cause a return to the command mode 
and Control F will invoke the storage 

120 Microcomputing, January 1982 



Listing 1 continued. 



510 

515 

520 

530 

540 

550 

560 

570 

580 

600 

605 

610 

620 

625 

630 

640 

650 

670 

680 

690 

700 

710 

720 

730 

740 

750 

800 

810 

820 

830 

840 

850 

860 

870 

880 

890 

900 

910 

920 

930 

940 

950 

960 

970 

980 

990 

1000 

1010 

1015 

1020 

1030 

1040 

1050 

1060 

1070 

1080 

1090 

1100 

1110 

1199 

1200 

1205 

1207 

1210 



DOS 



COLD START 



BASIC 
TO COLD 



START BASIC 



M$=C$+"F "+F$+" 523A"+CHR$(13)\ REM->DOS COMMAND STRING 

REM->M+1 IS THE START OF THE COMMAND BUFFER 
FOR J=l TO LEN(M$)\FILL M+J, ASC (M$ ( J, J) ) \NEXT J 
FILL M+J,06\ REM->END OF COMMAND MARKER 
FILL 65,40\FILL 66 , 01\REM->MODIFY USR TO JUMP TO 
Q=CALL(Dl,M+l)\REM->SEND DOS COMMAND 
FILL 65,0\FILL 66,14\ REM->REPLACE JUMP TO BASIC 
GOTO 90 

REM-> FEEDER RESETS MEMSET TO Q9 AND COLD STARTS 
FOR J= 95 TO 98\FILL J f 0\NEXT J\ REM->MODIFY USR 
FILL 3598, 165\ REM->SET MAXIMUM LINE LENGTH 
E=CALL(W1,S) 

! "FEEDING BASIC RAM FROM " , S+l , " TO " , E 
1 "REMOVE GARBAGE FIRST" f \INPUT F$ 
IF F$="NO" THEN 650 

Q=CALL(Gl,S)\REM-> REMOVE GARBAGE 

Q=CALL(F1,S+1)\ REM->FEEDS BASIC RAMFILE -NO RETURN 
REM- >DI SPLAY AND PRINT COMMANDS- 
E=CALL(W1,S) 

ERRSET 90,Q,Q\REM->TO CONTINUE PROGRAM ON CONTROLC 
FOR J= S+l TO E 
IF C$ <>"P"THEN 730 

!#l r CHR$(EXAM(J) ) ,\REM->MOD. DEVICE CODE FOR PAR. PRINTERS 
!CHR$(EXAM(J) ) , 
NEXT J 

ERRSET\ GOTO 90 
REM->MESSAGE DATA AT 3RD LINE 
READ M$\ ! "MESSAGE:" 
FOR J=l TO LEN(M$) 
IF M$(J,J)<>"+" THEN 850 
J=J+l\X=ASC(M$(J,J))-64\GOTO 860 
X=ASC(M$(J, J)) 
!#1,CHR$(X) ,\! CHR$(X) , 
IF X<>13 THEN 890 

FOR K=l TO 3000\NEXTK\1 \ REM->TIME LOOP FOR REMOTE COMPUTER 
NEXT J 

GOTO 300\ REM-> ENTER COMMUNICATION MODE 
REM-> FINDS THE END OF THE RAMFILE- 
E=CALL(W1,S) 

1 "THE END OF THE RAMFILE IS ",E 

REM->FIND THE HIGHEST ADDRESS OF THE CONTIGUOUS RAM 
IF Q9O0 THEN 1020 
J=41\ Z9=EXAM(S+1) 
J=J+1\ Q=J*512-1\IF Q < S THEN 970 

Z=EXAM(Q)\ FILL Q,6 
IF EXAM(Q)<>6 THEN 1010 

FILL Q,Z\ GOTO 970 

Q9=Q-512 

Q8=INT(Q9/256)\FILL 46 f Q8\FILL 45 ,Q9-256*Q8\REM->PREPARE MEMSET FOR FEEDER 

! "SPACE REMAINING: ",Q9-E 

FILL Q9,6\ REM->PLACE ENDMARK FOR SAFETY 

! "HIGHEST AVAILABLE RAM ADDRESS: ",Q9 

GOTO90 

Q=CALL(G1,S)\ GOTO 90\REM-> USR TO NULLOUT GARBAGE CHARACTERS 

! "RESTARTING RAMFILE" 

Z9=EXAM(S+l)\FILLS+l,6\GOTO 90\ REM->KILL-NEW DATA OVERWRITES RAMFILE 

FILL S+1,Z9\ GOTO 90\ REM->UNKILL- CONTINUES RAMFILE 

M$= "LI"+C$+CHR$(13)+CHR$(13)+CHR$(13)\REM->CREATE DOS COMMAND 

GOTO 520 

REM -> INTIALIZE FOR ECHO ROUTINE- 
FILL 65,Z1\ FILL 66,0 

Q=CALL(D1,S+1) 

FILL 65,0\FILL 66,14\ REM->REPLACE JUMP TO BASIC COLD START 

!\GOTO 300 



5 REM-> SETUP FOR 

10 FOR J=0 TO 244 

2 READ X 

30 FILL J f X 

40 NEXT J 

50 CHAIN "NSCOM" 

100 DATA 235,006, 

110 DATA 040,243, 
i i n hata a a a aan 



NSCOM - PATRICK CORRY 9/2/81 



150 DATA 042,250, 

160 DATA 000,201, 

170 DATA 000,201, 

180 DATA 200,254, 

190 DATA 004,205, 

200 DATA 004,201, 

210 DATA 205,142, 

220 DATA 219,002, 

230 DATA 000,024, 

240 DATA 190,032, 

250 DATA 014,205, 

260 DATA 010,202, 

270 DATA 035,126, 



000,035 
254,010 
006,255 
033,255 
017,001 
000,126 
033,080 
235,205 
006,040 
142,000 
245,205 
000,062 
230,127 
172,219 
006,035 
067,000 
086,000 
254,006 



,126 
,040 
,024 
,191 
,237 
,254 
,010 
,062 
,035 
,024 
,112 
,013 
,254 
,005 
,205 
,205 
,024 
,032 



,254 
,239 
,225 
,034 
,115 
,006 
,034 
,010 
,205 
,225 
,010 
,205 
,018 
,230 
,142 
,132 
,243 
,250 



,006 
,254 
,254 
,009 
,252 
,040 
,017 
,032 
,132 
,245 
,032 
,132 
,032 
,002 
,000 
,000 
,219 
,201 



,200,203,064,032,022,254,013 
,058,242,040,000,254,048,250 
,013,032,221,024,217,054,000 
,014,237,083,250,000,033,067 
,000,195,000,014,034,254,000 
,008,035,034,250,000,042,254 
,001,042,254,000,237,123,252 
,014,219,002,230,127,254,011 
,000,205,07 0,010,032,232,219 
,205,120,010,032,251,241,211 
,251,241,211,002,201,062,060 
,000,219,003,230,002,040,017 
,009,054,006,062,062,205,142 
,040,227,219,004,23 0,127,119 
,024,213,043,054,006,195,004 
,205,07 0,010,040,00 8,20 5,2 41 
,0 04,205,142,000,024,230,23 5 



Listing 2. 



***** ******************* *** **** ********************* 

4MHZ, DOUBLE DENSITY.COLOR&B/W 
GRAPHICS . .THE LNW80 COMPUTER 




When you've compared the features of an LNW80 Computer, you'll quickly 
understand why the LNW80 1s the ultimate TRS80 software compatible system. 
LNU RESEARCH offers the most complete microcomputer system at an outstand- 
ing low price. 

We back up our product with an unconventional 6 month warranty and a 10 
days full refund policy, less shipping charges. 

LNW80 Computer $1,450.00 

LNW80 Computer w/B&W Monitor & one 5" Drive $1,914.00 

All orders must be prepaid, CA residents please Include 6% sales tax. 
Contact ua for shipping charges 



COMPARE THE FEATURES AND PERFORMANCE 



FEATURES 


LNW80 


PHC-80** 


TRS-80* 
MODEL III 


PROCESSOR 


4.0 MHZ 


1 ,8 MHZ 


2.0 MHZ 


LEVEL II BASIC INTERP. 


YES 


YES 


LEVEL III 
BASIC 


TRS80 MODEL 1 LEVEL II COMPATIBLE 


YES 


YES 


NO 


48K BYTES RAM 


YES 


YES 


YES 


CASSETTE BAUD RATE 


500/1000 


500 


500/1500 


FLOPPY DISK CONTROLLER 


SINGLE/ 
DOUBLE 


SINGLE 


SINGLE/ 
DOUBLE 


SERIAL RS232 PORT 


YES 


YES 


YES 


PRINTER PORT 


YES 


YES 


YES 


REAL TIME CLOCK 


YES 


YES 


YES 


.'4 X 80 CHARACTERS 


YES 


NO 


NO 


VIDEO MONITOR 


YES 


YES 


YES 


UPPER AND LOWER CASE 


YES 


OPTIONAL 


YES 


REVERSE VIDEO 


YES 


NO 


NO 


KEYBOARD 


63 KEY 


53 KEY 


53 KEY 


NUMERIC KEY PAD 


YES 


NO 


YES 


B/W GRAPHICS, 128 X 48 


YES 


YES 


YES 


HI-RESOLUTION B/W GRAPHICS, 480 X 192 


YES 


NO 


NO 



HI-RESOLUTION COLOR GRAPHICS (NTSC), 
128 X 192 IN 8 COLORS 

HI-RESOLUTION COLOR GRAPHICS (RGB), 
384 X 192 IN 8 COLORS 

WARRANTY 



YES 

OPTIONAL 
6 MONTHS 



NO 

NO 
90 DAYS 



* TRS80 
** PMC 



Product of Tandy Corporation. 

Product of Personal Microcomputer, Inc. 



TOTAL SYSTEM PRICE 



$1,914.00 $1,840.00 



NO 

NO 
90 DAYS 



$2,187.00 



LESS MONITOR AND DISK DRIVE 



$1,450.00 $1,375.00 



LNW80 

BARE PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD a MANUAL $89.95 

The LNW80 - A high-speed color computer totally compatible with 
the TRS-80*. The LNW80 gives you the edge 1n satisfying your 
computation needs 1n business, scientific and personal computa- 
tion. With performance of 4 MHz, Z80A CPU, you'll achieve per- 
formance of over twice the processing speed of a TRS-80*. This 
means you'll get the performance that 1s comparable to the most 
expensive microcomputer with the compatibility to the world's 
most popular computer (TRS-80*) resulting 1n the widest soft- 
ware base. 



FEATURES: 



TRS-80 Model 1 Level II Software Compatible 

High Resolution Graphics 

. RGB Output - 384 x 192 in 8 Colors 

. NTSC Video or RF MOD - 128 x 192 1n 8 Colors 

. Black and White - 480 x 192 

4 MHz CPU 

500/1000 Baud Cassette 

Upper and Lower Case 

16K Bytes RAM, 12K Bytes ROM 

Solder Masked and Sllkscreened 



LNW SYSTEM EXPANSION 

BARE PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD 

AND MANUAL $69.95 

WITH GOLD CONNECTORS $84.95 

The System Expansion will allow you to expand your LNW80, TRS-80*, 
or PMC-80** to a complete computer system that is still totally 
software compatible with the TRS-80* Model 1 Level II. 



FEATURES: 



32K Bytes Memory 

5" Floppy Controller 

Serial RS232 20ma I/O 

Parallel Printer 

Real Time Clock 

Screen Printer Bus 

On Board Power Supply 

Solder Masked and Sllkscreened 



LNW RESEARCH 

CORPORATION 

2620 WALNUT 
TUSTIN CA. 92680 



^198 



LNDoubler&DOS PLUS 3.3D 

- Assembled and Tested w/DOS PLUS 3. 3D $175.00 

Double-density disk storage for the LNW Research's "System Expan- 
sion" or the Tandy's "Expansion Interface". The LNDoubler™ is 
totally software compatible with any double density software 
generated for the Percom's Doubler***. The LNDoublerTM provides 
the following outstanding features. 

. Store up to 350K bytes on a single 5" disk 

. Single and double density data separation 

. Precision write precompensation circuit 

. Software switch between single and double density 

. Easy plug 1n installation requiring no etch cuts, jumpers 

or soldering 

. 35, 40, 77, 80 track 5" disk operation 

. 120 day parts and labor Warranty 

*** Doubler 1s a product of Percom Data Company, Inc. 

DOS PLUS 3. 3D 

Micro Systems software's double density disk operating system. 
This operating system contains all the outstanding features of 
a well developed DOS, with ease in useability. 

KEYBOARD 

LNW80 KEYBOARD KIT _ $84.95 

The Keyboard Kit contains a 63 key plus a 10 key, P.C. board, and 
remaining components. 

CASE 



LNW80 CASE $84.95 

The streamline design of this metal case will house the LNW80, 
LWN System Expansion, LNW80 Keyboard, power supply and fan, 
LNDoubler'M, or LNW Data Separator. This kit includes all the 
hardware to mount all of the above. Add $12.00 for shipping 

PARTS AVAILABLE FROM LNW RESERARCH 
. 4116 - 200ns RAM 

6 chip set $26.00 

8 chip set $33.50 

16 chip set $64.00 

24 chip set $94.00 

32 chip set $124.00 

LNW80 "Start up parts set" LNW80-1 $82.00 

LNW80 "Video parts set" LNW80-2 $31.00 

LNW80 Transformer LNW80-3 $18 00 

LNW80 Keyboard cable LNW80-4 $16.00 

40 Pin computer to expansion cable $15.00 

System Expansion Transformer $19 00 

Floppy Controller (FD1771) and UART (TR1602) . . . $30.00 



ORDERS & INFO. NO. 714-544-5744 
SERVICE NO. 714-641-8850 



VISA MASTER CHARGE 
ACCEPTED 



UNLESS NOTED 

ADD $3 FOR SHIPPING 



^See List of Advertisers on page 178 



Microcomputing, January 1982 121 



TERMINAL DELAYED BY 20*A 



CHARACTER 
SENT BY 
EXTERNAL SOURCE 



2 
I 



4 
I 



5 
I 



6 

I 



8 

I 



-•I 1/30 SEC U- 



9 

I 



10 

I 



CHARACTER 
ACCEPTED BY 
CONSOLE 



[ 



— *| I/30*A SEC [•- 



^-CH 



l» 



6 8 

ARACTER 7 IS LOST! 



EQUAL RATES FOR MODEM AND TERMINAL 



CHARACTER 
SENT BY 
EXTERNAL SOURCE 


1 
1 


2 

1 


3 4 
1 1 




5 

1 




6 7 8 
1 1 1 


9 

1 


10 

1 


CHARACTER 




















ACCEPTED BY 


1 


1 


1 1 




1 




1 1 1 


1 


HO 


CONSOLE 


1 


2 


3 4 




5 




6 7 8 


9 


10 








| HORIZON PROCESSING CHARACTER 
J HORIZON READY TO ACCEPT A NEW 


AND WAITING FOR CONSOLE 
CHARACTER 








1 





Fig. 2. Delay exaggerated for illustration. 



10 


REM->CHANGES ALL SINGLE QUOTAION 


MARKS, CHR$(39) 


20 


REM-> TO DOUBLE QUOTATION MARKS, 


CHR$(34) 


30 


PRINT ■ RAMFILE START", \INPUT S 




40 


S=S+1 




50 


IF EXAM(S)=6 THEN END 




60 


IF EXAM(S)=39 THEN FILL S,34 




70 


GOTO 40 

Listing 3. 





CompuServe: Update 1982 



The CompuServe Information Service is the largest and 
fastest growing videotex system in North America. Our 
customer base increased a dramatic 300% in 1981. And 
there's a reason: 



■ our broad base means more communications between 
users ■ a wide variety of high-value data bases ■ games 
to excite any aficionado ■ up-to-date financial 
information to give you a competitive edge on the market 

■ new services like electronic shopping ■ free 
subscription to our informative TODAY magazine ■ 
easy-to-follow instructions for the novice and powerful 
services for the experienced user ■ . 

Ask for a demonstration at a Radio Shack® Computer 
Center. Videotex software is available for various brands 
of personal computers. CompuServe Information Service, 
5000 Arlington Centre Blvd., Columbus, Ohio 43220. 
(614)457-8600. 



CompuServe 



^ 147 



mode. In the storage mode all charac- 
ters received from the external 
source are stored in the ramfile. Now 
the only special character recognized 
is control-R, which causes a return to 
the communication mode. Although 
the user is responsible for not enter- 
ing too large a ramfile, a warning is 
given when data is lost. This over- 
flow condition is indicated by an un- 
initiated jump from storage to com- 
mand mode (see Fig. 4). 

In a work session with NSCOM 
you might take these steps: 

1. Load and run SETUP. 

2. The K command is used to re- 
start the ramfile. 

3. The C command is used to enter 
the communication mode. 

4. Log on to a remote system and a 
BASIC program is fetched. 

5. The LIST command is typed and 
terminated with a control F instead of 
the usual carriage return. The con- 
sole will display an open bracket and 
a carriage return will be transmitted. 

6. After the listing is completed a 
Control R is typed to return to com- 
munication mode. You may log off 
the remote system at this time. 

7. A Control Q is typed to return to 
command mode. 

8. The Save command is used to 
store the ramfile on diskette (a 
precaution). 

9. The Feed command is used to 
send the ramfile to the BASIC 
interpreter. 

10. The program is edited and 
saved using the utilities of North Star 
BASIC. 

In another session you could log on 
to an information network such as 
The Source or CompuServe and 
search for data. After the desired data 
is located, it could be simultaneously 
listed on the terminal and stored in 
the Horizon's RAM. Later it could be 
saved on disk and printed. 

The Feed commmand allows the 
BASIC interpreter to process a se- 
quence of ASCII characters stored in 
RAM in the same way that a stream 
of characters coming from a terminal 
is handled. Therefore you can manip- 
ulate a program text while it is stored 
in RAM using BASIC programs. You 
can use this feature to do specialized 
editing. For example, all single quota- 
tion marks can be converted to dou- 
ble (see Listing 3). You can also create 
a series of DATA lines from the con- 
tents of memory. The data lines in the 
setup program were obtained by use 
of the program in Listing 4. 



122 Microcomputing, January 1982 



How NSCOM Works 

The BASIC program NSCOM cal- 
culates and partitions the available 
RAM, prints prompts and status in- 
formation and manipulates ramfiles. 
The files may be saved on disk, listed 
on the terminal, or transmitted out 
the second serial port. NSCOM calls 
five machine-language subroutines: 
GARBAGE NULLING (Listing 5), 
FEEDER, COMMUNICATION 
MODE, and ECHO (Listing 6) and 
EOT? (Listing 7). GARBAGE NULL- 
ING will write null characters over 
any character in the ramfile which is 
not surrounded by a number and a 
carriage return. 

FEEDER is used to send commands 
to DOS, programs to BASIC, or char- 
acters to the ECHO subroutine. Ac- 
cordingly NSCOM must modify the 
FEEDER subroutine. The initializa- 
tion process for FEEDER changes the 
character-in call used by DOS 5.2. 
Characters are now obtained from 
RAM instead of the console port. De- 
pending on which entry point to 
FEEDER is used the characters are 
sent either to DOS, to ECHO or to a 
cold-started BASIC. Communication 
mode alternately checks the two 
serial ports and sends characters re- 
ceived from one port to the other 
port. Upon receipt of a control-F, a 
jump is made to a routine which con- 
secutively fills RAM with the charac- 
ters entering the second serial port. It 
may be possible to upload the text 
contained in the ramfile to an exter- 
nal computer by use of the E com- 
mand, which calls the ECHO subrou- 
tine. This routine transmits the ram- 
file out the second serial port with the 
constraint that the echo of a character 
must be received before the next 
character is sent. The effective- 
ness of this simple handshaking de- 
pends upon the software of the re- 
mote computer. The subroutine 
EOT? finds the address of the first 
cell of the ramfile that holds a value 
of 06 (the endmark). This address is 



1 FAN 


SERIAL PORTS 
2nd 1 st 

9 1 C? 














MODEM 

OR 

COMPUTER 

□ 








CONSOLE TERMINAL 
















DATA CABLE 




CROS 


SOV 


ER Ci 


&BLE 



Fig. 3. Horizon back view. 
• See List of Advertisers on page 178 



Hexadecimal 

0000-00FF 

0100-0DFF 

0E00-421D 

421E-5208 

5209-5239 

523A-RAMtop 



Decimal 



Machine-language subroutines 

DOS 5.2 

BASIC (unshrunk) 

NSCOM 

Command Buffer 

Ramfile 

Table 3. Memory map— NSCOM standard configuration. 



0-255 

256-3583 

3584-16925 

176926-21000 

21001-21049 

21050-RAMtop 



10 

15 

20 

30 

35 

40 

50 

55 

60 

70 

80 

85 

90 

100 

105 

110 

130 

150 

160 



REM>= CREATES 
D$r» DATA " 

S=21050\ A=S 
! "START OF USR, 



RAMFILE WITH ASCII DATA LINES FROM RAM CONTENTS 



END OF USR",\INPUT W,U 



N COUNTS ITEMS PER DATA LINE 



IF N= THEN 80\ REM -> 

REM ->GET NEXT BYTE 

B=EXAM(W)\G0SUB 110\ NrN+1 

W=W+1\IF W=U+1 THEN 105 

IF N = 20 THEN 80 

A=A+1\ FILL A , ASC(",»)\G0T040 

A=A+1\FILL A,13\A=A+1\FILLA,10 

L=L+1\B=L\G0SUB 110 

FOR K= 1 TO 6\FILL A+K, ASC(D$(K . K) ) \ NEXT K 

A=A+6\N=1\ GOTO 40 

FILL A+1,13\FILL A+2,6\ END 

REM->A=NEXT AVAILABLE ADDRESSX B=BYTE VALUE 



A,INT(B/100)+48\B=B-100*INT(B/100) 



A=A+1\FILL 

A=A+1\FILL A,INT(B/10)+48\B=B-10*INT(B/10) 
A=A+1\FILL A,B+48\ RETURN 



Listing 4. 



CompuServe: Update 1982 



The CompuServe Information Service is the largest and 
fastest growing videotex system in North America. Our 
customer base increased a dramatic 300% in 1981. And 
there's a reason: 

■ our broad base means more communications between 
users ■ a wide variety of high-value data bases ■ games 
to excite any aficionado ■ up-to-date financial 
information to give you a competitive edge on the market 

■ new services like electronic shopping ■ free 
subscription to our informative TODAY magazine ■ 
easy-to-follow instructions for the novice and powerful 
services for the experienced user ■ 

Ask for a demonstration at a Radio Shack® Computer 
Center. Videotex software is available for various brands 
of personal computers. CompuServe Information Service, 
5000 Arlington Centre Blvd., Columbus, Ohio 43220. 
(614)457-8600. 



CompuServe 



^147 



Microcomputing, January 1982 123 



SINGLE BOARD 

COMPUTER 

$49.95 




The MASTER CONTROLLER 
BOARD contains: 

Z-80 Microprocessor: will run 
8080/8085 and Z-80 programs. 
72 - Parallel I/O lines; three 8255s 
Keyboard controller: 8279 
(also can control a 16 digit 
seven segment display) 
12K - EPROM: three sockets for 
2708,2716,2732, 
2K-RAM: 2114s 
8 - Sixteen bit counter timer 
channels: one 8253 and one 
AMD 9513 
2 - Serial I/O ports; one Z-80 SIO 
chip. One port has an RS-232 
interface and connector. 
1 - High speed arithmetic 
processor: AMD 951 1 or 
AMD 9512 

All the I/O chips are memory 
mapped AND I/O mapped. A 
bus expansion connector is 
provided. Can be operated on 
5 volts only. 

All this on one board less than 
nine inches on a side 

Only three LSI chips (Z-80, 8255, 

and EPROM) plus support gates 

and buffers are required for a 

working controller. 

BARE BOARD $49.95 
With documentation. 

MINIMUM KIT $99.95 Includes bare 
board with documentation, one each 
Z-80, 8255, 2708, two 211 4s, and 
support gates and buffers, all socketed. 

MONITOR $39.95 This program allows 
a TTY or CRT to control the MASTER 
CONTROLLER. This program requires 
the minimum kit and monitor parts kit. 
A programmed 2708 is supplied with 
the MONITOR. 

MONITOR PARTS $54.95 

Includes 8253, Z-80 SIO, 1488, 1489, 
and connector. 

POWER SUPPLY $39.95 +5V 1 A, -5V 
'/iA, +12VV4A,-12V%A 

POWER SUPPLY $44.95 +5V 2A, other- 
wise same as above. 

Please include $2 postage and handling. 

OEM and dealer inquiries invited. 
VISA and MASTER CARD accepted. 

R.W. ELECTRONICS ^390 

3165 North Clybourn 

Chicago, IL 60618 

(312)248-2480 



placed in the HL register pair and 
passed back to NSCOM. Note that 
NSCOM uses the DE register pair 
when passing an address to the 
subroutines. 

As mentioned, NSCOM also 
modifies the FEEDER routine when 
sending commands to DOS. Without 
this modification FEEDER would 
cold-start BASIC and allow it to use 
all the available RAM. When any 
BASIC program is running, the utili- 
zation of RAM is limited by the 
MEMSET command. This limitation 
will preserve the ramfile even if 
NSCOM is scratched and another 
BASIC program entered. Therefore 
you may stop NSCOM, load and run 
your own program, and then reload 
NSCOM without disturbing the ram- 
file. At the completion of a session 
of NSCOM use, BASIC should be 
cold-started in order to utilize all 
the available RAM. 

Under development are proce- 
dures which allow the BASIC editing 
commands to be used on the text 
stored in the ramfile. A version of 
NSCOM which does not use the loca- 
tions 0-255 is nearing completion. Im- 
provements can be made in the soft- 
ware handshaking in the Message 
and Echo commands. The amount of 
space available for the ramfile can be 
increased by separating those com- 



mands which are only used once 
from NSCOM. These routines would 
be saved as a BASIC program which 
could be chained to from NSCOM. 

Further streamlining can be 
achieved by removing REMs and 
spaces from NSCOM which were in- 
cluded to improve legibility. We are 
developing the capability of transmit- 
ting a break signal used by some re- 
mote systems. The ramfile could 
serve as an input buffer or be used for 
rapid sorting without disk access de- 
lays. Also to be explored are applica- 
tions of NSCOM' s facility for giv- 
ing DOS and BASIC a sequence 
of commands without operator 
intervention. 

An enhanced version of NSCOM 
on double-density disk will be com- 
mercially available. The hardware 
supplied with your Horizon allows 
for many communication options. I 
have enjoyed developing some rele- 
vant software. ■ 



C COMMAND CONTROL I 


r 


COMMAND 
MODE 




COMMUNICATION 
MODE 




STORAGE 
MODE 


^ ,. CONTROL CONTROL P 

•v. i 

OUT OF RAM WARNING 





Fig- 4. 













TITLE GARBAGE NULLING 










;REM ILE 










;DE 


: PASSED FROM 


NSCOM WITH START RAMFILE 


0010 








.RADIX 16 
.Z80 
.PHASE OOH 




0000 


EB 






EX 


DE,HL 


;USE HL AS POINTER 


0001 


06 


00 


RESET: 


LD 


B.00H 


;FLAG RESET - NOT IN BASIC LINE 


0003 


23 




COUNT: 


INC HL 


; POINT TO NEXT BYTE 


ooon 


7E 






LD 


A,(HL) 


;GET CHAR 


0005 


FE 


06 




CP 


06H 


;IS IT THE EOT MARKER? 


0007 


C8 






RET Z 


;IF SO RETURN TO NSCOM 


0008 


CB 


40 




BIT 0,B 




000A 


20 


16 




JR 


NZ,E0L? 


;IF IN LINE LOOK FOR CR 


000c 


FE 


0D 




CP 


0DH 


;CR OK 


000E 


28 


F3 




JR 


Z, COUNT 




0010 


FE 


0A 




CP 


0AH 


;LF OK I 


0012 


28 


EF 




JR 


Z, COUNT 




00H 


FE 


3A 




CP 


3AH ;>'9'? 




0016 


F2 


0028 




JP 


P, REPLACE 




0019 


FE 


30 




CP 


30H ;< '0' 


? 


001B 


FA 


0028 




JP 


M, REPLACE 




00 1E 


06 


FF 




LD 


B.0FFH 


;SET FLAG - IN BASIC LINE 


0020 


18 


E1 




JR 


COUNT 




0022 


FE 


0D 


E0L7: 


CP 


0DH ;CR INDICATES END OF LINE 


002M 


20 


DD 




JR 


NZ, COUNT 




0026 


18 


D9 




JR 


RESET 


;IT WAS THE E0L! 


0028 


^6 


00 


REPLACE: 


{REPLACE GARBAGE WITH NULL 


002A 


18 


D7 




JR 


COUNT 












. DEPHASE 












Listing 5. 





Listing 6. 



0010 

00FA 
00FC 
00FE 
0A50 
BFFF 
0E09 
0111 



TITLE NSCOM SUBROUTINES FOR DOS 5.2 

;AUG. 15,1981 - P. C0RRY 
.PHASE 002CH 
.RADIX 16 
.Z80 

STPOINT EQU 0FAH ;T0 HOLD RAM POINTER 

STSP EQU 0FCH ;T0 HOLD STACK POINTER 

STHL EQU 0FEH ;TO HOLD HL 

NORMAL EQU 0A50H ;N0RMAL IS DOS CHARIN ROUTINE START 

MEMSET EQU 0BFFFH ;M8K? NSCuM MODIFIES AS NEEDED 

HIMEM EQU 0E09H ;BASIC'S SCRATCHPAD FOR HIMEM 
VECT EQU 0111H ;VECT HOLDS ADDR CURRENT INPUT ROUTINE START 



124 Microcomputing, January 1982 



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Listing 6 continued. 



0E04 




0E00 




0A3E 




0A46 




0A70 




0A78 




002C 


21 BFFF 


002F 


22 0E09 


0032 


ED 53 00FA 


0036 


21 0043 


0039 


22 0111 


003C 


ED 73 00FC 


0040 


C3 0E00 


0043 


22 00FE 


0046 


2A 00FA 


00*9 


7E 


004A 


FE 06 


004C 


28 08 


004E 


23 


004F 


22 00FA 


0052 


2A 00FE 


0055 


C9 


0056 


21 0A50 


0059 


22 0111 


005C 


2A 00FE 


005F 


ED 7B 00FC 


0063 


C9 


0064 


EB 


0065 


CD 0A3E 


0068 


20 0E 


006A 


DB 02 


006C 


E6 7F 


006 E 


FE 11 


0070 


C8 


0071 


FE 06 


0073 


28 23 


0075 


CD 0084 


007 » 


CD 0A46 


007 B 


20 E8 


007D 


DB 04 


007F 


CD 008E 


0082 


18 E1 


0084 


F5 


0085 


CD 0A78 


0088 


20 FB 


008A 


F1 


008B 


D3 04 


008D 


C9 


008E 


F5 


008F 


CD 0A70 


0092 


20 FB 


0094 


F1 


0095 


D3 02 


0097 


C9 


0098 


3E 3C 


009A 


CD 008E 


009D 


3E 0D 


009F 


CD 0084 


00A2 


DB 03 


00A4 


E6 02 


00A6 


28 11 


00A8 


DB 02 


00AA 


E6 7F 


00AC 


FE 12 


00AE 


20 09 


00B0 


36 06 


00B2 


3E 3E 


00B4 


CD 008E 


00 B7 


10 AC 


00B9 


DB 05 


00BB 


E6 02 


00BD 


28 E3 


00BF 


DB 04 


00C1 


E6 7F 


00C3 


77 


00C4 


BE 


00C5 


20 06 


00C7 


23 


00C8 


CD 008E 


00CB 


18 D5 


00CD 


2B 


00CE 


36 06 


00D0 


C3 0E04 


00D3 


CD 0043 


00D6 


CD 0084 


00D9 


CD 0A46 


00DC 


28 08 


00DE 


CD 0AF1 


00E1 


CA 0056 


00E4 


18 F3 


00E6 


DB 04 


00E8 


CD 008E 


00EB 


18 E6 



INITD: 

INIT: 



WARM EQU 0E04 {BASIC'S WARM START 

COLD EQU 0E00 {BASIC'S COLD START 

ISTO EQU 0A3EH ;D0S 5.2 STATUS ROUTINES 

IST1 EQU 0A46H 

OSTO EQU 0A70H 

0ST1 EQU OAOA78H 

;FEEDER ROUTINE 

LD HL.MEMSET ;HL=MEMSET FOR HEW BASIC 

LD(HIMEM),HL ;SET MEMSIZE FOR NEW BASIC 

LD(STPOINT),DE ;DE PASSED FROM NSCOM - START RAMFILt 

LD HL. FEEDER ;HL = START OF FEEDER INPUl ROUTINE 

LD<VECT),HL -.CURRENT INPUT ROUTINE IS NOW FEEDER 

LD(STSP),SP {SAVE BASIC'S STACK POINTER 

JP COLD {NSCOM WILL OVERWRITE THIS ADDR FOR DOS COMMANDS 

FEEDER: LD(STHL) ,HL {SAVE BASIC'S HL 

LD HL.(STPOINT) {HL POINTS TO NEXT CHAR 

LD A.(HL) {GET CHAR 

CP 06 

JR Z, RESTOR {IF EOT THEN RESTORE VECT TO DOS CHaRIN 

INC HL {INCREMENT RAM POINTER 

LD(STPOINT),HL {STORE ADDRESS NEXT CHAR 

LD HL.(STHL) {RETRIEVE BASIC'S OR DOS HL 

RET {GO BACK TO BASIC OR DOS 

RESTOR: LD HL, NORMAL ;HL = ADDRESS NORMAL IN ROUTINE 
LD(VECT),HL {CURRENT IN ROUTINE IS NOW NORMAL 
LD HL.(STHL) {RETRIEVE BASIC'S HL 
LD SP.(STSP) {RETRIEVE BASIC'S STACK POINTER 
RET {RETURN IN CONTROL TO NSCOM OR BASIC 
PAGE 60 

{NSCOM - COMMUNICATION MODE 

;DE PASSED FROM NSCOM WITH START OF RAMFILt 
{INIT HL AS POINTER 



;IF NO CHAR LOOK AT SECOND PORT 
{GET CONSOLE CHAR. 



TALK: EX DE.HL 

L00KC0N:CALL ISTO 

JR NZ, LOOKEXT 

IN A, (02) 

AND 7FH 

CP 11H ;"Q ->BACK TO NSCOM 

RET Z {BACK TO COMMAND MODE OF NSCuM 

CP 06H ;*F -> ENTER STORAGE MODE 

JR Z, INITFIL {STORE COMMUNICATION IN 



{OTHERWISE SEND CHAR 

;IF NOT LOOK AT CONSOLE 
{GET EXT. CHAR. 

{LOOK AT CONSOLE AGAIN 



RAMFILE 

CALL SENDEXT 
LOOKEXT: CALL IST1 

JR NZ, LOOKCON 

IN A, (04) 

CALL SENDCON 

JR LOOKCON 
SENDEXT:PUSH AF 
WAITEXT:CALL OST1 

JR NZ, WAITEXT 

POP AF {RETRIEVE CHAR. 

OUT (04), A 

RET 
SENDCON: PUSH AF {SAVE CHAR. 
WAITCON:CALL OSTO 

JR NZ, WAITCON 

POP AF {RETRIEVE CHAR. 

OUT (02), A {SEND CHAR. 

RET 

PAGE 60 
INITFIL:LD A,3CH 

CALL SENDCON 
LD A,0DH 

CALL SENDEXT 
ST0PFIL7:IN A, (03) 

AND 02 

JR Z.FILLRAM 

IN A, (02) 

AND 7FH 

CP 12H ;IS CHAR A CONTROL R7 

JR NZ.FILLRAM ;IF NOT CONTINUE FILLING RAM 
{WRITE EOF MARKER 
;As'>' 



{A^'O 

{SHOW ■<■ FOR STORAGE MODE 

;A = CR 

{SEND CR 

{CHECK CONSOLE 

;IF NO CHAR INPUT CONTINUE STORAGE MODt 



LD (HD.06 
LD A,3E 
CALL SENDCON 
JR LOOKCON {CONTINUE TALK MODE 
{STORAGE MODE FOR NSCOM 
{THE FOLLOWING STORES COM IN RAM UNTIL 
{GET STATUS BYTE 



R FROM CONSOLE 



FILLRAM: IN A, (05) 

AND 02 

JR Z.STOPFIL? 

IN A, (04) 

AND 7FH 

LD(HL),A 

CP(HL) 

JR NZ.WARN 

INC HL 

CALL SENDCON 

JR STOPFIL? 
WARN: DEC HL :SET HL TO EOT 

LD(HL),06 {WRITE EOT MARKER 

JP WARM {WARN USER BY STARTING BASIC 

{ECHO ROUTINE 



;IF NOTHING THERE LOOK AT CONSOLE 
{GET CHAR FROM SECOND PORT. 

{STORE CHAR AT HL LOCATION 
{VERIFY CHAR STORED 
;IF OUT OF RAM WARN 
{INCREASE RAM POINTER 
{DISPLAY CHAR 



ECHO: CALL FEEDER 
CALL SENDEXT 

ECHOLOOK:CALL IST1 

JR Z, RECEIVE 
CALL 0AF1H 
JP Z, RESTOR 
JR ECHOLOO 

RECEIVE:IN A, (04) 

CALL SENDCON 
JR ECHO 
.DEPHASE 



{GET CHAR AND CHECK FOR END OF RAMFILt 

{SEND CHAR TO REMOTE SYSTEM 

{LOOK FOR ECHO 

;IF READY SHOW CHAR 

{CHECK CONSOLE FOR ~C 

{WAIT FOR ECHO 

{SHOW CHAR 







TITLE EOT 






;FIND EOT MARKER:06H 






;DE=START ADDRESS FROM NSCOM 


0010 




.RADIX 16 

.Z80 

.PHASE OEEH ;THIS ROUTINE RELOCATES 


OOEE 


EB 


EX DE,HL ;HL=DE=RAMFILE START 


OOEF 


23 


SEARCH: INC HL 


00F0 


7E 


LD A,(HL) ;A=CHAR 


00F1 


FE 06 


CP 06H ;IS IT THE EOT? 


00F3 


20 FA 


JR NZ, (SEARCH) 


00F5 


C9 


RET ;PASS HL TO BASIC 
.DEPHASE 

Listing 7. 



126 Microcomputing, January 1982 



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Microcomputing, January 1982 A 27 



Here's a bit of Sorcerer magic that lets you use monitor commands in BASIC programs. 



The Sorcerer Reveals 

Hidden Commands 



By C. Kevin McCabe 



The Exidy Sorcerer hides process- 
ing routines for 14 monitor com- 
mands deep within its 2716 PROMs. 
With a few waves of the Sorcerer's 
magic wand, a majority of these com- 
mands can also be used without 
change within BASIC programs. 

Along with other operations, there 
are monitor routines to: 
• configure the Sorcerer's input/out- 
put by selection of appropriate moni- 
tor- or user-supplied drivers; 
•load, move, inspect, save and exe- 
cute machine code and data; 
•test RAM memory bit-by-bit; and 



• specify prompt characters and tape 
header information. 

Each of these commands can be 
specified in a BASIC string variable, 
along with any necessary or optional 
parameters, as shown in Table 1. The 
utility subroutines in Listing 1 place 
the command string into the monitor's 
input buffer, then call the appropri- 
ate command processor via BASIC'S 
USR statement. On completion of the 
command— which might change an 
output driver, obtain data from the 
keyboard or execute a machine-lan- 
guage routine in RAM— control 



Address 


Command 


Function 


E4D3 


DU XXXX [YYYY) 


Display contents of memory. 


E538 


EN XXXX 


Load hex byte into memory. 


E597 


GO XXXX 


Execute program at XXXX. 


E78A 


LO [name] [U] [XXXX] 


Load file from tape U. 


E562 


MO XXXX YYYY [S] [ZZZZ] 


Copy memory block-to-block 


E845 


PR = X 


Change to specified prompt. 


E638 


SA [name] XXXX YYYY [U] 


Save memory on tape U. 


E5A2 


SE F = XX 


Set file type header byte. 




1= K 


Input from keyboard. 




= P 


Input from parallel port 




= S 


Input from serial port. 




= XXXX 


Input via driver at XXXX. 




O = L 


Output to Centronics 




= P 


Output to parallel port 




= s 


Output to serial port 




= v 


Output to video screen 




= XXXX 


Output via driver at XXXX. 




S = XX 


Set display delay to XX. 




T = X 


Data rate= 300 [X-1J, 1200 [0]. 




X = XXXX 


Set autoexecute address. 



Table 1. Sorcerer monitor commands. 



jumps back to the BASIC program. 

The result is full control over I/O 
processing and many other monitor 
functions within BASIC programs. A 
related benefit arises from use of 
standard monitor commands and pa- 
rameters, making the BASIC soft- 
ware nearly self-documenting. 

To understand this bit of Sorcerer 
magic, let's take a closer look at the 
monitor's organization. In addition to 
the 4K of PROM beginning at E000H, 
the top 176 (BOH) bytes of RAM are 
dedicated to the monitor. The upper 
111 (6FH) bytes of this area serve as a 
scratchpad RAM work area. 

Assume that MRAM is the lowest 
address in this 111 byte RAM work 
area. What's hidden at MRAM and 
the following bytes? Lots of goodies! 
There are bytes to specify I/O driver 
routine addresses, tape header infor- 
mation, cassette tape and motor sta- 
tus, output delay and input prompt 
and cursor location. Whenever a 
monitor command requires such in- 
formation to perform its function, or 

changes one of the parameters, the 
appropriate RAM location in the 
work area is read or updated. 

Certainly, a BASIC program could 
PEEK and POKE about in the work 
area to change I/O devices, for exam- 
ple—but that's the hard way. Even 



Address correspondence to C Kevin McCabe, 115 
South LaSalle, Suite 3300, Chicago, IL 60603. 



128 Microcomputing, January 1982 



worse, that method is almost incom- 
prehensible within a BASIC program. 
The BASIC statements POKE MRAM 
+ 63,147: POKE MRAM + 64,233 
may select the Centronics output 
driver, but they don't convey that 
meaning to the programmer as read- 
ily as the monitor's equivalent SET 
= L command. 

A Better Way 

There must be a better way— and 
there is. The secret lies in the 60 bytes 
beginning at MRAM which form the 
monitor's input buffer. When keys 
are struck following a monitor 
prompt, the ASCII value of each in- 
put character is placed left-justified 
in the buffer. A carriage return (13 
decimal, or ODH) terminates the 
monitor's input routine. 

A portion of the warm start proces- 
sor WARM checks the first two bytes 
in the buffer against a PROM table 
containing the command characters. 
If a match is found, the monitor 
jumps to the associated command 
processor code and executes the com- 
mand. If there's no match, an error 
message is output instead. In either 
event, a return address is first pushed 
onto the stack; all processor and error 
routines end with a Z-80 return com- 
mand, which pulls the address from 
the stack and makes an unconditional 
jump back into WARM. 

But why use the keyboard to enter 
commands? A BASIC program can 
easily poke ASCII values into the in- 
put buffer. Lines 30000-30030 in 
Listing 1 take the string specified by 
CMD$ and place it, along with an 
added carriage return character, in 
the input buffer beginning at MRAM. 
So far, so good— but there are two 
possible hitches. 

The first problem is finding the 
elusive MRAM; since the work area 
lies at the top of installed memory, 
MRAM varies from Sorcerer to Sor- 
cerer. However, the monitor pro- 
vides a machine-independent solu- 
tion. On each cold start, the monitor 
tests memory locations for usability, 
beginning at location 0000H. When 
the first unusable location is found 
(by failure of a location to receive and 
hold a test value) the monitor as- 
sumes that it has exceeded installed 
memory. An address counter is dec- 
remented by one, then the resulting 
16-bit address is stored at 0F000- 
0F001H. As is usual with Z-80 opera- 
tions, the low-order byte is stored in 
the lower location. 

Lines 40000-40030 in Listing 1 cal- 



culate MRAM by PEEKs to those lo- 
cations. For systems with more than 
32K of installed memory, the sub- 
routine also converts the resulting 
decimal address to the necessary neg- 
ative form. 

Ideally, the monitor's own parser 
in the WARM routine would be used 
to identify and execute the command 
poked into the buffer. The second 
possible hitch comes from the behav- 
ior of the monitor after execution of 
the command. To be useful in a 
BASIC program, the monitor com- 
mands should execute and then re- 
turn control to BASIC. However, en- 
try into the command processors 
through WARM causes a return to 
WARM, not BASIC. 

The solution is BASIC'S USR com- 
mand, which executes the machine 
code at a specified address, then re- 
turns control to BASIC. The two 
bytes at 260-261 ( 104- 105H) are used 
as a jump vector to the address of the 
desired code routine. A call to USR 
jumps to the specified code and be- 
gins execution; when a return is en- 
countered, BASIC regains control. 

Summary 

That gives the final ingredient to 
the Sorcerer's brew. In addition to 
the text of the desired monitor com- 
mand, the program uses another 



string with the appropriate processor 
address from Table 1. Lines 10000- 
20020 convert the four digits of a hex 
address string to decimal, and POKE 
them into the two-byte USR hook. 

Mixed together, these ingredients 
provide easy BASIC control of moni- 
tor functions. MRAM is found by an 
initial call to line 40000. The desired 
monitor function is specified by an 
equate to the string CMD$; the ad- 
dress of the desired processor is 
equated to CP$. A call to line 20000 
converts and shifts the strings to the 
proper locations, transfers control to 
the processor, then retakes command 
on completion. Additional monitor 
commands can follow, if desired. 

Listing 2 illustrates use of this pro- 
cess. Notably, the program logic is 
clear even without the remark state- 
ments. The first 256 bytes of memory 
are output to the Centronics printer, 
then saved at 300 bits per second on 
tape unit 1. New values are input to 
the same area of memory from tape 
unit 2, at 1200 bits per second. Those 
values— which must terminate with a 
Z-80 return command of 0C9H— are 
executed, and control returns to 
BASIC for the final video message. 

All that with only a few equates 
and subroutine calls— and it's nearly 
self-documenting to boot. That's 
powerful magic from your Sorcerer! ■ 



10000 
10010 
10020 
10030 
20000 
20010 
20020 
30000 
30010 
30020 
30030 
40000 
40010 
40020 
40030 



REM — Convert hex address byte to decinal equivalent 
UHI « ASC<LEFT*<HEX*,l>>-48: IF VHI>9 THEN VHI » VHI-7 
VLO - ASC<RIGHT*<HEX*,l>>-48: IF VL0>9 THEN VLQ ■ VLO-7 
VDEC « 16 x VHI + VLO: RETURN 
REM — Poke hex address equivalent into USR hook 



HEX* ■ LEFT*<CP*,2>: GOSUB lOOOOt 
HEX* - RIGHT*<CP*,2>: GOSUB 10000 



POKE 261, 
POKE 260, 



REM — Poke Monitor connand 

CMD* ■ CMD*+CHR*<13)J FOR 

POKE J+MRAM, ASC<MID*<CMD*,J+1,1>>: 

J ■ USR(J)J RETURN 

REM — Locate first byte of Monitor work 

MRAM * 256 * PEEK<-4095) ♦ PEEK<-4096> 

IF MRAM > 32767 THEN MRAM « MRAM - 65536 

MRAM ■ MRAM - 110 J RETURN 



into monitor RAM & 
J«0 TO LEN(CMD*)-1 
NEXT J 

area 



UDEC 
VDEC 
execute it 



Listing 1. Utility subroutines. 



100 
110 
120 
130 
140 
150 
160 
170 
180 
190 
200 



REM 

GOSUB 

CMD*= 

CMD*= 

CMD*= 

CMD*= 

CP*=" 

CMD*= 

CMD*= 

CMD* = 

PRINT 



ExaMP 
4000 
M SE 
"DU 
M SE 
"SE T 
E638" 
"SE T 
"LO 2 
"GO 
"Tha 



le proqraM (requires use of Listing 1 routine) 

0: REM — Find MRAM ■ location of input buffer 

=L M : CP*="E5A2": GOSUB 20000: REM— -Centronics out 

FF M t CP*="E4D3": GOSUB 20000: REM— Dump MeMory 
=V"! CP**"E5A2": GOSUB 20000: REM— -Video out 
20000: CMD*«"SA XAMPL FF" 
20000: REM — Save MeMory at 300 baud 



«1 M : GOSUB 



: GOSUB 



CP*« ,, E5A2"t GOSUB 20000: REM— Set 1200 baud 



=o m : 

FF": CP*="E78A M : GOSUB 20000: REM— Load MeMory 
u : CP*»"E597": GOSUB 20000: REM— Execute code 
♦ *tha. .tha* ♦that's all, folks!": END 



Listing 2. Example program. 



Microcomputing, January 1982 129 



«*s^- 



***>*©* i 



tW 



Encyclopedia for the TRS-80* 

What's the key to getting the most from your 
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A division of Wayne Green Inc * 

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KBE1 



This BASIC text disassembler gives new meaning to the word versatility when programming the PET 



The Revealing Truth 
About PET's Memory 



By Charles R. Trahan 



While writing a CBM 2001 pro- 
gram to create files on a CGRS 
PEDISK, I ran into a common prob- 



lem. The PEDISK operating system 
requires you to specify the maximum 
number of records when a new file is 






49900 
49902 
49904 
49906 
49908 
49910 
49912 
49914 
49916 
49918 
49920 
49922 
49990 
50000 

5000 1 
50002 
50003 
50004 
50006 
50007 
50008 
500 1 

500 1 1 
50012 

500 1 4 

500 1 5 
50020 
50030 
50033 
50034 
50035 
50040 
50043 
50044 
50045 
50050 
50054 
50055 
50060 
59999 
60000 
6000 1 
60002 
60003 
60004 
60005 
60006 
60007 
60008 
60009 
600 1 
60011 
600 1 2 
600 1 3 
600 1 4 
60019 



Program listing. The MEMSEE program for the CBM 2001. 

REM *»* MEMSEE ( MEMORY SEE) *** 

* 
■ 

REM chuck: trahan 

REM 4 CONGRESS COURT 

REM QUAKERTOWN, PA 18951 

REM 215-536-0264 

• 

REM APPEND TO END OP BASIC PROG 

REM RUN 50000. 

REM MEMSEE WILL DISASSEMBLE 

REM BASIC CODE IN MEMORY. 

• 

REM PROG I NIT - USER INPUTS 

P0KE59468, 12: PR INT "HIT S TO STOP" : INPUT "HI ADDRESS . " ; TP 

INPUT"LO ADDRESS . " ; AD: AD=AD- 1 : IFTP=0THENTP=99999: REM TOP DEFAULT 

INPUT"STOP 8 LN . ";LN:IFAD i THENAD= 1023: REM BOTTOM DEFAULT 

IFLN=0THENLN=99999: INPUT"STOP D EOT Y" ; A*: C=ABS ( A*=" Y" ) 

INPUT"LISTING N" ; At : L=ABS ( A*=" Y" ) 

INPUT"HARD COPY N" ; A*: A=ABS < A*=" Y " ) 

I FATHEN INPUT "DEVICE # 4" ; D: OPEND, D: PRINT#D, CHR* ( 12) : CMDD 

PRINT: PRINT"ADDRESS", "CONTENT TEXT": PRINT 



REM BEGIN DISASSEMBLY - PEEK !< CHECK FOR 
G0SUB62000 : I FPK THEN60000 



CONTAINS OTHER THAN 



REM END OF LINE OR END OF TEXT CHECK 

IFPEEK<AD+1)0RPEEK(AD+2)0RAD 1024THEN6 1000 CHECK FOR 3 O'S OR BELOW BASIC 

A«="END OF TEXT" :G0SUB63300: REM 3 O'S END OF BASIC TEXT FOUND 

REM END OF RUN CHECKS FOLLOW 

REM DISPLAY NEXT 2 ADDRESSES 

F0RI=1T02:GCSUB62000:A*=" " : G0SUB63300: NEXT: IFCTHEN50045 STOP • EOT 

IFAD<TPTHEN50012 N0T 3 T0P 



REM END OF RUN - TERMINATE ACCORDING TO 

IFLTHENIFDTHENPRINT#D, CHR» ( 12) : CMDD: REM 

IFLTHENPRINT: LIST: REM 

I FDTHENPR I NT#D , CHR* (12): CLOSED : REM 

END 



USER INPUTS 

NEW PAGE FOR HARD COPY LISTING 
PROG LISTING S> END OF RUN 
CLOSE CHANNEL TO PRINTER 



REM CHECK IF QUOTES MODE OR PET TOKEN MODE 

IFNOTFANDPK M27ANDPK 203THENG0SUB63000: G0T05004O 

I FPK=320RPK= 1 60THENA«= " " : G0T0600 1 9 

I FPK* 1 30RPK= 1 4 1 THENA*= " CARR I AGE RETURN " : G0T0600 1 9 

A*=CHR*(PK) : I FPK >29THEN60010 

I FPK=29THENA*= " CURSOR > " : G0T0600 1 9 

IFPK< 170RPK : 20THEN60019 

A*=" CURSOR V": I FPK 17THENA«=" REVERSE 

I FPK > 1 9THENA*= " DELETE " : REM 

G0T060019 



NOT IN QUOTES MODE 
SPACE OR SHIFTED SPACE 
CARRIAGE RETURN CHAR. 
ASCII CHAR. ASSIGNED 
PEEK > 29 IS SPECIAL CHAR 
NOT IN 'SPECIAL' RANGE 
ON": I FPK 18THENA«=" CURSOR HOME 
PET'S 'DELETE' KEY 



I FPK= 1 3 1 THENA»= " RUN " : G0T0600 1 9 

I FPK= 1 57THENA«= "CURSOR _ " : G0T06O0 1 9 

I FPK< 1 450RPK > 1 48THEN600 1 9 

A«="CURSOR ~": IFPK ■ 1 45THENA*= "REVERSE 

I FPK > 1 47THENA*= " I NSERT " : REM 

G0SUB63300: G0T050040 



OFF": I FPK 



SPECIAL CASE ASCI I 'S 
THESE 2 ARE ODD NUMBERS 
NORMAL ASCII CHAR. 
146THENA*=" CLEAR SCREEN 
PET'S 'INSERT' KEY 
PRINT RESULTS & CONT. 




opened. I wanted the user to be able 
to specify this parameter and have it 
allocated dynamically in my pro- 
gram. But the DOS requires a numer- 
ic constant, not a variable. 

The problem could be easily solved 
with Commodore's BASIC by having 
the user input the number of records 
he will require and then poking the 
ASCII equivalent of the input into the 
correct location in the OPEN state- 
ment in the program. So I needed to 
determine the exact memory loca- 
tions (in decimal) that had to be 
poked. 

The detective work started with 
the machine-language monitor. I 
tried to locate the line and statement 
that opened the new file. This can be 
done, but it's tricky. PET stores dif- 
ferent ASCII codes for the same char- 
acter in main memory and in screen 
memory. Not only must you know 
what to look for, but using the 
monitor requires hex to decimal con- 
version. 

All this caused me to write 
MEMSEE. MEMSEE should be load- 
ed before you start writing your new 
program if you don't have an append 
utility available. Line numbers start 
at 50000, so it won't interfere with 
the program line numbers. 

When you want to do some poking 
in your program, enter the POKE 



Address correspondence to Charles R. Trahan, 4 
Congress Court, Quakertown, PA 18951. 



132 Microcomputing, January 1982 



command with a dummy address; 
i.e., POKE 0000,32 then RUN 50000. 
An examination of the printout (or 
carefully watching the CRT display) 
will yield the exact decimal address 
of interest. 

There are a couple of bonuses to 
running MEMSEE. You will learn 
how the PET stores your program in 
memory. The end-of-line marker, 
link-to-next-line and line numbers 
become easy to see. In the PET's 
memory what you see is not always 
what you get. For instance, BASIC 
commands are stored as one-byte 
tokens. MEMSEE displays what's in 
memory in decimal, and what it real- 
ly means to the programmer. 

In addition to viewing your BASIC 
text, you can examine the operating 
system's working space, addresses 
512 to 634, and you'll see your last- 
used strings residing there. You can 
look at the top of user's memory 
where strings are stored, or just 
above BASIC text where variables 
are stored. You may be able to recall 
lost data this way. 

Running the Program 

Slightly less than 3K bytes are re- 
quired for MEMSEE. Even the long- 
est BASIC program usually sets aside 
at least this amount for string storage 
and arrays, so MEMSEE can be ap- 
pended to the end of most programs 
and deleted when no longer required. 
Admittedly, this is tedious if you 
have no DELETE utility. When you 
first load or append MEMSEE you 
should remove the REM statements. 

When you RUN 50000, you'll see 
the prompt HIT S TO STOP. Runs get 
rather lengthy so you have the option 
of terminating them at any time with 
the S key. Don't use the stop key or 
files won't be closed. 

The prompts HI ADDRESS, LO 
ADDRESS will appear next. Enter 
any decimal addresses you want. 

The next prompt, STOP @ LN, is 
asking for a line number at which to 
end the run. Hitting RETURN will 
default to 99999, this being greater 
than any possible line number. The 
line number you enter does not have 
to actually be in your program. The 
run will terminate when the line 
number in memory is greater than 
the one you entered. 

If you default on line number, you 
will be asked STOP @ EOT. This 
stands for end of BASIC text. Re- 
spond with Y or N. Remember, if you 
stop at EOT rather than a line num- 



Listing 

6<>998 

60999 

6 1 OOO 

6 1 002 

6 1 005 

61007 

61010 

61015 

61020 

61021 

61999 

62000 

620 1 

620 1 5 

62020 

6202 1 

62090 

63000 

63020 

63030 

63040 

63050 

63060 

63070 

63080 

63090 

6310O 

63110 

63 1 20 

63 1 25 

63 1 30 

63140 

63145 

63 1 50 

63155 

63 1 60 

63165 

63170 

63175 

63 1 80 

63185 

63190 

63195 

63200 

63210 

63220 

63230 

63231 

6329<? 

63300 

63310 



continual. 

m 

REM CALCULATE LINK !< LINE NUMBERS 

I FAD 1024THENA*=" " : G0SUB63300: G0T05001 2 BELOW BASIC - INVALID 

F=0:A*="END OF LINE" : IFAD=1024THENA*="START BASIC TEXT 
G0SUB63300:G0SUB62000:A*="LINK"+STR*(PK +256*PEEK <AD+1 ) ) : G0SUB63300 

G0SUB62000: A*- " " : G0SUB63300 

G0SUB62000:P=PK>256*PEEK fAD+1 ) :A*="LINE #"+STR*<P> : G0SUB633O0 
IFP=:LNTHEN50045 CHECK FOR ENDING LINE* 

G0SUB62000 : A*^ " " : G0SUB6330<">: G0T0500 1 2 



REM LOOK 3 PET'S MEMORY HERE 
AD=AD+1:PK=PEEK(AD> :GETK*: IFDTHENCMDD: REM 
IFK *="5"THEN50045 
IFPK =34THENF=NOTF: REM 
RETURN 



BUMF ADDRESS !< PEEK IT 
CHECK FOR STOP 'S' KEY 
KEEP TRACK OF QUOTES 



REM BASIC TOKEN LOOK-UP TABLE 

A*="END": IFPK 1 28THENA*="F0R" : IFPK ) 1 29THENA*="NEXT" : IFFK 130THENA*="DATA 
I FPK > 1 3 1 THENA*= " I NPUT# " : I FPK 1 32THENA*= " I NPUT " : I FPK 1 33THENA*= "DIM 
1 ~4THENA*="READ": IFPK 135THENA*=" LET": IFPK : 136THENA*=" GOTO 
1 37THENA*= " RUN " : I FPK 1 38THENA*= " I F " : I FPK > 1 39THENA*= " RESTORE 
1 40THENA*= " GOSUB " : I FPK 141 THENA*- " RETURN " : I FPK 1 42THENA*= " REM 
143THENA*="ST0P": IFPK - 1 44THENA*="0N" : IFPK 1 45THENA*=" WAI T 
1 46THENA*- "LOAD " : IFPK 1 47THENA*= " SAVE " : IFPK 1 4BTHENA*= " VER I FY 
1 49THENA*= " DEF " : I FPK > 1 50THENA*= " POKE " : I FPK 1 5 1 THENA*= " PR I NT* 
152THENA*-"PRINT": IFPK 1 53THENA*^"C0NT " : IFPK 1 54THENA*= "LIST 
155THENA*="CLR": IFPK : 156THENA*="CMD" : IFPK 157THENA*=" SYS 

1 59THENA*= " CLOSE " : I FPK . 1 60THENA*= " GET 
1 62THENA*= " TAB < " : I FPK > 1 63THENA*= " TO 



IFPK 
IFPK 
I FPK 
IFPK 
I FPK 
IFPK 
IFPK 

ifpk: 

IFPK 

I FPK 

IFPK 

IFPK 

IFPK 

IFPK 

I FPK 

IFPK 

IFPK 

IFPK 

I FPK 

I FPK 

IFPK 

IFPK 

I FPK 

I FPK 

I FPK 

IFPK 

IFPK 



'THENA* 



158rHENA*="0PEN": IFPK 

161 THENAR "NEW": IFPK 

164THENA*="FN 

1 65THENA*= " SPC ( " : I FPK 

168THENA*="STEP": IFPK 

1"'1THENA*=". 

1 72THENA* ■= " / " : I FPK 1 7 

175THENA*=-"0R 

176THENA*-" ": IFPK > 1 77THENA*=" = " : IFPK 

179THENA*="SGN 

130THENA*=" INT": IFPK: 

183THENA*^"FRE 

184THENA*="P0S" 

187THENA*="L0G 

188THENA*^"EXP" 

191THENA*="TAN 

192THENA*^"ATN" 



1 66THENA*--- " THEN " : I FPK > 1 67THENA*= " NOT 
1 69THENA*= " + " : I FPK 1 70THENA*= " - 



" : I FPK 1 74THENA*^ " AND 



178THENA*=" 



181 1HENA*="ABS": IFPK 1 S2THENA*= "USR 



IFPK 185THENA*="S0R": IFPK 186THENA*- "RND 
IFPK lS^THENA*^" COS": IFPK ►190THENA*«"SIN 



IFPK>193THENA*="PEEK ": IFPf 



194THENA*="LEN 

1 95THENA*= " STR* " : I FPK 1 96THENA*= " VAL " : I FPK 1 97THENA«^ " A5C 
198THENA*-"CHR«": IFPK 1 99THENA*= "LEFT* " : IFPK 200THENA* = "R IGHT* 



I FFK 20 1 THENA*- "MID* " : I FPK >202THENA*= 

REM DISPLAY RESULTS HERE 

PR I NT AD , PK ; SPC ( 1 0-LEN < STR* ( PK ) ) > A* ; 

RETURN 



TFPK=255THENA*-CHP*(272> 



IFD-OTHENFTvINT 



1015 

luib 

1617 
1018 
1019 

1020 

1021 
1022 
1 023 
1024 
1025 
1026 
1027 







247 
231 
4 
207 



142 



55 

4 

80 



RETURN 
STHRT BRSIC TEXT 
LINK 1079 



LINE # 50009 



3772 END OF LINE 

3773 211 LINK 3795 

3774 14 

3775 68 LINE # 63388 

3776 247 

3777 153 PRINT 

3778 65 ft 

3779 68 D 

3780 44 

3781 80 P 

3782 75 K 

3783 44 

3784 65 R 

3785 36 * 

3786 59 

3787 58 

3788 139 IF 

3789 68 D 

3790 178 

3791 48 

3792 167 THEN 

3793 153 PRINT 

3794 END OF LINE 

3795 217 LINK 3881 

3796 14 

3797 78 LINE # 63310 

3798 247 

3799 142 RETURN 

3800 END OF TEXT 

3881 

3882 8 

Sample run. Starts below BASIC text, terminates at line 50000 and is rerun from address 3772 to 
the end of text. 



Microcomputing, January 1982 133 



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SIERRA VISTA, AZ 85635 

TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corporation. 



ber, MEMSEE will be included in the 
disassembly. 

Answer Y or N to LISTING. If you 
answer yes, a program listing will be 
given at the end of run. When the 
listing is complete, type GOTO 
50054 and RETURN to properly 
close all files. 

If you answered no, you will be 
asked if you want hard copy. A yes 
answer to either question will cause 
the prompt DEVICE # to be dis- 
played. This permits hard copy to 
any printer. 

After device #, or a no answer to 
the listing and hard copy prompts, 
the run will start. If your display is on 
the screen, it will scroll at a fairly 
readable rate. The S key will end the 
listing immediately, or use the stop 
key and CONT command to freeze 
the display. The scroll can be slowed 
down with the OFF/RVS key in the 
usual manner. 

Program Description 

A poke to graphics mode in line 
50000 is required for a correct print- 
out. Parameters are then entered in 
lines 50000 to 50008. 

Line 50010 determines if a was 



Software for 

NorthStar 

Users 




EXPENSE PROFILE 129.95 



Now a profram that really helps at 
income tax time. It summarizes 
expenses by categories and by 
person. Makes SEPARATE vs JOINT 
TAX RETURN comparisons simple. 

Promotes frequent review of 
spendinf habits. Guided by MENUS. 
add new expenses, categories, and 
users anytime. Quickly search to 
any item to make changes. Store 
expenses on disk automatically 



DYNAMIC BUDGET 129.95 

Cope with rapidly changing economic 
conditions. Forcast effects of 
INFLATION on your family CALENDAR 
built-in so recurring items like 
rent entered only once. 

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134 Microcomputing, January 1982 



found marking the end of a line. Line 
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WS4" 



Microcomputing, January 1982 1 35 



Change those North Star backslashes to colons and commas to semicolons before printing a listing— in 

three seconds or less! 



Backslashes to Colons 



By John A. Bryant 



North Star BASIC makes unusual 
use of such delimiters as the 
backslash and the comma. While 
many BASICs use the comma and the 
semicolon, North Star uses only the 
comma and gives it the meaning oth- 
er BASICs attach to the semicolon. 
Also, in North Star the backslash is 
used instead of the colon to separate 
statements on the same line. 

To add to all the confusion, my 
printer doesn't recognize a backslash. 
So before I send a listing to someone, 
I have to put in colons or backslashes 
by hand and change all the commas 
to semicolons. 

It occurred to me that someone 
with a computer shouldn't be doing 
all that tedious work, so I dashed off 
an assembly-language program to 
quickly make the changes. The pro- 
gram was suggested by Rinaldo Pris- 
co's space remover program in the 
January 1981 Mircocomputing (p. 40). 

My program, like Prisco's, operates 
on the BASIC program while it is in 
memory, and thus is lightning-fast. It 
should be assembled to load at some 
free area that will not be occupied by 
the BASIC program— either high 
memory or below DOS. When it fin- 
ishes its work, it returns you to 
BASIC, and the modified program 
can be either directed to the screen or 
printer with the LIST command, or 
saved to disk for later printing. 

Address correspondence to John A. Bryant, 6648 
N. Canandaigua Road, Holcomb, NY 14469. 



136 Microcomputing, January 1982 



How It Works 

The program examines each byte 
of the BASIC program in memory 
and checks to see if it is a backslash 
(5C in hexadecimal) or a comma (2C). 
If the byte does represent one of 
those characters, it is replaced by the 
appropriate character, by means of a 
move immediate (MVI) instruction. 

Remarks and matter within quotes 
or parentheses branch to the REM, 
QUOTE and PAREN routines, so that 
commas there are not changed. How- 
ever, since my printer won't print a 
backslash, I designed the program to 
convert backslashes to colons no mat- 
ter where they are found. 

The SKIP routine is used to skip 
over line-number references, since 
they may contain the hexadecimal 
values of a backslash or a comma. 
North Star BASIC uses a 1 to mark 
the end of the program, so line 180 
checks to see if the end of the pro- 
gram in memory has been reached, in 
which case a jump is made to an en- 
try point for BASIC (line 170). 

Entering the Program 

The program is short; anyone with 
an assembler can enter it quickly us- 
ing assembly-language mnemonics, 
and can then assemble it at any loca- 
tion. Note that the hex value at line 
130 represents the last byte of BASIC, 
and the value at line 170 is a BASIC 
entry point. The values given are for 
release 5.0; if you are using a dif- 
ferent version, you'll have to enter 



the appropriate values. 

Even if you don't have an assem- 
bler and don't know assembly lan- 
guage from Latin, you can still enter 
and use this program. 

The right-hand two-thirds of List- 
ing 1 shows the assembly-language 
coding with remarks; the left col- 
umns represent the assembled ver- 
sion, assembled at 0000H. Listing 2 
shows just the assembled version, 
assembled not at 0000H, but at the 
top of memory in a 32K machine with 
memory from 2000H to 9FFFH. Note 
that the four hexadecimal digits at the 
far left are the memory locations 
where the values shown at the im- 
mediate right are stored. When there 
is one two-digit value to the right, the 
memory locations increment by one; 
when there are two, the next location 
is incremented by two, and so on. 

With that background, here's how 
to enter and save this program with- 
out an assembler: 

• Decide whether you want to 
locate the program at 0000H or at 
9F8BH. 

• Load one of North Star's moni- 
tors at a location that will not overlap 
DOS or the area where the program is 
to be placed. 

• Use the DS (display storage) fea- 
ture of the monitor. If you're assem- 
bling at 0000H, enter DS 0, followed 
by a carriage return (otherwise, enter 
DS 9F8B, then the carriage return). 
The monitor will display the value 
at that location, followed by an 



equals sign. 

•You then enter 21, press the 
space bar (not the carriage return), 
9D, space bar, 5F, space bar, 23, 
space bar, and so on until you get to 
the end of the assembly listing, at 
which time you should press the car- 
riage return. (Actually, at lines 130 
and 170 you should enter the appro- 
priate values for your version of North 
Star BASIC, as explained above. Note 
that when you're using the monitor 
they are entered backwards, that is, 



5F9D would be entered 9D 5F.) 

• Return to DOS by entering OS 
(Operating System), followed by a 
carriage return. 

• Now create a file on a disk to hold 
the program by using the DOS CR 
and TY commands. For example, en- 
ter CR REPLACE 2 (carriage return), 
then TY REPLACE 1 (carriage re- 
turn) or TY REPLACE 1 9F8B (car- 
riage return), depending on where 
you located it. 

• Finally, type SF REPLACE (car- 



0000 


0010 ; 




REPLACE 




0000 


0020 ; 








0000 


0030 ; FOR 


NORTH 


STAR BASIC 


PROGRAMS 


0000 


0040 ; 








0000 


0050 ; 








0000 


0060 ; CHANGES BACKSLASHES TO 


COLONS, 


0000 


0070 ; CHANGES DELIMITER COMMAS TO SEMICOLONS. 


0000 


0080 ; 








0000 


0090 ;HEX VALUE AT LINE 130 


IS LAST BYTE OF BASIC. 


0000 


0100 ;HEX VALUE AT LINE 170 


IS ENTRY POINT OF BASIC. 


0000 


0110 ; 








0000 


0120 ; 








0000 21 9D 5F 


0130 


LXI 


H,5F9DH 


;LAST BYTE OF BASIC 


0003 23 
1 0004 7E 

0005 FE 01 


0140 NEW 


I NX 


H 


;SKIP BYTE FOR # CHRS/U 


0150 


MOV 


A,M 


jPUT VALUE AT H IN A 


0160 


CPI 


1 


;END OF PROGRAM? 


0007 CA 04 2D 


0170 


JZ 


2D04H 


; YES- JUMP TO BASIC 


000A 23 


0180 SKIP 


INX 


H 


;SKIP OVER LINE NO. 


000B 23 


0190 


INX 


H 




000C 23 


0200 CHECK 


INX 


H 


;GO TO NEXT BYTE 


000D 7E 


0210 


MOV 


A,M 




000E FE 9A 


0220 


CPI 


9AH 


; REFERENCED LINE NO.? 


0010 CA OA 00 


0230 


Z 


SKIP 




0013 FE OD 


0240 


CPI 


ODH 


;END OF LINE? 


0015 CA 03 00 


0250 


JZ 


NEW 




0018 FE 8F 


0260 


CPI 


8FH 


; REMARK? 


00 1A CA 3B 00 


0270 


JZ 


REM 




001D FE 22 


0280 


CPI 


22H 


; QUOTE? 


001F CA 4C 00 


0290 


JZ 


QUOTE 




0022 FE EO 


0300 


CPI 


OEOH 


;LEFT PARENTHESIS? 


0024 CA 62 00 


0310 


JZ 


PAREN 




0027 FE 2C 


0320 


CPI 


2CH 


; COMMA? 


0029 C2 31 00 


0330 


JNZ 


NEXT 




002C 36 3B 


0340 


MVI 


M,3BH 


; SUBSTITUTE A SEMICOLON 


002E C3 OC 00 


0350 


JMP 


CHECK 




0031 FE 5C 


0360 NEXT 


CPI 


5CH 


; BACKSLASH? 


0033 C2 OC 00 


0370 


JNZ 


CHECK 




0036 36 3A 


0380 


MVI 


M,3AH 


; SUBSTITUTE A COLON 


' 0038 C3 OC 00 


0390 


JMP 


CHECK 




003B 23 


0400 REM 


INX 


H 


; ROUTINE FOR REMARKS 


003C 7E 


0410 


MOV 


A,M 




003D FE OD 


0420 


CPI 


ODH 


;END OF LINE? 


003F CA 03 00 


0430 


JZ 


NEW 




0042 FE 5C 


0440 


CPI 


5CH 


; BACKSLASH? 


0044 C2 3B 00 


0450 


JNZ 


REM 




0047 36 3A 


0460 


MVI 


M,3AH 


SUBSTITUTE A COLON 


0049 C3 OC 00 


0470 


JMP 


CHECK 




004C 23 


0480 QUOTE 


INX 


H 


; ROUTINE FOR CHARS. 


004D 7E 


0490 


MOV 


A,M 


; WITHIN QUOTES 


004E FE 22 


0500 


CPI 


22H 


; QUOTE CLOSED? 


0050 CA OC 00 


0510 


JZ 


CHECK 




0053 FE OD 


0520 


CPI 


ODH 


;END OF LINE? 


0055 CA 03 00 


0530 


JZ 


NEW 




0058 FE 5C 


0540 


CPI 


5CH 


; BACKSLASH? 


005A C2 4C 00 


0550 


JNZ 


QUOTE 




005 D 36 3A 


0560 


MVI 


M,3AH 


SUBSTITUTE A COLON 


005F C3 4C 00 


0570 


JMP 


QUOTE 




0062 23 


0580 PAREN 


INX 


H 


; ROUTINE FOR CHARS. 


0063 7E 


0590 


MOV 


A,M 


; WITHIN PARENTHESES 


0064 FE 29 


0600 


CPI 


29H 


; PARENTHESES CLOSED? 


0066 CA OC 00 


0610 


JZ 


CHECK 




0069 FE OD 


0620 


CPI 


ODH 


;END OF LINE? 


006B CA 03 00 


0630 


JZ 


NEW 




006E FE 5C 


0640 


CPI 


5CH 


j BACKSLASH? 


0070 C2 62 00 


0650 


JNZ 


PAREN 




0073 36 3A 


0660 


MVI 


M,3AH 


SUBSTITUTE A COLON 


0075 


0670 


END 




;END 


SYMBOL TABLE 










CHECK 000C NEW 


0003 NEXT 0031 PAREN 0062 


QUOTE 00 4C 


REM 00 3B SKIP 000 A 








Listing 1. 


Replace program in assembly languag 


e for North Star BASIC. 



riage return) or SF REPLACE 9F8B 
(carriage return), as the case may be. 

Using REPLACE 

Any time you wish to modify a 
BASIC program for printing, load 
BASIC, load the program to be modi- 
fied, use BYE to drop into the DOS, 
then type GO REPLACE (carriage re- 
turn). Quick as a wink, the program 
will be modified and you will return 
to BASIC, where you can either list 
the modified program to the screen or 
printer or save it to disk. To modify 
additional programs once REPLACE 
has been loaded, merely load the pro- 
gram to be modified, press control-C, 
then enter JP or JP 9F8B. Again, the 
program will be modified and you'll 
be back in BASIC in a flash. 

This program is so fast that if you 
haven't been returned to BASIC and 
the READY prompt hasn't been 
printed within about three seconds 
after running REPLACE, something 
is wrong. You should reboot (press 
reset) and check to make sure RE- 
PLACE has been entered correctly 
and the other steps have been fol- 
lowed correctly. 

One last point should be made with 



Sv: 



yysrens 




ii 



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Microcomputing, January 1982 137 



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reference to using REPLACE. If you 
edit any line of the BASIC program 
after running REPLACE on it, any 
semicolons or colons in that line will 
be changed back to commas or back- 
slashes by routines within BASIC. 
While that can be prevented by a cou- 
ple of FILLs, it is easier to just run 
REPLACE again. ■ 



9F8B 21 
9F8E 23 
9F8F 7E 
9F90 FE 
9F92 CA 
9F95 23 
9F96 23 
9F97 23 
9F98 7E 
9F99 FE 
9F9B CA 
9F9E FE 
9FA0 CA 
9FA3 FE 
9FA5 CA 
9FA8 FE 
9FAA CA 
9FAD FE 
9FAF CA 
9FB2 FE 
9FB4 C2 
9FB7 36 
9FB9 C3 
9FBC FE 
9FBE C2 
9FC1 36 
9FC3 C3 
9FC6 23 
9FC7 7E 
9FC8 FE 
9FCA CA 
9FCD FE 
9FCF C2 
9FD2 36 
9FD4 C3 
9FD7 23 
9FD8 7E 
9FD9 FE 
9FDB CA 
9FDE FE 
9FE0 CA 
9FE3 FE 
9FE5 C2 
9FE8 36 
9FEA C3 
9FED 23 
9FEE 7E 
9FEF FE 
9FF1 CA 
9FF4 FE 
9FF6 CA 
9FF9 FE 
9FFB C2 
9FFE 36 
A000 



9D 5F 



01 
04 2D 



9A 

95 9F 
0D 

8E 9F 
8F 

C6 9F 
22 

D7 9F 
E0 

ED 9F 
2C 

BC 9F 
3B 

97 9F 
5C 

97 9F 
3A 
97 9F 



0D 

8E 9F 
5C 

C6 9F 
3A 
97 9F 



22 

97 9F 
0D 

8E 9F 
5C 

D7 9F 
3A 
D7 9F 



29 

97 9F 
0D 

8E 9F 
5C 

ED 9F 
3A 



SYMBOL TABLE 

CHECK 9F97 
REM 9FC6 
NEXT 9FBC 
QUOTE 9FD7 



NEW 9F8E 
SKIP 9F95 
PAREN 9FED 



Listing 2. Assembled version. 



1 38 Microcomputing, January 1982 



The most important book 

ever published 

for the Apple. 



APPLE? 



IEX LOCH (DcC L0C\) C*A!*EJ \JSE-T*PE 



*00OC"*F f F f (0"-1 > \Htf\ 
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AN ATLAS TO 
THE APPLE COMPUTER 

By William F. Luebbert 



The most comprehensive description of 
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What's Where in the Apple? 

• Guides you — with a numerical Atlas and 
an alphabetical Gazetteer — to over 
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Faced with hundreds of different solutions to a problem, you can determine the best one with these 

optimization techniques. 



Which Way Is Best? 



By Louis C. Graue 



Everyone wants to do things 
efficiently. These computer tech- 
niques present optimization solutions 
to people who have little time to de- 
velop expertise in mathematical pro- 
gramming, decision-makers working 
on any quantitative project, and peo- 
ple who never liked mathematics be- 
cause it was too difficult. 

You don't need to know any math, 
except how to read equations and in- 
equalities involving variables and 
arithmetic operations. You need to 
know enough BASIC to understand 
FOR. . .NEXT loops. The necessary 
programs are very short. 

If a problem has less than a million 
feasible solutions, the computer's 
speed lets you test every one of them 
and pick the best. When billions of 
solutions are feasible, you take ran- 
dom samples of millions of them and 
find the optimum of that sample. The 
first two examples below illustrate 
how to test all possible solutions. The 
last example shows how to use the 
Monte Carlo technique. 

Maximum Profit 

Suppose your company manufac- 
tures products A and B at a profit of 
$50 and $75, respectively. You know 
that department 1 takes ten hours to 



make product A and six hours to 
make product B. Department 2 re- 
quires five hours to make product A 
and 14 hours to make product B. De- 
partment 1 has no more than 200 
man-hours available per day. Depart- 
ment 2 has no more than 300 man- 
hours per day available. You wish to 
find the number of units of A and B 
that should be made to maximize the 
profit. 

Let x be the number of units of 
product A and y the number of units 
of product B. The relevant informa- 
tion can be summarized as follows: 
Maximize P = 50x + 75y subject to 
10x + 6y<200 and 5x+ 14y<300. 
Notice that the inequalities restrict x 
to be no larger than 20 and y to be no 
larger than 21. 

Program listing 1 examines all 
20x21=420 feasible solutions in a 
few seconds and prints the best solu- 
tion. Line 20 declares the variables to 
be integers. In line 30 we initialize 
the variable PM to be less than any 
possible maximum. Zero is sufficient 
here since all of the variables are non- 
negative integers. 

The FOR. . .NEXT loops consider 
the following ordered pairs: (0,0), 

(0,1), (0,2) (0,21), (2,0), (2,1), 

(2,2) (2,21) (20,21). The first 



10 ' PROGRAM 1 

20 DEFINT X,Y,P 

30 PM=0 

40 FOR X=0 TO 20: FOR Y=0 TO 21 

50 IF 10*X+6*Y>200 GOTO 90 

60 IF 5*X+14*Y>300 GOTO 90 

70 P=50*X+75*Y 

80 IF P>PM THEN PM=P:XM=X : YM=Y 

90 NEXT YrNEXT X 

100 PRINT"THE SOLUTION IS:" 

110 PRINT" X =";XM;", Y =";YM;", AND MAXIMUM P =";PM 

120 END 



Program listing 1. Programs written for the TRS-80. 



of these pairs to satisfy the con- 
straints of lines 50 and 60 will get to 
line 70 and evaluate the P function. 
Then line 80 compares this P function 
value with the current value of PM, 
which is 0. Therefore, P will be larger 
and is stored in PM (along with the 
x,y values that produced P), erasing 
0. This process continues, and each 
time a P value is greater than the cur- 
rently stored PM value (the maxi- 
mum so far), the program jumps to 
the storage area and stores the new 
maximum. Finally, at the end of the 
program, the current stored maxi- 
mum is the true maximum, because 
all possible solutions have been 
considered. 

Minimum Delivery Cost 

You have two sources for a product 
and three locations (A, B and C) 
where you need supplies. A needs ten 
units, B needs eight units and C needs 
30 units. Source 1 can furnish 30 
units and source 2 has 18 units. The 
cost of delivering one unit from source 
i to location j is shown in Table 1. 
How should the 48 units needed be 
ordered to minimize the cost of 
delivery? 

Let Al be the number of units from 
source 1 to location A, A2 the number 
of units from source 2 to location A 
and so on. The problem can then be 
summarized as follows: Minimize 
C = 620A1 +66B1 + 72C1 + 58 A2 
+ 132B2+ 104C2, subject to 
A1+B1+C1 = 30, A2 + B2 + C2=18, 
Al+A2=10, B1+ B2 = 8 and 
C1+ C2 = 30. 



Address correspondence to Louis C. Graue, 624 
Campbell Hill Road, Bowling Green, OH 43402. 



140 Microcomputing, January 1982 



From the constraints you can see 
that Al must be less than or equal to 
10 (Al + A2 = 10), and Bl must be less 
than or equal to 8 (Bl +B2 = 8). Also, 
CI must be equal to 30- Al-Bl. A2 
must be less than or equal to 10 
(Al+A2=10), and B2 must be less 
than or equal to 8 (Bl + B2 = 8). Also, 
C2 must equal 18-A2-B2 (A2 + 
B2 + C2=18). 

Program listing 2 examines all 9801 
(11x9x11x9) feasible solutions and 
takes just over four minutes to com- 
plete the problem. By placing the 
print statement within the loops, 
each currently stored minimum will 
be printed (so you will have some- 
thing to watch while waiting for the 
solution). The last one printed will be 
the best solution. 

Eight units should be ordered from 
source 1 for location B; 22 units from 
source 1 for location C; ten units from 
source 2 for location A, and eight 
units from source 2 for location C to 
minimize the delivery costs, which 
will be $35.24. 



X 1 +2X 2 + 2X 3 + X 4 + 6X 5 <801 
2X 1 + X 2 + 6X 3 <201 
X 3 + X4 + 5X 5 <201 

with all variables non-negative 
integers. 

There are 10 billion sets of values to 
be checked. Look at a random sample 
of 1 million points and take the one 
that gives a maximum P. Examine 
Program listing 3 and notice that we 
have not set up a FOR . . . NEXT loop 
for each variable as we did in the 
previous examples. We have set up 
one outside FOR . . . NEXT loop on J 
running from 1 to 1,000,000. Each 
time J assumes a new value, line 40 
assigns each variable Xi, X 2 , X 3 , X 4 
and X 5 a random value between 
and 99. This set of values is checked 
as before, and the current best value 
is stored in PM. We get a printout of 
the form |X 1( X 2 , X 3 , X 4 , X 5 ) PM each 
time a new maximum is found. This 
shows the set of values giving the cur- 
rent maximum. The last value print- 
ed is the maximum P for the 1 million 



points checked. 

I've run this program three times 
and the best value optained so far 
was 50420 at (50, 97, 0, 99, 1). 

Conclusion 

By following the examples, you 
should be able to write a program to 
solve optimization problems. You on- 
ly need to substitute your function 
and constraints in place of the ones in 
the examples. The variables must 
have integer values. The variable 
which stores the extreme value must 
be initialized larger than any possible 
value of the function if you're seek- 
ing the minimum, or smaller than 
any possible value if you are finding a 
maximum. 

If you wish to learn more about 
these techniques, I suggest the book 
Computer Optimization Techniques by 
William Conley (Petrocelli Books, 
Inc.). It's well written, elementary 
and contains a large number of 
examples. ■ 



Monte Carlo Programming 

If a problem has ten variables and 
each has only ten values, then you 
will have 10 10 cases to examine. At 
the rate of one set of values per milli- 
second, 10 7 seconds is required to ex- 
amine them. This is something more 
than 10 5 hours, or about ten years. To 
obtain a solution in a reasonable 
amount of time, take a random sam- 
ple of a million feasible solutions and 
find the optimum of that sample using 
the same techniques explained above. 

How good is the answer obtained 
by this method? Statistical proce- 
dures have been used to show that in 
any practical problem the answer is 
nearly optimum. However, even if 
this were not true, you would still 
have the best course of action out of 
millions of decisions. This method 
may not have been practical in the 
days when we had to pay dearly for 
computer time, but many microcom- 
puters are turned off for the majority 
of the time. If this is the case, they 
could be working on the Monte Carlo 
programming problem for part of 
that time. 

To illustrate the Monte Carlo 
technique, you seek to maximize 

P = X! 2 + X 2 2 + 3X 3 2 + 4X 4 2 + 2X 5 2 - 8X, - 2X 2 
— 0X3 — X4 — 2X5 

subject to 

X,<100, X 2 <100, X 3 <100, 

X4<100, X 5 <100 

X 1 + X 2 + X 3 + X 4 + X 5 <401 



Delivery Cost 



From 
Source 

1 
2 



To Location 
A 

$6.20 
$.58 



To Location 
B 

$.66 
$1.32 

Table 1. 



To Location 
C 

$.72 
$1.04 



10 ' PROGRAM 2 

15 DEFINT A,B,C 

20 CM=32700 

30 FOR Al=0 TO 10:FOR Bl=0 TO 8:FOR A2=0 TO 10:FOR B2=0 TO 8 

40 C1=30-A1-B1:C2=18-A2-B2 

50 IF A1+A2O10 GOTO 110 

60 IF B1+B208 GOTO 110 

70 IF C1+C2O30 GOTO 110 

80 C=120*A1+66*B1+72*C1+58*A2+132*B2+104*C2 

90 IF C<=CM THEN CM=C ELSE 110 

100 PRINT A1;B1,-C1;A2;B2;C2; CM 

110 NEXT B2:NEXT A2:NEXT Bl:NEXT Al 

120 END 



Program listing 2. 



10 ■ PROGRAM 3 

20 DIM X(5) 

30 PM=0 

35 FOR J=l TO 1000000 

40 FOR 1=1 TO 5:X(I)=RND(100)-1:NEXT I 

50 IF X(l)+X(2)+X(3)+X(4)+X(5)>400 GOTO 200 

60 IF X(1)+2*X(2)+2*X(3)+X(4)+6*X(5) >800 GOTO 200 

70 IF 2*X(1)+X(2)+6*X(3)>200 GOTO 200 

80 IF X(3)+X(4)+5*X(5) >200 GOTO 200 

90 P=X(1)*X(1)+X(2)*X(2)+3*X(3)*X(3)+4*X(4)*X(4)+2*X(5)*X(5)-8*X(1)-2*X(2) 

3*X(3)-X(4)-2*X(5) 

100 IF P>=PM THEN PM=P ELSE 200 



110 PRINT ' 
200 NEXT J 
210 END 



(";X(1);",";X(2); 



;X(3) 



;X(4) 



;X(5);") 



PM 



Program listing 3. 



Microcomputing, January 1982 141 



Use the information in a North Star diskette file directory as data. Here's how to access it from BASIC. 



Treat Your File Directory 

As Data 



By Stephen Lewis 



I run North Star BASIC on my Al- 
tair, and use it to keep track of 
stock prices, interest rates and other 
data. Several of the programs I've 
written require me to input the name 
of a disk file for the program to oper- 
ate on. But two problems may arise. 

First, a typing or file name error, or 
a failure to remember which drive 
holds the data disk ends program exe- 
cution. Second, I may not know the 
complete file name, only the first one 
or two characters. 

Also, I may wish to get a partial 
printout of the file directory (e.g., 
those with file names starting with 
NV), not the complete directory. 

Thus, I need to be able to treat the 
file directory as data. I could use the 



WORDPRO DISK ADDR 73 

IT IS 48 BLOCKS LONG 

SINGLE DENSITY 

ITS FILE TYPE IS 7 

TYPE DEPENDENT INFORMATION 24 45 32 

SEPT DISK ADDR 145 

IT IS 6 BLOCKS LONG 

ITS FILE TYPE IS 3 

TYPE DEPENDENT INFORiMATION 8 32 32 

BASIC DISK ADDR 10 

IT IS 52 BLOCKS LONG 

ITS FILE TYPE IS 1 

GO ADDRESS IS 1 1520 

TYPE DEPENDENT INFORMATION 45 32 



Sample output. 



Address correspondence to Stephen Lewis, 8005 
30th St. S.E., Everett, WA 98205. 

142 Microcomputing, January 1982 



ERRSET statement to catch the FILE 
ERROR IN LINE XXXX message 
without ending program execution, 
but this still leaves me guessing what 
the correct file name is. It also does 
not help me get my partial printout. I 
could keep a separate data file on the 
disk, duplicating the file directory, 
and update it every time I create or 
destroy a file. I don't like that method 
because most of my data files are cre- 
ated by programs and are not in the 
command mode. 
This program, called Quest, solves 



these problems. I use the statement 
READ#F,&N as part of the program. 
F is the number of a file with the 
name of the disk (the identifier for 
the four sectors, eight in quad density 
systems) starting at track 0, sector 0, 
on the disk. For the diskette supplied 
by North Star, this is MDQ-R5.1. N is 
a variable name. The & in front of the 
N signifies that the fiie is to be read 
one byte at a time. This method is 
necessary because the disk directory 
is not in the form of BASIC strings 
or numbers. ■ 



",A1$ 

* FILE NAMES ARE 8 CHARACTERS MAXIMUM 



10 REM * * * PROGRAM NAME IS QUEST * * * 

15 INPUT "DESIRED OUTPUT DEVICE" ,P 

20 INPUT "DiaK NAME ",A$ 

30 INPUT "NAME OF FILE TO LOOK FOR 

40 IF LEw(Al$)=8 THEN 80 

50 IF LEw(Al$)>8 THEN 30 \ REM * * 

60 Al$ * Al$ + " " \REM ADD SPACES TO MAKE UP 8 CHARACTERS 

70 IF LEw(Al$)<8 THEN 60 

80 OPr.N #1*0, A$ \REM THIS OPENS DISK DIRECTORY FILE 

90 FOR J « 1 TO 128 \REM * * * 128 FOR A DOUBLE DENSITY DISK 

100 FOR I - 1 TO 8 

110 READ#1,&X(I) \REM THIS READS THE FILENAME FROM THE DIRECTORY 

120 NEXT I 

130FOR I«l TO 8\READ#1,&Y(I)\NEXT I 

140A2$*"" \REM * * * THE NULL STRING 

150 FOR I ■ 1 TO 8 

160 A2$=A2$+ CHR$(X(D) \ REM * * * THIS REASSEMBLES FILENAME 

170 NEXT I 

180 IF A2$ - " " THEN 280 \REM 8 SPACES BETWEEN THE QUOTE MARKS 

190 IF Al$ = A2$ THEN 210 

200 GOTO 2«u 

210 PRlNT#P,A2$ r " DISK ADDRESS " , \l #P r (Y (1) +256*Y (2) ) 

PRESS RETUkN TO CONTINUE 

220 PR1NT#P,"IT IS ", (2*(256*Y(4)+Y(3))) , "BLOCKS LONG " 

230 IF Y(5)<128 THEN IIP, "SINGLE DENSITY " ELSE Y ( 5) «Y ( 5) -128 

240 PRINT#P,"ITS FILE TYPE IS ",Y(5) 

250 IF Y(5)-l THEN !#P,"GO ADDRESS IS " , (256*Y (7) +Y (6) ) 

260 I#P,"TYPE DEPENDENT INFORMATION IS " , Y (6) , Y (7) , Y (8) 

270 GOTO 300 

280 NtiXT J 

2*0 PRINT#P,"FILE NOT ON THIS DISK " 

300 CLOSE#l\GOTO 10 

READY 

Quest program listing. 




INTRODUCING MTU 

MICROSOFT BASIC + USER ORIENTED 
ENHANCEMENTS =MTU-BASIC 



CAN YOU 

Save and load BASIC programs in either memory image 
or ASCII format? 

Input COMMANDS and data to BASIC from a disk file as 
well as from the keyboard, i.e. drive BASIC from an ASCII 
"job" file on disk? 

Execute ANY Disk Operating System command from a 
BASIC program? 

Redefine the effect of keyboard function keys and display 
legends on the CRT to indicate their present function? 

Use a lightpen to input actual X, Y coordinates on a 480 
x 256 pixel array in 1/60 second? 

Obtain very precise coordinate input using a moveable 
crosshair positioned by the cursor keys? 

Plot high resolution images using screen coordinates or 
floating point coordinates with the necessary transforma- 
tions and image clipping accomplished automatically? 

Easily extend BASIC'S command set with your own ap- 
plication oriented machine language routine library (up to 
8 at once)? 

MTU-BASIC CAN DO all of the above yet is based on the 
industry standard, Microsoft BASIC. If you are missing even 
one of the above functions, you should find out how an 
MTU-130 computer can make your association with BASIC 
a lot more pleasant and better suited to your special needs. 

The MTU-130 also comes with other standard features that 
most computers offer only as options at extra cost — such 
things as 19.6K Bytes/sec sustained disk data transfer rate, 
digitized speech playback, 4 voice music synthesis, 480 x 
256 bit mapped CRT screen display, fiber optic lightpen, 
RS-232 port, two parallel ports, hardware for cassette input 
and output, interface for local network, 80K RAM, 18 bit ad- 
dress bus, 8 bit audio DAC with 1 watt amplifier and a 3" x 
5" speaker. 

Shouldn't you be using MTU-BASIC on 
an MTU-130 Computer? 



EXAMPLES FROM MTU-BASIC 

ENTER "TRANSFER3" 

Reads in an ASCII text file as program statements. 

SYSTEM "ASSIGN 1 BASICIN" 

Redirects input from keyboard to disk file named BASICIN. 

LEGEND 1, "First," "Second" 

Relegends function keys 1 and 2 to read "First" and 
"Second". 

LTPEN F, X, Y 

Sets F=1 and X, Y to coordinates when lightpen picks 
a point. 

GRIN NW$, X, Y 

Displays crosshair and inputs X, Y location of its final posi- 
tion; NW$ contains the exit key. 

DRAW .0645, 3*Y 

Draw a vector from current location of graphic cursor to 
specified coordinates. 

LIB "VGL," "IGL" 

Select library extensions to be linked to BASIC. 

The base MTU-130-1S system comes with one single-sided 
double-density 8" floppy disk, a 12" green phosphor CRT, 
and MTU-BASIC for $3995. Three other models priced up 
to $4995 contain 1 or 2 single or double sided drives for up 
to 2 Megabytes of storage. 4 Megabyte systems available on 
request. 

We obviously cannot describe fully all of the details of the 
MTU-130 here. If you wish to know more about this complete 
desktop computer, call or write for our comprehensive 15 
page descriptive literature. International requests include 
$5.00 U.S. 

COME TO MTU — for excellence in microcomputing systems. 



nOMti otaiye i 



— 




3ffiE 



Micro Technology Unlimited 

'P.O. Box 12106 
2806 Hillsborough St. 
Raleigh NC USA 27605 
(919) 833-1458 



^154 




•See List of Advertisers on page 178 



Microcomputing, January 1982 143 



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AND COMPLETE GUIDE TO INVESTING 
IN OPTIONS. MASTERCARD OR VISA. 
•125. SEND FOR FREE BROCHURE. 



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144 Microcomputing, January 1982 



Here are a couple of tips that take the aggravation out of computing. 



Little Bits 



Bag It 



By Kenneth Reid 

Many computer hobbyists and 
professionals have been made 
painfully aware of the disastrous ef- 
fects of spilled liquids— coffee and 
soft drinks, in particular— on com- 
puter keyboards. Once the gunk gets 
in around the keys it is nearly impos- 
sible to remove, and the sticky keys 
are a continual aggravation. 

The best remedy is prevention. A 
thin sheet of transparent plastic, se- 
cured over the keyboard, will ward 
off spills without affecting keyboard 
operation. If your keyboard is sepa- 
rated from your video screen, as 
mine is, you can simply place the en- 
tire keyboard in a large clear plastic 
bag. If you have an all-in-one system, 
a sheet of Saran Wrap or similar clear 
plastic material will provide nearly 
the same level of protection if well se- 
cured with masking tape. 

So before you eat, drink or make 
merry at your keyboard, bag it! The 
temper you save will be your own.l 



Kenneth Reid, 1935 Trevilian Way, Louisville, KY 
40205. 



Hex Table 

By F. LaPointe 





1 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 6 7 8 9 A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 7 8 9 A B 


C 


D 


E 


F 


10 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 8 9 A B C 


D 


E 


F 


10 


11 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 9 A B C D 


E 


F 


10 


11 


12 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 A B C D E 


F 


10 


11 


12 


13 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


A B C D E F 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


6 


7 


8 


9 


A 


BCD E F 10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


7 


8 


9 


A 


B 


CD E F 10 11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


8 


9 


A 


B 


C 


D E F 10 11 12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


9 


A 


B 


C 


D 


E F 10 11 12 13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 10 11 12 13 14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 


10 11 12 13 14 15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


1A 


C 


D 


E 


F 


10 


11 12 13 14 15 16 


17 


18 


19 


1A 


IB 


D 


E 


F 


10 


11 


12 13 14 15 16 17 


18 


19 


1A 


IB 


1C 


E 


F 


10 


11 


12 


13 14 15 16 17 18 


19 


1A 


IB 


1C 


ID 


F 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 15 16 17 18 19 
Hex addition/subtraction table. 


1A 


IB 


1C 


ID 


IE 



Remember those math tables from 
grade school? Here's a little hex 
table to keep handy when you're 
writing that relative addressing in- 
struction in assembly language. 



F. LaPointe, 33 Windsor Court, Lansdale, PA 
19446. 



Microcomputing, January 1982 145 



Are you suffering from bad memory? 
Find out for sure with this Cook's memory test adapted for the PET. 



Putting PET 
To the Test 



By Garold R. Stone 



Here is an adaptation for the PET 
computer of Fred Monsour's rig- 
orous machine-language RAM test 
program ("Cook's Memory Test for 
the 6502,' Microcomputing, June 
1980, p. 178). It can be loaded and 
run on new ROM (3.0) and old ROM 
(2.0) PETs, with or without the ma- 
chine-language monitor. 

The Test 

The program (Listing 1) repeatedly 
tests a specified range of RAM, print- 
ing an asterisk ( * ) as it completes each 
pass. If a bad byte is found, an error 
code (A,B,C, or D) will be printed, 
followed by the faulty address in 
hexadecimal. It takes about three 
seconds to test each eight kilobytes of 
RAM. 

According to Monsour's article, er- 
ror code ' 'A indicates a byte that can't 
have all 0's stored in it. Error B usual- 
ly is due to shorted or open address 
lines, while error C is due to shorted 
or open data lines. Error D signifies a 
byte that can't store all l's." 

For example, if an error C is found, 
the location of the bad bit (1-8) is 
printed first, followed by the error 



code and the hexadecimal address 
4C1000. 

From KIM to PET 

Monsour's KIM program is self- 
contained, except for the use of one 
KIM ROM routine, OUTCHR, to out- 
put the results of the test. I substitut- 
ed a PET ROM routine, WRT, which 
prints the contents of the 6502 accum- 
ulator as a character on the screen. It 
also updates the cursor position to be 



Set BRK interrupt vector for BASIC: 



Old ROM 



New ROM 



POKE 539,137 POKE146,137 (low byte) 
POKE 540,195 POKE 147,195 (high byte) 

Set test range from BASIC: 

POKE 60, SL (STARTL) 

POKE 61, SH (STARTH) 

POKE 62, EL (ENDL) 

POKE 63, EH (ENDH) 

(See Table 2 for decimal values.) 



Run test: 



SYS 826 



Table 1. Running under BASIC. 



Memory size in hex 


SL SH 


8K (0400-2000) 


4 


16K (0400-4000) 


4 


24K (0400-6000) 


4 


32K (0400-8000) 


4 


32K plus video 


4 


(0400-8400) 




Video only 


128 


(8000-8400) 






Table 2. Test range values in da 



EL 


EH 





32 





64 





96 





128 





132 





132 


cimal. 


• 



ready for the next character. No 6502 
registers are changed by WRT. 

Relocating the program to PET's 
second cassette buffer area was 
straightforward. None of the branch 
instructions had to be changed— just 
the jump and jump subroutine in- 
structions. I changed the variables to 
locations which would not conflict 
with the operation of the BASIC in- 
terpreter in either the old or new 
ROM. I put the test in the second cas- 
sette buffer so that all of the PET's ab- 
solute RAM (0400 hex up) could be 
tested in one pass. 

Unlike the KIM, the PET has no key 
that will trigger a hardware interrupt 
to stop a machine-language program, 
so I added a software interrupt 
routine. Where Monsour's program 
calls subroutine INC to increment the 
pointer, POINTL,H, to the next byte 
to be tested, I substituted a call to my 
subroutine, STOP (03ED hex), which 
tests for any depressed key (except 
shift). If no key is down, the PET 
ROM routine GET returns with the 
zero status flag set. 

The branch if equal (BEQ) test is 
satisfied and the program branches 
to the instruction JUMP INC. INC 
increments the test pointer, 
POINTL,H, and returns to the ad- 
dress just below where STOP was 
called. If a key is down, the branch 
test fails and the software break in- 
struction (BRK) is executed. 

BRK loads the 6502 program count- 
er with the address specified in the 



Address correspondence to Garold R. Stone, Box 
153, Annapolis Junction, MD 20701. 



146 Microcomputing, January 1982 




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• 53 



contents of the break interrupt vec- 
tor. In new ROM PETs the break in- 
terrupt vector (0092,0093 hex) is set 
at power on (or reset) to contain the 
address of the warm start entry point 
for the machine-language monitor in 
ROM (FD17 hex). Commodore calls 
this monitor TIM for terminal inter- 
face monitor. In old ROM PETs the 
break interrupt vector is set to TIM's 
warm start address when TIM is 
loaded and run from tape. Users of old 
ROM may wish to use the program in 
Listing 2 to load the test, but they will 



have to set the break interrupt vector 
to the warm start point for BASIC, so 
that the test will return to BASIC 
when a key is pressed. Table 1 shows 
how to set up and run the test from 
BASIC, for old and new ROMs. 

Running under TIM 

Enter TIM and set the range of 
RAM to be tested in the variables 
START and END. Put the low-order 
byte of the starting address (in hex) 
into STARTL and the high-order byte 
in STARTH. The variable END 



. > 033R 


20 


97 


03 


JSR 


$0397 


















, 033D 


A9 


00 




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#$00 


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46 






PHR 






, 833F 


A8 






TflV 




,i 


83R3 


66 






TXR 






, 8346 


31 


54 




STfl 


($54), V 


,i 


83W 


20 


Ch 


03 


JSR 


$03CH 




, 0342 


El 


54 




LC'fl 


($54), V 


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fte 


crcr 
JJ 




LDR 






, 0344 


h0 


85 




BEG 


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20 


CE 


03 


JSR 


$03CE 




. , 0346 


fl2 


41 




LDX 


#$41 


.• 


83RC 


R5 


54 




LDR 


$54 




. , 8348 


20 


fl0 


03 


JSR 


$03H0 


.• 


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20 


CE 


03 


JSR 


$03CE 




. , 0346 


29 


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03 


JSR 


$03ED 


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20 




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#$20 




, 034E 


20 


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03 


JSR 


mSH 


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Cfl 


03 


JSR 


$03CR 




, 0351 


30 


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BCC 


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68 






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20 


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$03'H0 


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, 036i 


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<*54>, V 


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60 






RTS 






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54 




CHP 


($54), V 


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$54 


03£7 


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BEQ. 


$0376 


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83C5 


DO 


02 




BNE 


$83C9 


8269 


3n 






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03C7 


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55 




INC 


$55 


> 83t'H 


*0 






PHh 




.i 


83C9 


60 






RTS 




.' 036B 


8fl 






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.• 


03CR 


20 


02 


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20 


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$*3CE 


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60 






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56 




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0370 


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, 0372 


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$03Ry 


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4H 






LSR 




, 0375 


Bfl 






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03D2 


4H 






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0fi 






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CH 






DEX 




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83D4 


28 DF 


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.< y%£ i o 




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($54), V 


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$56 


, 93 7£ 


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($54), V 


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95 




BEQ. 


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Listing I. Test program (, 


see ' 


Table 1). 













should be set to one byte higher than 
the last byte to be tested. ENDL is the 
low -order byte and ENDH is the high- 
order byte. Execute the program 
from the monitor with G 033A. Press- 
ing any key during the test will cause 
a break back to the machine-lan- 
guage monitor. 

General Considerations 

Remember that the first kilobyte of 
RAM (0000-03FF hex) cannot be test- 
ed because it holds the pointers for 
the PET operating system. Testing 
this area would cause the PET to go 
out of control. To test the two RAM 



BEGINA 


033A 


NEXTA 


033D 


INCA 


034B 


BEGINB 


0356 


WALK 


035F 


NEXTB 


0363 


SHIFT 


0376 


INCB 


0387 


INIT 


0397 


ERR 


03A0 


COMP 


03BA 


INC 


03C3 


RET 


03C9 


PRNT 


03CA 


PRBYT 


03CE 


HEXASC 


03DF 


HEXASD 


03E8 


STOP 


03ED 


GOINC 


03F3 


Table 3. Statement labels for Listing 1. 



1 MTR32, 151, 3, 169, 0, 168, 145, 84, 177, 84, 
248, 5, 162, 65, 32, 160, 3, 32, 237, 3, 32, 186, 3 

2 0RTR144, 234, 32, 151, 3, 177, 84, 240, 5, 162 
, 66, 32, 160, 3, 162, 8, 169, 1, 145, 84, 289, 84 

3 WTR240, 13, 154, 72, 138, 32, 286, 3, 184, 16 
2, 67, 32, 168, 3, 186, 18, 2»2, 288, 233, 169, 255 

4 WTR145, 84, 209, 84, 248, 5, 162, 68, 32, 160 
, 3, 32, 237, 3, 32, 186, 3, 144. 199. 169, 42, 32 

5 DRTR282, 3, 76, 58, 3, 165, 60, 133, 84, 165, 6 
1, 133, 85, 96, 72, 152. 72, 138, 32, 282, 3, 165. 8 
5 

6 DRTR32, 296, 3, 165, 84, 32, 286, 3, 169, 32. 3 
2, 282, 3, 184, 168, 184, 96, 165, 84, 197, 62. 165 

7 DRTR85, 229, 63, 96, 238, 84, 288, 2, 239, 85, 
96, 32, 218, 255, 96, 133, 86. 74, 74, 74, 74, 32, 2 
23 

8 D8TR3, 165, 86. 32, 223, 3, 165, 86, 96, 41, 15 
, 281, 18, 24. 48, 2, 185. 7, 105, 48. 76, 202, 3, 32 






9 WTR228, 255. 249, 1, 0, 76, 195, 3 

10 V=0 

28 FOKI*826TO1013 

38 RER0.X:P0k'EI,X 

48 V=V+X: NEXT 

45 PRINT"WTR CHECK SUM SHOULD BE 19554 
": PRINT 

58 IFYO>19554THENPRINT"DflTH CHECH SUM E 
RR0R "V END 

68 PRINT"DflTfl CHECH SUM OK: "V: END 
RERC'V 

Listing 2. Poker /Loader. 






148 Microcomputing, January 1982 



chips that store these pointers, swap 
them with chips at a higher address. 
When testing the video range, the 
screen will fill with at signs (@) and 
the checkerboard character (code 
255), thus obscuring the asterisk until 
an error code is printed. 

Old ROM users should note that 
testing RAM from 0400-076A hex 
will overwrite the machine-language 
monitor. The test itself will run, but if 
a key is pressed to stop the test, the 
PET will break to the now nonexis- 
tent monitor and it will crash. 

Those with the Programmer's Tool 



B33R 28 97 83 


AS" 80 fib 91 54 


6342 61 54 F0 


05 HZ 41 20 R0 


034h 03 28 ED 


03 20 BR 03 98 


8352 Eh 28 9? 


03 Bl 54 F0 65 


83 5h 92 42 28 


R0 03 R2 88 R9 


0362 81 91 54 


Dl 54 F0 8D 9R 


8368 48 8fi 28 


CE 03 68 H2 43 


0372 28 R8 83 


Bh 0R CH L«0 E9 


03 ?h hS Fh 91 


54 Di 54 F8 05 


0382 H2 44 28 


R0 03 28 ED 03 


038R 28 Bh 83 


9tf C? R9 2R 20 


8392 Ch 83 4C 


3fl 03 A5 3C 85 


d?3h 54 R5 3D 


85 55 68 48 98 


03R2 48 8ri 28 


Cfi &3 R5 55 20 


03hh C£ 83 R5 54 20 CE 03 


03B2 28 26 CH 


03 68 R8 68 68 


03Bfl R5 54 C5 3E R5 55 E5 3F 


03C2 60 E6 54 


D0 02 E6 55 60 


: 03CR 28 D2 FF 


68 85 56 4H 4R 


: 03D2 4H 4ri 28 


OF 03 H5 56 20 


03DR Of 03 H5 


56 68 29 8F C9 


03E2 8h Id 39 


82 69 07 69 30 


03ER 4C CH 83 


20 E4 FF F0 01 


03F2 00 4C C3 


03 80 80 88 88 


Tafe/e 4. //ex 


dump. 



Kit or disk units or any other pro- 
grams which use the second cassette 
buffer will want to make sure they 
are not running. Otherwise they may 
overwrite the test program. For the 
same reason, some users may not be 
able to copy the test program intact to 
disk.B 



References 

"It's Here: Cook's Memory Test" 
(8080 version), Rod Hallen, Micro- 
computing, July 1978, p. 70. 
"Memory Trouble Shooting Tech- 



niques,' Charles Cook, Microcom- 
puting, Oct. 1977, p. 58. 
Pet Machine Language Guide, Abacus 
Software, Grand Rapids, MI, 1979, 
routines WRT, GET. 
PET/CBM Personal Computer Guide, 
Donahue and Enger, Osborne/Mc- 
Graw-Hill, Berkely, CA, 1980, Memo- 
ry maps— NEW, p. 334; OLD, p. 414. 
PET/CBM User's Manual (NEW 
ROM), routines WRT, GET & TIM, 
BRK, p. 116. 

PET User's Manual,PET 2001-8 (OLD 
ROM), Oct. 1978, TIM, BRK, WRT, 
GET, pp. 97-111. 



Variable Hex Decimal Function in New ROM 



STARTL 

STARTH 

ENDL 

ENDH 

POINTL 

POINTH 

TEMP 



003C 

003D 

003E 

003F 

0054 

0055 

0056 



60 Current DATA line number (low-order byte) 

61 Current DATA line number (high-order byte) 

62 Current DATA line pointer (low-order byte) 

63 Current DATA line pointer (high-order byte) 

84 Floating point accumulator #3 

85 Floating point accumulator #3 

86 Floating point accumulator #3 



Table 5. All variables are within the old ROM BASIC input buffer. 



Routine New ROM Old ROM Function in both ROMs 



WRT 

GET 

READY 

TIM 

BRK 



FFD2 
FFE4 
C389 
FD17 
0092 
0093 



FFD2 Write a character to the screen 

FFE4 Get a character from keyboard; set status 

C389 BASIC warm start 

0427 Warm entry point for TIM 

02 IB BRK interrupt vector location (low byte) 

02 1C BRK interrupt vector location (high byte) 

Table 6. External routines. 



TIREDOF CHANGING 
CABLES AND TURNING 
KNOBS? 



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ASCI SWITCH 

• Computer Controlled or Manual 

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6502 CONDITIONAL ASSEMBLER 
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CURSOR CONTROL SCREEN EDITOR 
SINGLE AND MULT! DIMENSIONAL ARRAYS 
DISK VIRTUAL MEMORY 
ADDITIONAL UTILITIES INCLUDING: 

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^279 or call — (215) 676-3235 




Dot Matrix Printer Interfaces with Apple II 

Featuring an Apple I Incompatible parallel 
interface, Addmaster Corporation has produced 
a new dot matrix printer, Model 170. The inter- 
face includes a Centronics-type handshake and 
DB-25 interface connector, Baudot, and day — 
and time clock. The Model 170 provides 18 or 
21 characters per line, 6 lines per inch print 
density, on standard 2V2" adding machine tape. 
Designed to use with personal computers, 
Model 170 will produce hard and carbonless 
copies of programs, data or results. Write 
Addmaster Corporation, 416 Junipero Serra Dr., 
San Gabriel, CA 91776 or call 213/285-1121. 



Microcomputing, January 1982 1 49 



Give your printouts that up-to-date look with these Benton Harbor BASIC programs. 

Heaths Hidden 
Time'Saver 

By Charles E. Cohn 



Many applications require that 
the current date be shown on 
the printout. The program can, of 
course, have you enter the date. But 
if the operating system has already 
called for the date to be entered, it is 
much more convenient to extract the 
information internally, and save you 
the bother of entering the date a sec- 
ond time. 

If you use a Heath H8 or H-89 with 
Benton Harbor BASIC and HDOS, it 
is easy to extract that information. 
HDOS stores the date in two different 
forms. First, and most straightfor- 
ward, the nine bytes starting at loca- 
tion 8383 contain the date in alphanu- 
meric in the form in which it was en- 



00010 


D$ = " 


1 1 








00020 


FORI 


= 1 T0 9:D$ 


= D$ + CHR$(PEEK(8382 + 1)) 


NEXT I 


00030 


PRINT D$ 








00040 


END 




Listing 1. 







tered; e.g., 30-Oct-80. Even though 
the month may have been entered ei- 
ther in upper- or lowercase, the first 
letter of the month as stored is always 
capitalized, and the remaining two 
letters are stored as lowercase. 

This information can be extracted 
as shown in Listing 1, which prints 
out the date just as stored. Variations 



00010 Nl = PEEK(8392):N2 = PEEK(8393):N3 = INT(Nl/32):N4 = INT(N2/2) 

00020 D = N1-N3*32 

00030 M = N3 + N2*8-N4*16 

00040 Y = N4+1970 

00050 FOR I = 1 TO M:READ M$:NEXT I 

00060 DATA January, February, March, April, May Junejuly 

00070 DATA August, September, October, November, December 

00080 D$ = STR$(D) 

00090 PRINT M$ + LEFT$(D$,LEN(D$)-1) + ",";Y 

00100 END 

Listing 2. 



are possible; you can, for example, 
drop off the hyphens or change the 
order of the month and the day. 

If you wish to do something fancier, 
such as print the full name of the 
month, you might want to use the 
date in the other form in which it is 
stored, i.e., in binary at locations 
8392 and 8393. The low-order five 
bits of the byte at 8392 give the day, 
while the high-order three bits are 
the low-order part of the four-bit 
month. The low-order bit of the byte 
at 8393 is the high-order part of the 
month, while the remaining bits of 
that byte give the year minus 1970. 
This information can be used as 
shown in Listing 2, which prints the 
date in the form October 30, 1980. ■ 



Address correspondence to Charles E. Cohn, 445 
Ridge Ave., Clarendon Hills, IL 60514. 



TRS-80 DISCOUNT 



WE CARRY THE FULL 
LINE OF TRS-80 $ 



MODEL II 

26-4002 64K I Drive $3288 

Ask About Hard Drives 

MODEL III 

26-1062 16K $849 

26-1066 48K with 

2 Drives, RS232 $2069 

TM - TANDY CORPORATION 
FREE COPY OF WARRANTY UPON REQUEST 




BUY DIRECT 

AT WHOLESALE PRICES 

1-800-841-0860 

COLOR COMPUTER 

26-3001 4K $318 

26-3002 16K Ext. Basic $488 

26-3003 32K Ext. Basic $378 

WRITE FOR FREE CATALOG 
MICRO MANAGEMENT 
SYSTEMS, INC. ^ 100 

DEPT NO. 7 

115C SECOND AVE. S.W 

CAIRO GA. 31728 

USA 800-841 0860 

GA. 912-377-7120 



150 Microcomputing, January 1982 



HP-85AI 




$2495 



HP- 83 A $1595 

HP 85/83 16K 

MEMORY MODULE 239.00 

HP 5 % DUAL MASTER 

DISC DRIVE 2025.00 

HP 5V« SINGLE MASTER 

DISC DRIVE 1319.00 

HP 8 DUAL MASTER 

DISC DRIVE 5525.00 

HP 8 SINGLE MASTER 

DISC DRIVE 4035.00 

HP 263 IB OPT885 

IMPACT PRINTER 2195.00 

HP 85/83 GRAPHICS 

PLOTTER 1959.00 

HP PERSONALITY MODULE 

FOR7225BW/HP85/83 605.00 

HP PLOTTER PERSONALITY 

MODULE 605.00 

HP 85/83 ROM 

DRAWER 35.00 

HP MASS STORAGE ROM 115.00 

HP PLOTTER/ PRINTER 

ROM 115.00 

HP INPUT-OUTPUT 

ROM 229.00 

HP HP-IB INTERFACE 355.00 

HP RS-232 INTERFACE M 355.00 

HP RS-232 INTERFACE F 355.00 

HP GPIO INTERFACE 445.00 

HP BCD INTERFACE 445.00 

HP PRINTER INTERFACE 229.00 



ra 



HEWLETT 
PACKARD 



HP-125 $3089 

COMPUTER SYSTEM 

HP 125 DUAL MINI 

DISC DRIVE 2025.00 

HP 125 9895A DUAL 8" 

DISC DRIVE 5525.00 

HP 125 2631B 

SERIAL PRINTER 3155.00 

HP 125 2601A DAISYWHEEL 

PRINTER 3640.00 

HP 125 7225 ONE PEN 

PLOTTER 1979.00 

HP VISICALC 125 145.00 

HP-GPIO INTERFACE 

(PARALLEL) 445.00 

HP BCD INTERFACE (SERIAL) .445.00 
HP PRINTER INTERFACE 

(CENTRONICS TYPE) 229.00 



HP-41C 



HP-41CV 




HP 41 C CALCULATOR 189.00 

HP 41 CV CALCULATOR 249.00 

HP 41 MEMORY MODULE 30.00 

HP 41 QUAD MEMORY MODULE 83.95 
HP 41 RECHARGEABLE 

BATTERY PACK 25.95 

HP 41 CARD READER 167.95 

HP41 PRINTER 289.50 

HP 41 STANDARD APP MODULE 28.00 

HP 41 STATISTICS 28.00 

HP41 MATHPAC 28.00 

HP 41 SURVEYING PAC 28.00 

HP41 REAL ESTATE PAC 39.00 

HP 41 STRUCTURAL 

ANALYSIS PAC 39.00 



HP 11C CALCULATOR 
NEW $115.00 




HP 12C CALCULATOR 
NEW $127.50 

HP 67 CALCULATOR 298.95 

HP 97 CALCULATOR 578.95 

Go Professional 

With a Calculator 

From Hewlett-Packard 




HP 32E CALCULATOR 47.95 

HP 33C CALCULATOR 74.95 

HP 34C CALCULATOR 117.95 

HP 37E CALCULATOR 62.95 

HP 38C CALCULATOR 118.95 



A 

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MM mum ^ 




ATARI 400™ 16K ..$359. 



Computers 
for people" 




ATARI 800 " 16K $749. 



ATARI 82040 PRINTER 229.00 

ATARI 822 THERMAL PRINTER ..379.00 

ATARI 825 PRINTER 569.00 

ATARI 830 ACOUSTIC MODEM . . . 159.00 
ATARI 16K 

RAM MEMORY MODULE 79.00 

ATARI 410 

PROGRAM RECORDER 69.00 

ATARI 810 DISK DRIVE 439.00 

ATARI 815 DUAL DISK DRIVE . . . 1275.00 
ATARI PADDLE 

CONTROLLER PAIR 18.95 

ATARI JOYSTICK 

CONTROLLER PAIR 18.95 

ATARI BASIC CARTRIDGE ROM . . 53.95 
ATARI STAR RAIDERS 

W/JOYSTICK CONTROL 35.95 

ATARI MISSILE COMMAND 

W/JOYSTICK CONTROL 35.95 

ATARI ASTEROIDS 35.95 



Prices do not include shipping by UPS. All prices and offers subject to change without notice. 



APPLE II 48K . $1259. 
APPLE III 128K.. $3990. 

APPLE DISK AND CONTROLLER 525.00 

APPLE ADDON DISC 465.00 

APPLE SUPERMOD 30.00 

APPLE CLOCK AND 

CALENDAR CARD 169.00 

APPLE GRAPHICS TABLET 675.00 




ersonal 

qm pater 
ystems 



^303 



.cm I ntrqt 




609 Butternut Street 
Syracuse, New York 1 3208 

In N.Y. call:(315) 476-6800 



Here's a simple circuit that'll save wear and tear on your keyboard, and your fingers. 



Power Jump 
For the 1802 



By Brian McCorkle 



This feature for 1802-based sys- 
tems lets you jump to the monitor 
when you turn the power on. It elimi- 
nates the reset/load/reset/run se- 
quence necessary to bootstrap the ad- 
dress of your monitor. An added 
switch contact lets you jump to the 
monitor from a running (crashing) 



Parts List 

CI 1 m f tantalum 

C2 .01 /iF ceramic 

C3 10 pF tantalum 

Dl,2,3 1N914 

IC1 1802 

IC2 4050 hex buffer 

IC3 555 timer 

IC4 4066 quad switch 

Rl,5 47k ohm 

R2,6 22k ohm 

R3 100k ohm 

R4 1 megohm 

all resistors X A watt 5 percent 

51 1 pole, normally open momentary 
contact 

52 2 pole, normally open momentary 
contact 

Fig. 1. The hardware required for a power-on 
jump to monitor. 



program. You can also add a switch 
to let you run at address zero. The cir- 
cuitry required to do this is quite 
simple. 

You need a self-latching monitor in 
ROM, and the ROM must be entered 
with register zero as the program 
counter. 

The jump circuit cycles the 1802 
through reset and into run. It also 
temporarily disables RAM at address 
#0000 and places the monitor at that 
address. The first memory write 
pulse resets the circuit and the sys- 
tem returns to normal operation. 

IC1 is the 1802 (Fig. 1). Pin 2(wait) 
is tied to the 5-V supply. Pin 3(clear) 
is then used to set IC1 in the reset or 
run mode. 

IC2, Rl, R2, R3 and CI is the reset 
run portion of the circuit. When you 
turn on the power the output of IC2 
remains low for about 60 ms, holding 
IC1 in reset. IC2 then goes high, plac- 
ing IC1 in the run mode. SI is used to 
start this sequence from a running 
program. Dl provides for rapid dis- 
charge of CI if power is lost. 

The output of IC2 is also sent to 
IC3, which disables the RAM at 
#0000 and transfers the monitor to 
this location. IC3 is a 555 timer in the 



At start Register is at 0000. 
4000 F840 LDI #40 



4002 B0 

4003 F82FB2 
4006 F8FFA2 
4009 E2 
400A 73 

etc. 



PHI RO 

LDI #2F,PHI R2 

LDI #FF,PLOR2 

SEX R2 

STXD 



40 is example. This number is determined by ROM 

location. 

Register now at 4003. 



Locate data pointer to free location. 
Memory write to reset timer. 



Listing 1. Example of the requirement of the ROM to latch its own address and reset the timer with a 
memory write pulse. The addresses given are examples. Actual values will depend on where your 
ROM is located. 



monostable mode, and its period is 
fairly long; but in practice it is reset 
by the first memory write pulse. 

The output of IC3 is a high level 
which drives an OR circuit, consist- 
ing of Dl, D2, and R5, high. This sig- 
nal is also used to switch IC4, so a low 
level is placed on the chip enable of 
the monitor ROM. 

S2 is a run at zero switch. S2A does 
the same thing as SI. S2B times IC3 
out before the reset period is done so 
no memory switching takes place. 

As mentioned, the monitor must be 
self-latching. Listing 1 gives a way to 
go about this. The Quest monitor 
VI. 1 does work, and the VIP monitor 
should also work. 

The layout of this project is not crit- 
ical. The prototype was wire- 
wrapped and distributed over several 
boards. 

In case you have trouble, first 
check for shorts and opens. Then be 
sure all COME-FROMs and GOTOs 
match. 

If this doesn't correct the problem, 
temporarily place a 10/^F capacitor in 
parallel with CI. The output of 1C2 
should stay low for about one-half 
second after power on or SI depres- 
sion. The output should then go high. 
The output of IC3 should go high dur- 
ing this period and drop low shortly 
thereafter. If this output remains 
high for ten sec onds, then IC3 is not 
being reset by a memory write pu\se. 
Finally, the cathode of Dl should be a 
high level and pins 3 and 11 of IC4 
should be a low level. 

This simple circuit will eliminate a 
great deal of key punching. I have 
found it a great convenience well 
worth building into a system. ■ 



Address correspondence to Brian McCorkle, 220 
Washington Ave., Neenah, WI 54911. 



152 Microcomputing, January 1982 



El Monte, CA 

Ohio Scientific specialist in the San 
Gabriel Valley serving greater Los 
Angeles. Full product line on dis- 
play. Specializing in business com- 
puters. In-house service. Custom 
programming. Terminals. Printers. 
Open Mon-Sat, 9 AM-7 PM. Com- 
puter & Video, 3380 Flair Dr., 
Suite 207, El Monte, CA 91731. 
572-7292. 



N. Hollywood, CA 

Wholesale prices to dealers & com- 
puter club members! Anadex, Cen- 
tronics, Corvus, Delta, Diablo, Ep- 
son, Godbout, Hayes, IDS, C. Itoh, 
Micro Pro, Mountain Computer, 
NEC, Novation, Okidata, Qume, 
TI, Televideo, Vector Graphic, Vis- 
ta, Zenith &. others. Patio Com- 
puter Sales Co., Suite 204, 5451 
Laurel Canyon Blvd., N. Holly- 
wood, CA 91607. 762-0020. 



Riverside, CA 

Visit our Computer Support Center 
for the Inland Empire's largest selec- 
tion of ICs, books and computer ac- 
cessories. Open daily. Check our 
prices and friendly service. Inland 
Electro-Mart, 8624 California 
Ave., Riverside, CA 92504. 687- 
3776. 



San Jose, CA 

Bay area's newest computer software 
store. Featuring Instant Software for 
the TRS-80, Apple, magazines, 
books. Shaver Radio, 1378 S. 
Bascom Ave., San Jose, CA 
95128.998-1103. 



Gainesville, FL 

Florida's most knowledgeable com- 
puter dealer. Apple computer (and 
S-100) sales and service. Peripherals, 
books, magazines, software, classes, 
consulting, supplies and engineering. 
Computer System Resources, 
Inc., 3222 SW 35th Blvd., 
Gainesville, FL 32608. 376- 
4276. 

Nokomis, FL 

We are the leading area computer 
store. We carry Cromemco, Apple, 
Vector Graphic; printers &l termi- 
nals. We offer full software support 
including G/L, A/R, payroll & 
word processing. Computer Cen- 
tre, 909 S. Tamiami Trail, 
Nokomis, ¥L 33555. 484-1028. 



MICRO 
QUIZ 



(from page 22) 

Answer: 67 

This program finds the index of the 
rightmost occurrence of the string LS 
within the string SS. 



DEALER DIRECTORY 



Sarasota, FL 

Your personal and business comput- 
er store for Dynabyte, Vector, 
HP-85, Atari and Epson. Structured 
Systems and Micro-Pro software. 
Computer furniture and books by 
Osborne or Hayden. Sales, service 
and supplies. Computer Cross- 
roads, 3800 S. Tamiami Trail, 
Sarasota, FL 33579. 349-0200. 



Lodi, NJ 

Computer hardware: North Star, Ze- 
nith, Atari, CBM/PET, Qume, Ep- 
son and others. Software: EduWare, 
Professional Software, Zenith, North 
Star, Programma, Personal Software 
and others. Factory trained service 
dept. Books, magazines, etc. Full 
product line on display. Comtek 
Electronics, Inc., Rt. 46 West, 
Lodi, NJ. 472-2440. 



Aurora, IL 

Microcomputer systems for home or 
business; peripherals, software, 
books &. magazines. Apple, Hewlett- 
Packard Series 80 Systems, HP Cal- 
culators, IDS, Qume, Starwriter 
printers. Farnsworth Computer 
Center, 1891 N. Farnsworth 
Ave., Aurora, IL 60505. 851- 
3888. 



River Edge, NJ 

Discount software— up to 25% off 
business, utility, recreational, educa- 
tional and home programs. Apple, 
Atari, TRS-80 and PET. Atari com- 
puters always on sale. Software 
City, 111 Grand Ave., River 
Edge, NJ 07661. 



Herington, KS 

Hardware support. Maintenance 
and service for all microcomputers 
and peripherals. Kits assembled or 
debugged. Radio Shack (mods OK) 
repaired. Quality work, fast turn- 
around and reasonable cost. Prairie 
Micro Clinic, Box 325, Hering- 
ton, KS 67449. 258-2179. 



Chautauqua, NY 

Retail book store featuring the Disas- 
sembled Handbook for TRS-80 Vol- 
umes 1, 2, 3. English, German ck 
French language editions. 9 AM-5 PM 
weekdays. Come and visit us. Rich- 
craft Computer Book Store, 1 
Wahmeda Ave., Chautauqua, 
NY 14722. 753-2654. 



Pasadena, MD 

Altos, Apple, Osborne, Atari— sys- 
tems, software, service. Not just an- 
other computer store! We're a full- 
service problem solving center for 
small businesses. Computer Cross- 
roads, Inc., 9143G Red Branch 
Rd., Columbia, MD; 8220 
Ritchie Hwy., Pasadena, MD. 
730-5513/647-7111. 



Staten Island, 
Brooklyn, NY 

Computer hardware: North Star, Ze- 
nith, Atari, CBM-PET, Qume, Ep- 
son and others, Software: EduWare, 
Professional Software, Zenith, North 
Star, Programma, Personal Software 
and others. Factory trained service 
department. Books, magazines, etc. 
Full product line on display. Com- 
tek Electronics Inc., Staten Is- 
land Mall, Staten Island, NY. 
698-7050; Coney Island Ave. 
and Ave. X, Brooklyn, NY. 332- 
5933. 



OMFIEDS 



Classified advertisements are intended for use by persons desiring to buy, sell or trade used com- 
puter equipment. No commercial ads are accepted. 

Two sizes of ads are available. The $5 box allows up to 5 lines of about 35 characters per line, in- 
cluding spaces and punctuation. The $10 box allows up to 10 lines. Minimize use of capital letters 
to save space. No special layouts allowed. Payment is required in advance with ad copy. We can- 
not bill or accept credit. 

Advertising text and payment must reach us 60 days in advance of publication (i.e., copy for 
March issue, mailed in February, must be here by Jan. 1 ). The publisher reserves the right to refuse 
questionable or inapplicable advertisements. Mail copy with payment to: Classifieds, Kilobaud 
Microcomputing, Peterborough, NH 03458. Do not include any other material with your ad as it 
may be delayed. 



For sale: TRS-80 Model 1, Level 2, 32K with 
expansion Interface and disk drive, all mint 
condition. Includes system disk, all cables, 
hardware and software worth over $200. 
$1300, Rob Topping, 1605 Wilson, Columbia, 
MO 65201. 314-443-8817. 



For sale: S-100 system, 4 MHz Z-80, 1.2 Mb 
disk storage, Hazeltine 1500, TI-810 printer, 
$4500. Dital Systems DSC-4, 2.4 Mb disk stor- 
age, PE 1200 terminal, Centronics 703 printer, 
$4500. Scott Barton, RD 6, Saratoga Springs, 
NY 12866. 518-584-4374. 



Mississauga, Ontario 

I.D.S. brings Digital Research's Big 
Board into Canada. Bare boards, 
kits, or fully assembled single board 
computers plus many CP/M based 
business and utility software. Inno- 
tech Digital Systems, 50 Elm 
Drive East, Suite 1804, Missis- 
sauga, Ontario, L5A 3X2, Cana- 
da. 277-2222. 



Portland, OR 

Ohio Scientific specialists for 
business and personal computers. 
Local service. Terminals, printers, 
custom programming. Full OSI prod- 
uct line on display! 10 AM to 6 PM 
M-F. Fial Computer, 11266 SE 
21st Ave., Milwaukie, OR 
97222. 654-9574. 



Montreal, Quebec 

We do expert service on all micro- 
computers and peripherals, (CRT, 
printer, floppy disk) North Star, 
Hazeltine, Cromemco, Centronics, 
Shugart, Siemens, Apple, TRS, Ep- 
son, S-100. Montreal Data Cen- 
tre, 120 Ricard, Legardeur, 
Montreal, Quebec. 585-8801. 



Woodbridge, VA 

Computer/word-processing systems 
for business, school, home. Software, 
disk drives, printers. Books, maga- 
zines, supplies. Authorized CBM/ 
PET dealer, service. Consulting, 
training, maintenance contracts. 
MWF noon-8 PM, Saturday 9 AM-3 
PM. Virginia Micro Systems, 
Inc., 14415 Jefferson Davis 
Highway, Woodbridge, VA 
22191. 491-6502, Washington 
Metro 643-1063. 



Spokane, WA 

SS-50 Users: Expand present system 
to maximum or build from ground 
up. We provide PCBs for mother- 
boards, interfaces, etc. Write for 
specs and information. Quality Re- 
search Company, PO Box 7207, 
Spokane, WA 99207. 



Centronics 102A high-speed, heavy duty line 
printer. 330 characters per second. Perfect 
working order. Asking $995. Call Leon at 
317-452-8971 evenings or weekends. 



For sale: One Heathkii H-9 terminal in ex- 
cellent condition about 2 years old. $200 in 
U.S. currency. H. Hakuli, 80 Nascopie Circle, 
St. John's, Nfld., Canada A1B-3W5. 709- 
753-8776. 



For sale: H-14 serial printer with small system 
software interface for TRS-80 Model 1 . $299. 
Exatron stringy floppy for TRS-80, $199. 
Dave Haan, 4361 So. Estes, Littleton, CO 

80123. 



Free machine-language monitor for Elf II. 
Does all that the Netronics monitor does plus 
more and uses the terminal, not the hex key- 
pad. Runs in 1.25K and can run from a 
PROM. Has a 300 baud software UART and a 
parallel printer out routine. Please send name 
and address with $2 to cover reproduction and 
mailing to: John Ware, 2257 6th Ave., Ft. 
Worth, TX 761 10. 



Microcomputing, January 1982 1 53 



CALENDAR 



Texas Computer Show 

The Texas Computer Show will be held Jan. 20-22 in Dallas. 
Contact the Texas Computer Show, PO Box 214035, Dallas, TX. 



Virginia Tech Chemathon Workshops 

The first Tech Chemathon Workshops will be held in Feb. 
and March at Virginia Polytechic Institute and State University 
in Blacksburg, VA. Three of the lecture/laboratory workshops 
will focus on microcomputers: Digital Electronics for In- 
strumentation, Feb. 25-27; Microcomputing Interfacing 
Design and Programming, March 1-3; and Personal Computers 
for Instrument Automation, March 4-6. 

For more information contact Dr. Linda Leffel, CEC, VPI and 
SU, Blacksburg, VA 24061. 703-961-4848. 



Robots VI Conference and Exposition 

The Robots VI Conference and Exposition will be held March 
1-4 in Detroit, MI. Contact RI/SME, One SME Drive, PO Box 
930, Dearborn. MI 48128. 313-271-1500. ext. 416. 



Microcomputer Week '82 

Microcomputer Week, a five-day conference on microcom- 
puters in education, will be held March 3-7 at Jersey City State 
College, Jersey City, NJ. 

Courses will be offered in more than 20 subjects. Participants 
may earn graduate level credit. 

For more information write Catalyst Conference, H 1 12, Jersey 
City State College, 2039 Kennedy Blvd., Jersey City, NJ 07305. 



Human Factors in Computer Systems 
Conference 

The Human Factors in Computer Systems Conference will be 
held March 15-17 in Gaithersburg. MD. Contact Michael L. 
Schneider, Sperry-Univac. PO Box 200, Blue Bell, PA 19424. 
215-542-5808. 



Software/Expo-West 

Software/Expo- West, a conference and show about packaged 
software, will be held March 16-18, at the Anaheim Convention 
Center, Anaheim, CA. 

For more information write Soft ware/Expo- West, Suite 400, 
222 West Adams St., Chicago. IL 60606. 312-263-3131. 



Seventh West Coast Computer Faire 

The seventh West Coast Computer Faire will be held March 
19-2 1 in San Francisco. CA. Contact Laurie McLean, 333 Swett 
Road, Woodside. CA 94062. 415-851-7075. 



Videotext '82 

Videotext 82 will be held April 12-16 in New York City. Con- 
tact Steve Weissman. Information Gatekeepers, Inc., 167 Corey 
Road, Brookline. MA 02146. 617-739-2022. 

154 Microcomputing, January 1982 



Symposium on Security and Privacy 

The 1982 Symposium on Security and Privacy, sponsored by 
the IEEE Computer Society, will take place on April 26-28, 
1982, at the Claremont Hotel in Oakland/Berkeley, CA. 

Papers and proposals for panel sessions related to security 
and privacy are being solicited. Possible topics include en- 
cryption, database security, operating system and privacy 
protection. 

Submit for review by Feb. 1, 1982, six copies of your paper or 
panel proposal to Dr. Peter Neumann, SRI International EL301, 
333 Ravenswood Ave., Menlo Park, CA 94025. 



International Computer Peripheral 
Equipment and Software Exposition 

Technical papers outlining insights or advances in computer 
peripheral equipment or software packages are being sought for 
presentation at the first International Computer Peripheral 
Equipment and Software Exposition. 

The conference/exhibition will be held Sept. 29 through Oct. 
1. 1982, at the Anaheim Convention Center, Anaheim, CA. 

Deadline for abstracts is March 26, 1982. Abstracts, in- 
cluding author's name, title, company, address, phone and 
telex, should be submitted as soon as possible to William D. 
Ashman, Program Coordinator— Peripheral 82, Cahners Ex- 
position Group, 222 W. Adams St., Chicago, IL 60606. 



Automotive Applications of Microprocessors 

A workshop on the automotive applications of micropro- 
cessors sponsored by the Industrial Electronics Society of IEEE 
will be held Oct. 7 and 8, 1982, at the Hyatt Regency Hotel, 
Dearborn, MI. 

The workshop will focus on applications of microprocessors 
to automobiles, trucks, vans and allied automotive products. 

Papers are being solicited for presentations at the workshop. 
Those interested in presenting a paper at the workshop should 
submit two copies of a 300-500 word summary (double-spaced) 
to John G. Neuman, Technical Program Chairman, General 
Motors Research Labs, Electrical Engineering Dept., GM Tech- 
nical Center, Warren, MI 48090, by Feb. 15. 



The Sixth Western Educational Computing 
Conference 

The sixth Western Educational Computing Conference 
will be held in San Diego. CA, on Nov. 18 and 19, 1982. under 
the sponsorship of the California Educational Computing 
Consortium. 

Original papers dealing with computers and computer ap- 
plications in any area that might be of intrest to instructors 
and administrators who use computers at the college or uni- 
versity level should be sent no later than March 1. 1982. to 
Professor Grant. Center for Information and Communications 
Study. California State University. Chico, CA 95929. They 
should be typed, double-spaced and approximately 1500 
words in length. The title page of each paper must contain the 
author's name, complete mailing address and telephone num- 
ber. A brief abstract should precede the text. 

Contributors will be notified of the acceptance of their 
papers by May 1, 1982. 




INSIDE LEVEL II— For machine language program- 
mers. This is a comprehensive reference guide to the 
Level II ROMs, allowing easy utilization of the 
sophisticated routines they contain. It concisely ex- 
plains set-ups, calling sequences, variable passage 
and I/O routines. Part II presents an entirely new com 
posite program structure which unloads under the 
SYSTEM command and executes in both BASIC and 
machine code with the speed and efficiency of a com- 
piler. Special consideration is given to disk systems 
BK1183 $15.95.* 

• TRS-80 ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE— BK1217— by 

Hubert S. Howe, Jr. This book incorporates into a 
single volume all the pertinent facts and information 
you need to know to program and enjoy the TRS-80. In- 
cluded are clear presentations of all introductory con- 
cepts, completely tested practical programs and sub- 
routines, details of ROM and RAM and disk operating 
systems, plus comprehensive tables, charts and ap- 
pendices. Suitable for the first time user or more ex- 
perienced users. $9.95.* 

PROGRAMMING THE Z-80— by Rodnay Zaks. Here is as- 
sembly language programming for the Z-80 presented as 
a progressive, step-by-step course. This book is both an 
educational text and a self-contained reference book, 
useful to both the beginning and the experienced pro- 
grammer who wish to learn about the Z-80. Exercises to 
test the reader are included. BK1 122 $14.95.* 

Z-80 SOFTWARE GOURMET GUIDE AND COOKBOOK 

—by Nat Wadsworth. Scelbi's newest cookbook! This 
book contains a complete description of the powerful 
Z-80 instruction set and a wide variety of programming 
information. Use the author's ingredients including 
routines, subroutines and short programs, choose a 
time-tested recipe and start cooking! BK1045 $16.99.* 

Z-80 ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAMMING-by 

Lance A. Leventhal. This book thoroughly covers the 
Z-80 instruction set, abounding in simple programming 
examples illustrating software development concepts 
and actual assembly language usage. Features in- 
clude Z-80 I/O devices and interfacing methods, as- 
sembler conventions, and comparisons with 8080A/ 
8085 instruction sets and interrupt structure. 
BK1 177 $16.99.* 



VOL. I COMPONENT TESTERS— How to build tran- 
sistor testers (8), diode testers (3), IC testers (3), 
voltmeters and VTVMs (9), ohmmeters (8 different 
kinds), inductance (3), capacity (9), Q measurement, 
crystal checking (6), temperature (2), aural meters for 
the blind (3), and all sorts of miscellaneous data on 
meters. . .using them, making them more versatile, 
making standards. Invaluable book. LB7359 $4.95.* 

VOL. II AUDIO FREQUENCY TESTERS— Jam packed 
with all kinds of audio frequency test equipment. If 
you're into SSB, RTTY, SSTV, etc., this book is a must for 
you. . .a good book for hi-fi addicts and experimenters, 
too! LB7360$4.95.* 

VOL. Ill RADIO FREQUENCY TESTERS— Radio fre- 
quency waves, the common denominator of ama- 
teur radio. Such items as SWR, antenna impedance, line 
impedance, RF output, and field strength; detailed in- 
structions on testing these items includes sections on 
signal generators, crystal calibrators, grid dip 
oscillators, noise generators, dummy loads, and much 
more. LB7361 $4.95.* 

VOL. IV IC TEST EQUIPMENT— Become a trouble 
shooting wizard! In this fourth volume of the 73 TEST 
EQUIPMENT LIBRARY are 42 home construction proj- 
ects for building test equipment to work with your ham 
station and in servicing digital equipment. P/us a 
cumulative index for all four volumes for the 73 TEST 
EQUIPMENT LIBRARY. LB7362 $4.95.* 



6502 



PET/CBM PERSONAL COMPUTER GUIDE-by Adam 
Osborne and Caroll Donahue. REVISED SECOND EDI- 
TION This is the book that will show you what the Com- 
modore PET or CBM can do and how to get your's up 
and running. Designed as a self-teaching BASIC 
tutorial, the book will teach you both BASIC and CBM 
BASIC, yet it assumes no knowledge of computers or 
programming. Included are: complete operating in- 
structions, Description of all PET/CBM BASIC state- 
ments, optimal programming techniques and solutions 
to many programming problems. BK1231 $15.00 

SOME COMMON BASIC PROGRAMS, APPLE II EDI- 
TION— by Lon Poole et al. A powerful collection of fi- 
nancial, statistical, home management and mathemat- 
ics programs— 76 in all— Each program is presented 
with BASIC source code, operating instructions and 
descriptions. If you're a beginning programmer you 
can learn from this book what well designed and 
documented programs look like. BK1232 $14.95 

UNDERSTANDING YOUR VIC VOL. 1 :BASIC PROGRAM- 
MING— by David Schultz. For the beginning VIC pro- 
grammer—this book is full of examples and exercises 
(with expected results included as immediate feedback) 
that will help you to quickly and easily learn about the 
VIC. Included are chapters on program design with the 
use of pseudo code and data dictionaries to refine pro- 
gramming problems, and on VIC color and sound fea- 
tures. A fine learn-by-doing programming quide. 
BK1234 $11.95. 

6502 ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAMMING-by 

Lance A. Leventhal. This book provides comprehen- 
sive coverage of the 6502 microprocessor assembly 
language. Leventhal covers over 80 programming ex- 
amples from simple memory load loops to complete 
design projects. Features include 6502 assembler con- 
ventions, input/output devices and interfacing 
methods and programming the 6502 interrupt system. 
BK1 176 $16.99.* 

• THE APPLE II USER'S GUIDE— BK1220— by Lon 
Poole, Martin McNiff, and Steven Cook. This guide is 
the key to unlocking the full power of your Apple II or 
Apple II Plus. Topics include: "Applesoft and Integer 
BASIC Programming"— especially how to make the 
best use of Apple's sound, color and graphics capabili- 
ties. "Machine Level Programming," "Hardware 
Features"— which covers the disk drive and printer, 
and "Advanced Programming" — describing high 
resolution graphics techniques and other advanced 
applications. Well organized and easy to use. $15.00.* 

PROGRAMMING THE 6502 (Third Edition)— Rodnay 
Zaks has designed a self-contained text to learn pro- 
gramming, using the 6502. It can be used by a person 
who has never programmed before, and should be of 
value to anyone using the 6502. The many exercises 
will allow you to test yourself and practice the con- 
cepts presented. $13.95.* BK1005 

6502 APPLICATIONS BOOK— Rodnay Zaks presents 
practical-application techniques for the 6502 micropro- 
cessor, assuming an elementary knowledge of micropro- 
cessor programming. You will build and design your own 
domestic-use systems and peripherals. Self-test exer- 
cises included. BK1006 $12.95.* 

6502 SOFTWARE GOURMET GUIDE AND COOK- 
BOOK— by Robert Findley. This book introduces the 
BASIC language programmer into the realm of 
machine-language programming. The description of 
the 6502 structure and instruction set, various 
routines, subroutines and programs are the ingredi- 
ents in this cookbook. "Recipes" are included to help 
you put together exactly the programs to suit your 
taste. BK1055 $12.95.* 

PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE 



• MICROCOMPUTING CODING SHEETS Microcom- 
puting's dozen or so programmers wouldn't try to work 
without these handy scratch pads, which help prevent 
the little errors that can cost hours and hours of pro- 
gramming time. Available for programming is Assem- 
bly/Machine Language (PD1001), which has columns 
for address, instruction (3 bytes), source code (label 
PrPrxPPi 16, operand) and comments; and for BASIC 
(PD1002) which is 72 columns wide. 50 sheets to a pad. 

68000/6809 

• 6809 MICROCOMPUTER PROGRAMMING AND 
INTERFACING— BK1215— by Andrew C. Staugaard, 
Jr. Getting involved with Tandy's new Color Computer? 
If so, this new book from the Blacksburg Group will 
allow you to exploit the awesome power of the 
machine's 6809 microprocessor. Detailed information 
on processor architecture, addressing modes, register 
operation, data movement, arithmetic logic opera- 
tions, I/O and interfacing is provided, as well as a 
review section at the end of each chapter. Four appen- 
dices are included covering the 680$ instruction set 
specification sheets of the 6809 family of processors, 
other 6800 series equipment and the 6809/6821 
Peripheral Interface Adapter. This book is a must for 
the serious Color Computer owner. $13.95.* 

6502 APPLICATIONS BOOK— Rodnay Zaks presents 
practical-application techniques for the 6502 micropro- 
cessor, assuming an elementary knowledge of micropro- 
cessor programming. You will build and design your own 
domestic-use systems and peripherals. Self-test exer- 
cises included. $12.95.* BK1006 

• 68000 MICROPROCESSOR HANDBOOK— BK1216 

—by Gerry Kane. Whether you're currently using the 
68000, planning to use it, or simply curious about one 
of the newest and most powerful microprocessors, 
this handbook has all the answers. A clear presenta- 
tion of signal conversions, timing diagram conven- 
tions, functional logic, three different instruction set 
tables, exception processing, and family support 
devices provides more information about the 68000 
than the manufacturer's data sheets. A stand alone 
reference book which can also be used as a supple- 
ment to An Introduction to Microcomputers: Vol. 2— 
Some Real Microprocessors. $6.99.* 

68000 ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAMMING— by 

Gerry Kane, et al. A straightforward self teaching text 
book on assembly language programming for the 68000 
microprocessor. This book contains the entire instruc- 
tion set, describes the function of assemblers and 
assembly instructions and discusses basic software 
development concepts. A large number of practical pro- 
gramming examples are included. BK1233 $16.99 

COOKBOOKS 



CMOS COOKBOOK— by Don Lancaster. Details the 
application of CMOS, the low power logic family 
suitable for most applications presently dominated by 
TTL. Required reading for every serious digital ex- 
perimenter! $10.50.* BK1011 

TVT COOKBOOK— by Don Lancaster. Describes the 
use of a standard television receiver as a micropro- 
cessor CRT terminal. Explains and describes charac- 
ter generation, cursor control and interface informa- 
tion in typical, easy-to-understand Lancaster style 
$9.95.* BK1064 

TTL COOKBOOK— by Don Lancaster. Explains what 
TTL is, how it works, and how to use it. Discusses prac- 
tical applications, such as a digital counter and 
display system, events counter, electronic stopwatch, 
digital voltmeter and a digital tachometer 
$9.50.* BK1063 



*Use the order card in this magazine or itemize your order on a separate piece of 
paper and mail to Kilobaud Microcomputing Book Department • Peterborough NH 
03458. Be sure to include check or detailed credit card information. 



No COD. orders accepted. All orders add $1.50 for first book, $1.00 each addi- 
tional book, $10.00 per book foreign airmail. Please allow 4-6 weeks for delivery. 
Questions regarding your order? Please write to customer Service at the follow- 
ing address. 



FOR TOLL FREE ORDERING CALL 1-800-258-5473 



BASIC & PASCAL 




ANNOTATED BASIC VOL I— Purpose is the key word 
here! There are programs for the business owner, the 
student, the do-it-yourselfer, and a couple just for fun. 
The listings are formatted for easy reading, tracing and 
typing. Each is fully documented to teach the principles 
used. You may learn digital electronics. . .or how to 
survey! If you're a beginner at BASIC, there's more good 
news _tnese programs have been selected, arranged 
and fully anonotated to teach you the BASIC language 
from simple statements to complex concepts. Regular 
price. $8.95, PREPUBLICATION SPECIAL OFFER ONLY 
$7.45.* BK7384 



TheBASIC 

Eneyctopeiia c* the 
BASIC Computer language 






• INTRODUCTION TO TRS-80 LEVEL II BASIC AND 
COMPUTER PROGRAMMING— BK1219— by Michael 
P. Zabinski. Written by an experienced educator, this is 
the book for those beginners who want to learn about 
computers without having to become an expert. It has 
practical programs, useful line-by-line comments, ex- 
cellent flowcharts accompanied by line numbers and 
over 200 exercises which help the reader assess prog- 
ress, reinforce comprehension, and provide valuable 
practical experience. $10.95.* 

50 BASIC EXERCISES— by J. P. Lamoitier. This book is 
structured around the idea that the best way to learn a 
language is through actual practice. It contains 50 
completely explained exercises: statement and 
analysis of the problem, flowcharts, programs and ac- 
tual runs. Program subjects include mathematics, 
business, games, and operations research, and are 
presented in varying levels of difficulty. This format 
enables anyone to learn BASIC rapidly, checking their 
progress at each step. BK1192 $12.95*. 

THE BASIC HANDBOOK-SECOND EDITION-by 
David Lien. This book is unique. It is a virtual 
ENCYCLOPEDIA of BASIC. While not favoring one 
computer over another, it explains over 250 BASIC 
words, how to use them and alternate strategies. If a 
computer does not possess the capabilities of a need- 
ed or specified word, there are often ways to ac- 
complish the same function by using another word or 
combination of words. That's where the HANDBOOK 
comes in. It helps you get the most from your com- 
puter be it a "bottom-of-the-line" micro or an oversized 
monster. BK1 174 $19.95.* 

LEARNING LEVEL II— by David Lien. Written especial- 
ly for the TRS-80, this book concentrates on Level II 
BASIC. It explores every important BASIC language 
capability. Updates are included for those who have 
studied the Level I User's Manual. Sections include: 
how to use the Editor, dual cassette operation, printers 
and peripheral devices, and the conversion of Level I 
programs to Level II. BK1 175 $15.95.* 

BASIC BASIC (2ND EDITION)— by James S. Coan. This 
is a textbook which incorporates the learning of com- 
puter programming using the BASIC language with the 
teaching of mathematics. Over 100 sample programs 
illustrate the techniques of the BASIC language and 
every section is followed by practical problems. This 
second edition covers character string handling and 
the use of data files. BK1026 $10.50.* 

ADVANCED BASIC— Applications including strings and 
files, coordinate geometry, area, sequences and series, 
simulation and graphing and games. BK100 $10.75.* 



INTRODUCTION TO PASCAL— by Rodnay Zaks. A 
step-by-step introduction for anyone wanting to learn 
the language quickly and completely. Each concept is 
explained simply and in a logical order. All features of 
the language are presented in a clear, easy-to- 
understand format with exercises to test the reader at 
the end of each chapter. It describes both standard 
PASCAL and UCSD PASCAL— the most widely used 
dialect for small computers. No computer or program- 
ming experience is necessary. BK1189 $14.95.* 

PROGRAMMING IN PASCAL— by Peter Grogono. The 
computer programming language PASCAL was the 
first language to embody in a coherent way the con- 
cepts of structured programming, which has been 
defined by Edsger Dijkstra and C.A.R. Hoare. As such, 
it is a landmark in the development of programming 
languages. PASCAL was developed by Niklaus Wirth 
in Zurich; it is derived from the language ALGOL 60 but 
is more powerful and easier to use. PASCAL is now 
widely accepted as a useful language that can be effi- 
ciently implemented, and as an excellent teaching 
tool. It does not assume knowledge of any other pro- 
gramming language and therefore suitable for an in- 
troductory course. BK1140 $12.95.* 



GAMES 



40 COMPUTER GAMES— Forty games in all in nine dif- 
ferent categories. Games for large and small systems, 
and even a section on calculator games. Many versions 
of BASIC used and a wide variety of systems repre- 
sented. A must for the serious computer gamesman. 
BK7381 $17.95.* 

BASIC COMPUTER GAMES— Okay, so once you get 
your computer and are running in BASIC, then what? 
Then you need some programs in BASIC, that's what. 
This book has 101 games for you from very simple to 
real buggers. You get the games, a description of the 
games, the listing to put in your computer and a sam- 
ple run to show you how they work. Fun. Any one game 
will be worth more than the price of the book for the fun 
you and your family will have with it. BK1074 $7.50.* 

MORE BASIC COMPUTER GAMES— Edited by David 
H. Ahl. More fun in BASIC! 84 new games from the peo- 
ple who brought you BASIC Computer Games. In- 
cludes such favorites as Minotaur (battle the mythical 
beast) and Eliza (unload your troubles on the doctor at 
bargain rates). Complete with game description, list- 
ing and sample run. BK1182 $7.50.* 

WHAT TO DO AFTER YOU HIT RETURN— PCC's first 
book of computer games... 48 different computer 
games you can play in BASIC. . .programs, descrip- 
tions and many illustrations. Lunar Landing, Ham- 
murabi, King, Civel 2, Qubic 5, Taxman, Star Trek, 
Crash, Market, etc. BK1071 $14.95 

PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE 



—BUSINESS— 

• THEORY Z—BK1226— How American Business Can 
Meet the Japanese Challenge— by William Ouchi. Why 
are the Japanese catching up and surpassing 
American industrial productivity? What allows 
Japanese industrialists to offer guaranteed lifetime 
employment to their workforce? This book will help 
you understand the Theory Z managerial philosophy 
and its implications for the American corporate future. 
Examples are given of the American industrial giants 
already operating under Z-style management, and the 
impact of this style on the quality of their executives 
and workers is explored. A must for the alert business- 
man, large or small. $12.95.* 

• SO YOU ARE THINKING ABOUT A SMALL 
BUSINESS COMPUTER— BK1222— by Richard G. Can- 
ning and Nancy C. Leeper. For a well-organized manual 
on the process of selecting the right computer system 
for your small business, this text can't be excelled. De- 
signed to introduce the novice in data and word pro- 
cessing to the real benefits of computerization, the 
book is filled with money- and time-saving tips, photos 
of equipment, lists of suppliers, prices, explanations 
of computer terminology, and helpful references to 
additional sources of information. Everyone con- 
templating a first computer installation should have 
this book. $14.00.* 

PAYROLL WITH COST ACCOUNTING— IN BASIC— by 

L. Poole & M. Borchers, includes program listings with 
remarks, descriptions, discussions of the principle 
behind each program, file layouts, and a complete 
user's manual with step-by-step instructions, flow- 
charts, and simple reports and CRT displays. Payroll 
and cost accounting features include separate pay- 
rolls for up to 10 companies, time-tested interac- 
tive data entry, easy correction of data entry errors, 
job costing (labor of distribution), check printing 
with full deduction and pay detail, and 16 differ- 
ent printed reports, including W-2 and 941 (in CBASIC). 
BK1001 $20.00.* 

SOME COMMON BASIC PROGRAMS— Published by 
Adam Osborne & Associates, Inc. Perfect for non- 
technical computerists requiring ready-to-use pro- 
grams. Business programs, plus miscellaneous pro- 
grams. Invaluable for the user who is not an experi- 
enced programmer. All will operate in the stand-alone 
mode. BK1053 $14.99 paperback. 

PIMS: PERSONAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT 
SYSTEM— Learn how to unleash the power of a per- 
sonal computer for your own benefit in this ready-to- 
use data-base management program. BK1009 $11.95.* 




MONEYMAKING 



HOW TO MAKE MONEY WITH COMPUTERS-ln 10 in- 
formation-packed chapters, Jerry Felsen describes 
more than 30 computer-related, money-making, high 
profit, low capital investment opportunities. 
BK1003 $15.00.* 

HOW TO SELL ANYTHING TO ANYBODY— According 
to The Guinness Book of World Records, the author, 
Joe Girard, is "the world's greatest salesman." This 
book reveals how he made a fortune— and how you 
can, too. BK7306 $2.25.* 

THE INCREDIBLE SECRET MONEY MACHINE-by 

Don Lancaster. A different kind of "cookbook" from 
Don Lancaster. Want to slash taxes? Get free vaca- 
tions? Win at investments? Make money from some- 
thing that you like to do? You'll find this book essential 
to give you the key insider details of what is really in- 
volved in starting up your own money machine. 
BK1 178 $5.95.* 



'Use the order card in this magazine or itemize your order on a separate piece of 
paper and mail to Kilobaud Microcomputing Book Department • Peterborough NH 
03458 Be sure to include check or detailed credit card information. 



No C.O.D. orders accepted. All orders add $1.50 for first book, $1.00 each addi- 
tional book, $10.00 per book foreign airmail. Please allow 4-6 weeks for delivery. 
Questions regarding your order? Please write to customer Service at the follow- 
ing address. 



FOR TOLL FREE ORDERING CALL 1-800-258-5473 



INTRODUCTORY 



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UNDERSTANDING AND PROGRAMMING MICROCOM- 
PUTERS—A valuable addition to your computing library. 
This two-part text includes the best articles that have ap- 
peared in 73 and Kilobaud Microcomputing magazines 
on the hardware and software aspects of microcomput- 
ing. Well-known authors and well-structured text helps 
the reader get involved.$10.95* BK7382 

SOME OF THE BEST FROM KILOBAUD MICROCOM- 
PUTING—A collection of the best articles that have ap- 
peared in Kilobaud Microcomputing. Included is materi- 
al on the TRS-80 and PET systems, CP/M, the 
8080/8085/Z-80 chips, the ASR-33 terminal. Data-base 
management, word processing, text editors, and file 
structures are covered too. Programming techniques 
and hard-core hardware construction projects for 
modems, high-speed cassette interfaces, and TVTs are 
also included in this large-format, 200-plus-page edition 
$10.95.* BK7311 



• YOUR FIRST COMPUTER — BK1191— by Rodnay 
Zaks. Whether you are using a computer, thinking 
about using one or considering purchasing one, this 
book is indispensable. It explains what a computer 
system is, what it can do, how it works and how to 
select various components and peripheral units. It is 
written in everyday language and contains invaluable 
information for the novice and the experienced pro- 
grammer. (The first edition of this book was published 
under the title "An Introduction to Personal and 
Business Computing".) $8.95* 

• MICROPROCESSOR INTERFACING TECHNIQUES 

— BK1037— by Austin Lesea & Rodnay Zaks— will 
teach you how to interconnect a complete system and 
interface it to all the usual peripherals. It covers hard- 
ware and software skills and techniques, including the 
use and design of model buses such as the IEEE 488 or 
S-100. $17.95.* 




SPECIAL INTERESTS 



• TRS-80 DISK AND OTHER MYSTERIES— BK1 181 — 

by Harvard C. Pennington. This is the definitive work 
on the TRS-80 disk system. It is full of detailed "How 
to" information with examples, samples and in-depth 
explanations suitable for beginners and professionals 
alike. The recovery of one lost file is worth the price 
alone. $22.50.* 

• MICROSOFT BASIC DECODED AND OTHER 

MYSTERIES— BK1 186— by James Farvour. From the 
company that brought you TRS-80 DISK AND OTHER 
MYSTERIES*. Contains more than 6500 lines of com- 
ments for the disassembled Level II ROMs, six addi- 
tional chapters describing every BASIC subroutine, 
with assembly language routines showing how to use 
them. Flowcharts for all major routines give the reader 
a real insight into how the interpreter works. $29.50. 



• THE CUSTOM TRS-80 AND OTHER MYSTERIES— 

BK1218— by Dennis Kitsz. More than 300 pages of 
TRS-80 customizing information. With this book you'll 
be able to explore your computer like never before. 
Want to turn an 8 track into a mass storage unit? In- 
dividual reverse characters? Replace the BASIC 
ROMs? Make Music? High speed, reverse video, Level I 
and Level II? Fix it if it breaks down? All this and much, 
much more. Even if you have never used a soldering 
iron or read a circuit diagram, this book will teach you 
how! This is the definitive guide to customizing your 
80! $29.95.* 

• BASIC FASTER AND BETTER AND OTHER MYS- 
TERIES— BK1221— by Lewis Rosenfelder. You don't 
have to learn assembly language to make your pro- 
grams run fast. With the dozens of programming tricks 
and techniques in this book you can sort at high speed, 
swap screens in the twinkling of an eye, write INKEY 
routines that people think are in assembly language 
and add your own commands to BASIC. Find out how 
to write elegant code that makes your BASIC really 
hum, and explore the power of USR calls. $29.95.* 

• THE CP/M HANDBOOK (with MP/M)-BK1187-by 
Rodnay Zaks. A complete guide and reference hand- 
book for CP/M— the industry standard in operating 
systems. Step-by-step instruction for everything from 
turning on the system and inserting the diskette to cor- 
rect user discipline and remedial action for problem 
situations. This also includes a complete discussion 
of all versions of CP/M up to and including 2.2, MP/M 
and CDOS. $14.95*. 

HOW TO DEFEND YOURSELF AGAINST RADAR— by 

Bruce F. Bogner and James R. Bodnar, a lawyer and 
radar expert. This book gives you the ammunition to 
challenge the radar "evidence"' that usually leads to a 
speeding conviction. The major part of the book details 
the inner workings of radar— you'll become more of an 
expert than most police officers and judges. The re- 
mainder of the book outlines how to defend yourself 
against a speeding ticket— the observations, mea- 
sures and testimony you must obtain to defend your- 
self without the help of a lawyer. The price is a lot less 
than a fine! $6.95* BK1201 

PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE 



• HOBBY COMPUTERS ARE HERE!— BK7322-lf you 

want to come up to speed on how computers work. . . 
hardware and software. . .this is an excellent book. It 
starts with fundamentals and explains the circuits, and 
the basics of programming, along with a couple of TVT 
construction projects, ASCII-Baudot, etc. This book has 
the highest recommendations as a teaching aid. $4.95.* 

• THE NEW HOBBY COMPUTERS— BK7340— This 

book takes it from where "HOBBY COMPUTERS ARE 
HERE!" leaves off, with chapters on Large Scale Integra- 
tion, how to choose a microprocessor chip, an introduc- 
tion to programming, low cost I/O for a computer, com- 
puter arithmetic, checking memory boards... and 
much, much more! Don't miss this tremendous value! 
Only $4.95.* 

• AN INTRODUCTION TO MICROCOMPUTERS, VOL.0 

— BK1130— The Beginner's Book— Written for readers 
who know nothing about computers— for those who 
have an interest in how to use computers— and for 
everyone else who must live with computers and 
should know a little about them. The first in a series of 
4 volumes, this book will explain how computers work 
and what they can do. Computers have become an in- 
tegral part of life and society. During any given day you 
are affected by computers, so start learning more 
about them with Volume 0. $7.95.* 

• VOL. I — BK1030— 2nd Edition completely revised. 

Dedicated to the basic concepts of microcomputers 
and hardware theory. The purpose of Volume I is to 
give you a thorough understanding of what microcom- 
puters are. From basic concepts (which are covered in 
detail), Volume I builds the necessary components of a 
microcomputer system. This book highlights the dif- 
ference between minicomputers and microcomputers. 
$i t .yy. 




KILOBAUD KLASSROOM— by George Young and Peter 
Stark. Learning electronics theory without practice isn't 
easy. And it's no fun to build an electronics project that 
you can't use. Kilobaud Klassroom, the popular series 
first published in Kilobaud Microcomputing, combines 
theory with practice. This is a practical course in digital 
electronics. It starts out with very simple electronics 
projects, and by the end of the course you'll construct 
your own working microcomputer! 

Authors Young and Stark are experienced teachers 
and their approach is simple and direct. Whether you're 
learning at home or in the classroom, this book provides 
you with a solid background in electronics— and you'll 
own a computer that you built yourself! BK7386 $14.95 

• TOOLS & TECHNIQUES FOR ELECTRONICS— 

BK7348— by A. A. Wicks is an easy-to-understand book 
written for the beginning kit builder as well as the ex- 
perienced hobbyist. It has numerous pictures and 
descriptions of the safe and correct ways to use basic 
and specialized tools for electronic projects as well as 
specialized metal working tools and the chemical aids 
which are used in repair shops. $4.95.* 

• HOW TO BUILD A MICROCOMPUTER— AND REALLY 
UNDERSTAND IT— BK7325— by Sam Creason. The elec- 
tronics hobbyist who wants to build his own microcom- 
puter system now has a practical "How-To" guidebook. 
This book is a combination technical manual and pro- 
gramming guide that takes the hobbyist step-by-step 
through the design, construction, testing and debugging 
of a complete microcomputer system. Must reading for 
anyone desiring a true understanding of small computer 
systems. $9.95.* 



Use the order card in this magazine or itemize your order on a separate piece of 
Rf P e « a J? d mai1 to Kl,obaud Microcomputing Book Department • Peterborough NH 
03458. Be sure to include check or detailed credit card information 



No C.O.D. orders accepted. All orders add $1.50 for first book, $1.00 each addi- 
tional book, $10.00 per book foreign airmail. Please allow 4-6 weeks for delivery. 
Questions regarding your order? Please write to customer Service at the follow- 
ing address. 



FOR TOLL FREE ORDERING CALL 1-800-258-5473 



/I 



National 
Semiconductor 



Clock Modules 

12V DC 

AUTOMOTIVE/ 

INSTRUMENT 

CLOCK 

APPLICATIONS: 

• In dash autoclocks 

• After market auto/ 
RV clocks 

• Aircraft-marine elks. 

• 12VDC opar. Instru. 

• Portable/battery 
powered inctromnt*. 

Feature*: Bright 0.3" green display. Internal crystal time- 
base. I 0.5 sec. /day accur. Auto. display brightness control 
logic. Display color filterable to blue, blue-green, green & 
yellow. Complete-just add switches and lens. 

MA1003 Module (3.06"lxi.75"hx.98"d) • $16.95 




CLOCK MODULES 

.7" Red Digital LED Clock Module 8.95 

.7" Dig. LED Alarm Clock/Thermometer 18.95 

3" Red Digital LED Clock/Timer 6.95 

.5" Red Digital LED Clock & Xformer 9.95 

8" Red Digital LED Clock 7.95 

MA1032 CBA .5" Digital LCD Clock 17.95 

MA1043 .7" Green Digital LED Clock 8.95 

TRANSFORMERS 
1 02 P20 Xformer for MA 1 023, 1 043 & 5036 Mods. 3.49 
102 P22 Xformer for MA1026 Clock Modules 3.49 

102 P24 Xformer for MA1010 Clock Modules 3.49 



MA1023 
MA1026 
MA5036 
MA1002 
MA1010 



wWWi 
>NEW!> 




EPROM Erasing Lamp 




• Erases 2708. 2716. 1702A. 5203Q, 5204Q, etc. 

• E rasas up to 4 chips within 20 minutes. 

• Maintains constant exposure distance of on* inch. 

• Special conductive foam liner eliminates static build up. 

• Built-in safety lock to prevent UV exposure. 

• Compact - only 7-5/8" x 2-7/8" x 2" 

• Complete with holding tray for 4 chips. 
UVS-11EL Replacement Bulb $16.95 

UVS-11E $79.95 



JOYSTICKS 



JS-5K 





JS5K 
JS100K 

JVC 40 



ALLIGATOR CLIP TEST LEADS 




MICROPROCESSOR COMPONENTS 



Sun Power Your Electronics! 
SOLAR CELL PANEL KIT 

Features: 

• Output: 10VDC, to 100mA In Series 
5V0C, to 200mA In Parallel 

• Panel may be easily connected for 
Series or Parallel out 

• Over 11 square Inches of active cell 
surface 

• Voltage line tap & 0.5V Increments 

• Provision for charging batteriea 

• Overall panel size: 
4*i"L x 4Vi"H x Y>"D 

The JE305 Solar Cell Panel Kit contains 20 each solar cells. On the 
panel board are power line taps which allow the user to select voltages 
(one voltage at a time) from 0.5VDC to 10VDC. The applications of each 
panel can be further expanded by coupling additional panels in series 
for more voltage or in parallel for more current. The premium grade 
solar cells provide the current necessary for the operation of most por- 
table transistor radios, small battery powered cassette tape players 
and unlimited experimental solar projects. 

JE305 $39.95 



■8080 A/8080 A SUPPORT DEVICES 

INS40S0A- CPU ** 

DPS212 » Bit Input/Output 3.2S 

DPS2I4 Priority Interrupt Control S.SJ 

OPS216 Bl- Direct lonal Bus Driver 3*J 

DPSZ24 Clock Generator/Driver LIS 

DPS224 Bui Driver X** 

DPS22S System Controller/Bus Driver 4.45 

DPS23S System Controller *•* 

INS424J I/O Expander for «| Series »■» 

INSS2S0 Asynchronous Comm. Element I*.* 

DP42S1 Proa. Comm. I/O (USART) 6.9S 

UP42SJ Pro9. Interval Timer 4.95 

DPB2K Proa. Peripheral I/O (PPI) *•* 

DPSS7 Proa. DMA Control »■* 

DP42H Prog. Interrupt Control 9.95 

DPS275 Proa. CRT Controller 39.* 

OP4279 Prog. KeyDoard/Dlsplay Interface 9.9S 

DPU03 System Timing Element S.SJ 

OPS3M t-BIt Bl Directional Receiver 3.4S 

OPS307 I Bit Bl Directional Receiver 3.16 

OPSJOS » Bit Bi Directional Receiver 3.« 

OPS310 Octal Latched Peripheral Driver SJS 

OPS3U Octal Latched Peripheral Driver 5.2* 

6800/6800 SUPPORT DEVICES • 

MPU 

mpu with Clock and RAM 

13x1 Static RAM 

Peripheral Inter. Adapt (MCM20) 

Priority Interrupt Controller 

1024xl-Blt ROM (MC4SA30-4) 

Asynchronous Comm. Adapter 

Synchronous Serlel Data Adapter 

rXOObps Digital MODEM 

2400OPS Modulator 

Quad 3- St at* Bus. Trans. (MC4T2S) 

MICROPROCESSOR CHIPS — 

ZSO (7S9C) CPU (MK3SS9N) (2MHz) 

ZSOA (7S0-1) CPU (MKJSJ0N^)(4MHI) 

CDPWU CPU 

2650 MPU 



DATA ACQUISITION (CONTINUED)- 



AOC04O9CCN 

ADC6S17CCN 

DAC1000LCN 

DAC100SLCN 

DAC1020LCN 

DAC1022LCN 

DAC1222I.CN 

CD40S1N 

AY-S-1013 



•-Bit A/O Converter (»-Ch. Multl.) 5.: 
I-Blt A/D Converter (16-Ch. Multl.) 10.94 
10-Blt D/A Conv. Micro. Comp. (0.05%) 13.9* 
10-Blt D/A Conv. Micro. Comp. (0.20%) 1.95 
10-Blt D/A Converter (0.05% Lin.) •.«■ 

10-Blt D/A Converter (0.20% Lin.) 5.9S 

12-Blt D/A Converter (0.20% Lin.) 1 

t-Channel Multiplexer 1.19 

JOK BAUD UART 6.95 

RAM'S 



30002 
30004 



MC6S00 
MCH02CP 
MCM10API 
MCSS21 

MC4424 

MC4430L4 

MC44S0 

MCSS52 

MC6SS0 

MC6S52 

MC6440A 



7.95 
14.95 
4.9S 
7.49 
17.96 
14.96 
6.96 
6.96 
10.96 
12.9S 
2.26 



I DM2901 ADC CPU- 



11.95 
13.95 
19.96 
16.96 
Bit Slice (Com. Temp. Grade) 19.96 



MCS6502 MPU w/Clock (*»K Bytes Memory) 11.96 

INSS035N-6 MPU— S-BIt (4MHI) 7.95 

INS40J9N-* CPU— Sgl.Chlpl-Blt(UIDytesRAM) 9.95 

INS4040N-4 CPU (2M Bytes RAM) 24.95 

INSS070N CPU— «4 Bytes RAM 24.96 

INSK73N CPU w/BasIc Micro Interpreter 29.96 

CPU 9.95 

MPU— 16-Blt M 

— SHIFT REGISTERS 

MM500H Dual 2S-Blt Dynamic -50 

MM503H Dual 50-Bit Dynamic JO 

MM506H Dual 100-Bit Static -60 

MM610H Dual 64-Blt Accumulator JO 

MM1402N 266-Bit Dynamic 2.96 

MM5013N 1004-Bit Dynamic/Accumulator 1.96 

MM5014H 500/512-Bit Dynamic 1.95 

MM5034N Octal 10-Blt 9.96 

MM5036N Octal Kr-BIt 9.96 

2604V(14Q4A) 1024-Bit Dynamic 1.96 

2516N Hex 8-Bit Static 3.95 

2622V Dual 132-Bit Static 2.96 

2524V 512-Bit Dynamic -99 

2525V 1024 Bit Dynamic 2.96 

2527V Dual 254-Bit Static 2.95 

2529V Dual 250-Bit Static 4.00 

2529V Oual 240- Bit Static 4.00 

25J2N Quad 40-Blt Static 2.95 

3341PC Flfo (Dual 10) 6.95 



1101 

1103 

2101 (6101) 

2102 

21L02 

2111 (Sill) 

2112 

2114 

21ML 

2114-2 

2U4L-2 

74S200 

41MN-4 (UP04I6) 

4164N-3 

MM2147J 

6101 

MMS261 

MMS262 

MM52K/2M7 



256x1 Static 
1024x1 Dynamic 
266x4 Static 
1024x1 Static 
1024x1 Static 
256x4 Static 
266x4 Static MOS 
1024x4 Static 460ns 
1024x4 Static 4S0ns Low Power 
1024x4 Static 200ns 
1024x4 Static 200ns Low Power 
256x1 Static 

16K Dynamic 2S0ns (MM5290N-4) 
64K Dynamic 200ns 
4096x1 Fast 70ns 
266x4 Static 

1024x1 Dynamic Fully Decoded 
2Kxl Dynamic 
ixl Dynamic 



BOOKS 

National Semiconductor - Interail - Intel 

National CMOS Data Book •»■* 

(040 pagaal 74C. CD4000, and A/D Convene™ 

National Interface Data Book. . ____ •••■ 

(704 pagaa) DP. DS8000. DS3800. DS75000. ate. 

National Linear Data Book ■»•»» 

(1376 pagaa) LM. LF. ADC, DAC. LH Series 

National Seriea B9 - Board Level Computer (224 pagaal J4.J6 

National TTL Logic Data Book 

(624 pagaa) 7400.LS.L.H.S, and DM8000 Senas 



30006 Buy above (3) 30001 .3.6 ea a eat 



1.49 
.99 

3.94 
1.71 
1.96 
195 
4.96 
3.25 
149 
3.95 
4.96 
6.96 
2.95 
19.96 
7.96 
7.96 
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.40 
4.96 
3.95 
1.96 
14.95 
149 
4.96 
9.96 
9.96 



016.66/ lot 

S6.66 

....•10.00 



MMS290N-2 (4116) 16K Dynamic 150ns (UPD416C-3) 

MM4294J-3A IK Dyn. 200ns (lower* of MM5290J) 

HM6116-4 16K (2Kx4) Static 200ns 

62S25 64 Bit RAM (16x40C) 

UPO4I4/MK4027 4K Dynamic 16-pln 

TMS4044-44NL 4K Static 

TMS4044 1024x4 Static 

PROMS/EPROMS 

1702A 2K UV Erasable PROM 

2704 IK EPROM 

TMS2716 JSK EPROM <-6V, *5V. *UV) 

2716lntel(2616)TI 16K EPROM (Single +5V) 

2732lntel Tl 32K EPROM 

2796 IK EPROM (460ns) (Single +6V) 

2764Q 64K EPROM (Hitachi HN462764) 

6203 2049 PROM 

S2S2J(74S1S9) 32x6 PROM (Open Collector) 

I2S11S 4016 Bipolar PROM 

42S123(74S2J4) 32x6 Trl-State Bipolar PROM 

(2S166 IK PROM 

— Over 30 More PROMS Listed in Our Catalog — 

ROM'S 

2613(2140) Character Generator (upper Case) 9.9S 

2513(3021) Character Generator (Lower Case) 9.96 

IMMOS READ ONLY MEMORIES — 

MCM46710P 13x9x7 ASCII Shifted w/Greek 13.50 

MCM66740P 124x9x7 Math Symbol & Pictures 11.60 

MCM66790P 124x»x7 Alpha. Control Char. Qen 13.10 



5.95 
4.96 

9.95 
1.95 

17.95 
T.4S 

49.95 

14.96 
196 

14.96 
196 

16.95 



Interail Data Book (1074 pagaa) 

010400 Intel Component Data Catalog '.'"■'" 

Ful data sheets for Intel's products incl. memory devices , 
mtcroproc . peripharala tt indust./mil. products (1328 pages) 

200610 Intel Peripheral Dealgn Handbook •7W 

Full data sheets, appl notes for Intel peripheral device 
corn ponentaJ644jx<gee)_ 

___ AC and DC Wall Transformers 

With Universal Plug and 
0V Battery Snap 

Selective voltages: 6.9.12VDC 
Polarity selection ( + /-). six-foot 
line from adapter to plugs — six- 
Inch line from adapter to battery 
anap. 120Vr60Hz. 300mA. 

Output 



>» 



DATA ACQUISITION 



universal Active Filter 2.6% 5.95 

Touch Tone Low Band Filter 19.96 

Touch Tone High Band Filter 19.95 

Super Gain Op Amp 1.15 

Constant Current Source 1.30 

Temperature Transducer 1.40 

JFET Input Op Amp 1.10 

Sample 4 Hold Amplifiers 195 

Temp. Comp. Prec. Ref. (Jppm/C*) 5.00 

ADC04O4LCN » Bit A/O Converter (1 LSB) 4.96 

DAC0606LCN l-BIt D/A Converter (0.74% Lin.) 2.25 



AF100-1CN 

AFU1-1CJ 

AF122-1CJ 

LM304CH 

LMU42 

LM3J6Z 

LF3S6N 

LFI94N 

LMI99H 



M-ZM 
M-CDP1402 

M-2650 



MICROPROCESSOR MANUALS' 

User Manual 
User Manual 
User Manual 
SPECIAL FUNCTION 



7.60 

7.50 
5.00 



DS0025CN Dual MOS Clock Driver (SMZ) 

DS0026CN Oual MOS Clock Driver (SMZ) 

INS1771N-1 Floppy Disc Controller 

INS2661N Communication Chip 

MMS4167N Microprocessor Real Time Clock 

MM56174N Microprocessor Compatible Clock 

COP402N Microcontroller with (4-Dlglt RAM 

and Direct LED Drive 
COP402MN Microcontroller with 64-Dlglt RAM 

4 Direct LEO Drive w/N Buff Int. 
COP470N 32-Seg.VAC Fluor. Driver (20-pln pkg.) 



■TELEPHONE/KEYBOARD CHIPS ' 



AY-S-9100 Pufh Button Telephone Dialer 

ay-5-9200 Repertory Dialer 

AV-64S0O CMOS Clock Generator 

A Y-5-237S Keyboard Encoder (46 keys) 

HO0166-6 Keyboard Encoder (16 keys) 

74C922 Keyboard Encoder (16 keys) 

74C923 Keyboard Encoder (20 keyf) 

MM53190N Push Button Pulse Dialer 

MM67449N 96/144-Key Serlel Keyboard Encoder 



3.50 

1.91 
24.96 
19.96 

1.96 
11.96 

4.96 

7.41 
121 

14.96 
14.96 
4.9S 
11.96 
7.1 
5.' 
5.76 
7.96 
4.94 




EECO Rocker DIP Switch — "Mlni-DlpTM" 2400 Series 

THE MOST UNIQUE DIP SWITCH AVAILABLE! 

MINI-DIP is designed to retrofit all major brands of Dip switches Unique features include locking 
rod design to prevent accidental actuation and gold self-wiping contact One-piece housing and 
press-tit terminals prevent contamination 2-10 station Form "A" and 1-5 station Form "I 
• Terminals on 100 « 300 (2 54 i 7.62) canteri • PC6 or dip socket 
cleaning/ wiping action with geM contact • Total seal and bottom seal 
Part Ha. Pas. Caaajaenjeaa 



2466-2 
2466-3 
2466-4 
2460-A6C0 

24005C 



12 

123 

1234 

ABCO 

C54321 



Spin 

If* 
Sain 
6pta 

14 



.79 
.66 
99 



pin 1.66 



16/ 6 95 

16/ 7.66 
16/ 8 95 
16/ 8 95 
16/ 9 95 



2460-6 

2466-7 
2466-6 
2466-6 

2466-10 



6 

7 
6 
6 

16 



123456 

1234967 
12349676 

123496766 
6123496766 



14 pin 
14 pas 
16 pie 
11 pie 
20 pin 



109 
1 19 
1.26 
1.36 
1.46 



10/ 9.69 

16/16.66 
16/11.69 
16/12.69 
10/13.69 



JVC-40 



5K Linear Taper Pots $5.25 

100K Linear Taper Pots $4.95 

40K (2) Video Controller in case . . . $4.95 



JE608 PROGRAMMER 

2704/2706 EPROM PROGRAMMER 



Heavy-duty leads, color coded. Insulated alligator clip on each end. 15" 
long Two each black, red, blue, white and yellow. 

#ALCP (10 per pack) $2.95/pkg. 







NEW 



JE215 Adjustable 
Dual Power Supply 

General Description: The JE215 is a Dual Power 
Supply with independent adjustable positive and nega- 
tive output voltages. A separate adjustment for each 
of the supplies provides the user unlimited applications 
for IC current voltage requirements. The supply can 
also be used as a general all-purpose variable power 

Supply. FEATURES 

• Adjustable regulated power supplies, 
poa. and neg. 1.2V DC to 15VDC. 

• Power Output (each supply): 

^ 5V DC @ 500mA, 10V DC® 750mA, 

__ 12VDC @ 500rnA, and 

15VDC® 175mA. 
a Two, 3 terminal adj. IC regulators 
with thermal overload protection. 
a Heat sink regulator cooling 

• LED "on" indicator 
a Printed Boerd Construction 
e 120V AC input 
e Size: 3 1/2"w x 5 1/16"L x 2"H 

JE21 5 Adj. Dual Power Supply Kit (as shown) . . $24.95 



GENERAL APPLICATIONS: 

• To program EPROMS 2704 and 2706. 

• Developmental system for microcomputer circuits 

• To read the contents of a pre programmed EPROM 

• To compare EPROfcKa) lor content differences 

• To emulate a programmed EPROM 

• To store program In RAMS lor alterations 

• Three aeperete Dlaplay Registers: 6 LEDs for Hex 
Key entries, 10 LEO'a frr) for Address Register and 8 
LEDs for beta Memory Register. The Deta Memory 
Register displays the content of the R AMs from the EPROM Chip. Development of mlcroproceeeor systems by 
means of a ribbon cable from the programmer panel teet socket to the EPROM socket on the mlcrt>proc*eeor 
board. Rapid checking verification of programmed data changes User may move deta from a maetar to RAM a 
or write Into RAM's with keyboard entries Allows manual stepping manipulation (up and down) at any <-" 




location. Standalone EPROM Programmer consisting of : A 1 6-key Hexadecimal Keyboard aeeembty, Program 

■EDrTeet Socket Panel Board aeeembry. The Teet Socket la 

pa. Power requirements: 115V AC, rJOHi, 6W. Compar. 

caae with light tan panels and molded end pieces in moi 
x 8V."D. Weight "5 lbs 



mer Board assembly with 4 power supplies and a LEDJTest Socket Panel Boerd i 

zero force Insertion type. Power requirements: 116VAC, 60Hz, 6W. Compact deak top encloaure: Cotor- 

coordinated designer's caae with light tan panels and molded end ptecee In mocha brown. Size: 3 V. H x 11 W 




(Picture not shown but similar in construction to above) 

JE200 Rag. Power Supply Kit I5VDC, 1 amp) . . $14.95 

JE205 Adapter Brd (toJE200) 5, 9 & 12V $12.95 

JE210Var.Pwr.Sply. Kit. 5 15VDC. to 1.5amp. $19.95 



The JE606 EPROM Programmer is a completely serf-contained unit which is independent of computer control end requires no 
additional systems for its operations. The EPROM can be progremmed from the Hexadecimal Keyboard or from a pre- 
programmed EPROM The JE606 Programmer can emulate a programmed EPROM by the uee of Ha internal RAMckcuita 
Thia win allow the user to teet or pretest a program for a system , prior to programming a chip. Any changes In the program can 
be entered directly into the memory circuita with the Hexadecimal Keyboard so that rewriting the entire program wW not be 
necessary The JE608 Programmer contains a Programmer /Board w/26 IC's & includes power supplies of: -6V, 
+ 5V , + 12V end + 26V. The Hexedecimsl Keyboard end LED Teet Socket Panel board ere eeperate eeeembliee within the 
system. 

JE608K Kit $399.95 

JE608A Assembled and Tested $499.95 

JE608-16K ADAPTER BOARD 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION FOR 2716/2758 EPROMS 

The JEW1SK Xdepter Board allows the JE808 Progrsmmer to be modified for the additional programming of the 2716 end 
27M EPROMS The edepter rxovides for adding enaddreee ewrtch for the 2' • brt end eieo f or eelectlng the proper power end 
SrXr! puSea to bTJSlad^o^ra^RO^M^roVarrvning and emulating the 2716116KI EPROM . done aaperetaty to each 
half (1024x81 of the EPROM because of the exiting 8K RAM capacity m the JF- 1 



JE808-16K 
JESOS-Upgrads 

JE608A-16K Mod. 



$29.95 
$99.95 



Adapter Board Kit • • • 

(Send asaembled JE608 to factory for adaptar installation . . 

of tha JE608-16K Adaptar Board Kit) 

Assembled JE608w/ Adapter (JE608-16K) Installed SS9i 



$10.00 Min. Order - U.S. Funds Only 
Calif. Residents Add 6% Sales Tax 
Postage- Add 5% plus $1.50 Insurance 



-41 



Spec Sheets - 25a* 

Send 86d Postage for your 

FREE 1982 JAMECO CATALOG 




ameco 



ELECTRONICS 



PHONE 

ORDERS 

WELCOME 

(415) 592-8097 



1/82 



MAIL ORDER ELECTRONICS - WORLDWIDE 
1355 SHOREWAY ROAD, BELMONT, CA 94002 
PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE 



Pert No. 

AC 250 
AC 500 

AC1000 
AC1700 
DC6912 
DV9200 

DC900 



Input 



117V/60H2 
117V/60HZ 
117V«0Hz 
117V«0Hz 
120V78OHZ 
117Vr«0Hz 
120V/60HZ 



12V AC 250mA 
12VAC 500mA 
12V AC 1 amp 
9VAC 1.7 amp 
6.9.12VDC 300mA 
9VDC 200mA 
9VDC 500mA 



$3.95 
$4.95 
$5.95 
$3.95 
$9.95 
$3.25 
$3.95 



CONNECTORS 



.i..';.j-.'i.ji..- 




DB25P D-Subminiature Plug $2.95 

DB25S D Subminiature Socket $3.50 

O20418-2 Screw Lock Hdwr. (2) DB25S/P 2/S.99 

DB51226 Cover for DB25P/S $1.75 

22/44SE P.C. Edge (22/44 Pin) $2.95 

UG88/U BNC Plug $1.79 

UG89/U BNC Jack $3.79 

UG175/U UHF Adapter $ 49 

S0239 UHF Panel Recp $1.29 

PL258 UHF Adapter $1.60 

PL259 UHF Plug $1-60 

UG260/U BNC Plug $1-79 

UG1094/U BNC Bulkhead Recp $1-29 

TRS-80 
16K Conversion Kit 

Expand your 4K TRS-80 System to 16K. 
Kit comas complete with I 

• 8 ea. MM5290 (UPD416/4116) 16K Dyn. Rams CNS) 

if Documentation for Conversion 

TRS-16K2 M50NS $29.95 

TRS-16K3 "200NS $24.95 

TRS-16K4 •2S0NS $19.95 

JE610 ASCII 

Encoded Keyboard Kit 




The JE610 ASCII Keyboerd Kit con be Interfeced into 
most eny computer system. The kit comes complete 
with en Industrie) grade keyboerd switch eseembly 
(62-keys). IC'4, sockets, connector, electronic compo- 
nents end e double-sided printed wiring boerd. The 
keyboerd essembly requires +5V @ 150mA end -12V 
<S> 10 mA for operation. Features 60 keys generete the 
126 cherecters, upper end lower case ASCII set. Fully 
buffered. Two uaer-define keys provided for custom 
applications. Caps lock for upper case only alphe cherec- 
ters. Utilizes e 2376 (40-pin) encoder reed-only memory 
chip. Outputs directly competible with TTL/DTL or 
MOS logic arrays Eesy interfecing with e 16-pin dip or 
18-pin edge connector. Size: 3>4"H x 14Vi"W * 8VD 

JE610/DTE-AK Jtiftu'rVSnXli $124.95 



62-Key Keyboard, PC Board, 
!• Components (no case). . . 



JE610 Kit 

K62 62-Key Keyboard (Keyboard only) 
DTE-AK (case only - 3¥t"Hxll"Wx8* 



$ 

..$ 
D)$ 



79.95 
34.95 
49.95 



a/VUVvVl. JE212 - Negative 12VDC Adapter Board Kit 
rNEVV!? for JE610 ASCII KEYBOARD KIT n _ 

Twvvvf Provides -12V DC from IncomlngSVDC . .59.95 



JE600 
Hexadecimal Encoder Kit 




FULL 8 BIT- 
LATCHED OUTPUT 
19 KEY KEYBOARD 



The JE600 Encoder Keyboerd Kit provides two aeperete 
hexadecimal digits produced from sequential key entriea 
to allow direct progremming for 8-bit mlcroproceaaor 
or 8-bit memory circuita. Three eddltionel keys ere pro- 
vided for user operetions with one hevlng e biatable 
output available The outputa are letched end monitored 
with 9 LEO reedouta. Also included la a key entry strobe. 
Feetures: Full 8-bit letched output for microprocessor 
use. Three user-define keys with one being bisteble 
operetlon. Oebounce circuit provided for ell 19 keys. 
9 LED reedouts to verify entries. Eesy interfecing with 
stenderd 16-pln IC connector. Only +5VDC required 
for operetlon. Size: 3H"H x 8V."W x 8K"D 

(After assembled $99.95 



JE600/DTE-HK at pictured above) 



ir-^rkrk **•- W-Key Hexadec. Keyboard. 
JEoOU Kit PC Board 6 Cmpnts. (no case) . 

K19 19-Key Keyboard (Keyboard only) 

DTE-HK (case only -3VHx6W"Wx6*"D) 



$59.95 
$14.95 

$44.95. 



1 58 Microcomputing, January 1982 



(HI 



7400 



^M 



SN7400N 

SN7401N 

SN7402N 

SN7403N 

SN7404N 

SN7405N 

SN7406N 

SN7407N 

SN7408N 

SN7409N 

SN7410N 

SN7411N 

SN7412N 

SN7413N 

SN7414N 

SN7416N 

SN7417N 

SN7420N 

SN7421N 

SN7422N 

SN7423N 

SN7425N 

SN7426N 

SN7427N 

SN7428N 

SN7430N 

SN7432N 

SN7437N 

SN7438N 

SN7439N 

SN7440N 

SN7441N 

SN/442N 

SN7443N 

SN7444N 

SN744SN 

SN7446N 

SN7447N 

SN7448N 

SN74S0N 

SN7451N 

SN7453N 

SN7454N 

SN7459A 

SN7460N 

SN7470N 



.20 
.20 
.25 
.25 
.25 
.29 
.35 
.36 
.29 
.29 
.25 
.29 
.35 
.40 
.69 
.29 
.29 
.25 
.29 
.45 
.29 
.29 
.29 
.25 
.49 
.25 
.29 
.25 
.40 
.25 
.20 
.89 
.59 
1.10 
1.10 
.89 
.79 
.69 
.79 
.20 
.20 
.20 
.20 
.25 
.20 
.29 



SN7472N 

SN7473N 

SN7474N 

SN7475N 

SN7476N 

SN7479N 

SN7480N 

SN7482N 

SN7483N 

SN748SN 

SN7486N 

SN7489N 

SN7490N 

SN7491N 

SN7492N 

SN7493N 

SN7494N 

SN7495N 

SN7496N 

SN7497N 

SN74100N 

SN74104N 

SN74105N 

SN74107N 

SN74109N 

SN74U6N 

SN 74121 N 

SN74122N 

SN 74123 N 

SN 74125 N 

SN74126N 

SN74132N 

SN74136N 

SN 74141 N 

SN74142N 

SN 74143 N 

SN74144N 

SN7414SN 

SN74147N 

SN74148N 

SN74150N 

SN 74151 N 

SN74152N 

SN741S3N 

SN74154N 

SN74155N 



.29 
.35 
.35 
.49 
.35 
5.00 
.50 
.99 
.69 
.89 
.35 
1.75 
.49 
.59 
.45 
.45 
.69 
.69 
.69 

3.00 

1.49 
.89 
.89 
.35 
.39 

1.95 
.39 
.55 
.59 
.49 
.49 
.75 
.75 
.99 

3.25 

3.49 

3.49 
.79 

1.95 

1.29 

1.25 
.69 
.69 
.79 

1.25 
.79 



SN74156N 

SN74157N 

SN74160N 

SN74161N 

SN74162N 

SN74163N 

SN74164N 

SN74165N 

SN74166N 

SN74167N 

SN74170N 

SN74172N 

SN74173N 

SN74174N 

SN74175N 

SN74176N 

SN74177N 

SN74179N 

SN74180N 

SN 74181 N 

SN74182N 

SN74184N 

SN74185N 

SN74190N 

SN74191N 

SN74192N 

SN74193N 

SN74194N 

SN74195N 

SN74196N 

SN74197N 

SN74196N 

SN74199N 

S N 74221 N 

SN 74251 N 

SN 74276 N 

SN74279N 

SN 74283 N 

SN74284N 

SN74285N 

SN 74365 N 

SN74366N 

SN74367N 

SN74368N 

SN74390N 

SN 74393 N 



.79 
.69 
.89 
.89 
.89 
.89 
.89 
.89 
1.25 
2.79 
1.95 
4.95 
1.39 
.99 
.89 
.79 
.79 
1.49 
.79 
2.25 
.79 
2.49 
2.49 
1.25 
1.25 
.89 
.89 
.89 
.69 
.89 
.89 
1.49 
1.49 
1.25 
.99 
1.95 
.79 
1.49 
3.95 
3.95 
.69 
.69 
.69 
.69 
1.49 
1.49 



74LSO0 

74LS01 

74LS02 

74LS03 

74LS04 

74LS06 

74LS08 

74LS09 

74LS10 

74LS11 

74LS12 

74LS13 

74LS14 

74LS15 

74LS20 

74LS21 

74LS22 

74LS26 

74LS27 

74LS28 

74LS30 

74LS32 

74LS33 

74LS37 

74LS38 

74LS40 

74LS42 

74LS47 

MLS4S 

74L.S49 

74LS51 

74LS54 

74LS55 

74LS73 

74LS74 

74LS75 

74LS76 

74L.S78 

74LS83 

74LS85 

74LS86 

74LS90 



.29 
.29 
.29 
.29 
.35 
.35 
.35 
.35 
.35 
.39 
.35 
.59 
.99 
.35 
.35 
.35 
.35 
.35 
.35 
.35 
.35 
.35 
.59 
.45 
.39 
.35 
.89 
.89 

1.15 

1.15 

.35 

.35 

.35 

.45 

.45 

.59 

.45 

.49 

.89 
1.26 

.49 

.69 



74LS 



74LS92 


.75 


74LS93 


.75 


74LS95 


.99 


74LS96 


1.15 


74LS107 


.45 


74LS109 


.45 


74 LSI 12 


.45 


74LS113 


.49 


74LS114 


.49 


74LS122 


.89 


74LS123 


1.25 


74LS125 


.59 


74LS126 


.59 


74LS132 


.99 


74LS133 


.89 


74LS136 


.49 


74LS138 


.89 


74LS139 


.89 


74LS151 


.89 


74LS153 


.89 


74LS154 


1.75 


74LS155 


.89 


74LS156 


.89 


74LS157 


.89 


74LS158 


.89 


74LS160 


1.15 


74LS161 


1.15 


74LS162 


1.15 


74LS163 


1.15 


74LS164 


1.15 


74LS165 


1.15 


74LS168 


1.19 


74LS169 


1.19 


74LS170 


1.95 


74LS173 


.99 


74LS174 


.99 


74LS175 


.99 


74LS181 


2.95 


74LS190 


1.2S 


74LS191 


1.25 



74LS192 


1.15 


74LS193 


1.15 


74LS194 


1.15 


74LS195 


1.15 


74LS197 


1.19 


74LS221 


1.19 


74LS240 


1.49 


74LS241 


1.49 


74LS242 


1.49 


74LS243 


1.49 


74LS244 


1.49 


74LS245 


2.95 


74LS247 


1.19 


74LS248 


1.19 


74LS249 


1.19 


74LS251 


.99 


74LS253 


.99 


74LS257 


.89 


74LS2S8 


.69 


74LS260 


.69 


74US266 


.69 


74LS273 


1.95 


74LS279 


.89 


74LS283 


.89 


74LS290 


.99 


74LS293 


.99 


74LS298 


1.25 


74LS352 


1.29 


74LS353 


1.29 


74LS365 


.69 


74LS366 


.69 


74LS367 


.69 


74LS368 


.69 


74LS373 


1.95 


74LS374 


1.95 


74LS375 


89 


74LS386 


.69 


74LS393 


2.49 


74LS399 


2.49 


74LS670 


2.49 


81LS95 


1.95 


81LS97 


1.95 



74SO0 

74S02 

74S03 

74S04 

74S05 

74S06 

74S09 

74S10 

74S11 

74S15 

74S20 

74S22 

74S30 

74S32 

74S38 

74S40 

74S51 

74S64 

74S65 

74S74 

74S86 

74S112 

74S113 

74S114 



.45 
.45 
.45 
.55 
.55 
.50 
.50 
.45 
.45 
.45 
.45 
.45 
.45 
.55 
1.25 
.50 
.45 
.50 
.50 
.75 
.79 
.79 
.79 
.79 



74S 



74S124 

74S133 

74S134 

74S135 

74S136 

74S138 

74S139 

74S140 

74S151 

74S153 

74S157 

74S158 

74S160 

74S174 

74S175 

74S188 

74S194 

74S195 

74S196 

74S240 

74S241 

74S242 



3.95 

.55 

.69 

1.19 

1.75 

1.35 

1.35 

.79 

1.35 

1.35 

1.35 

1.35 

2.95 

1.59 

1.59 

2.95 

1.95 

1.95 

1.95 

2.9S 

2.95 

3.25 



74S243 

74S244 

74S251 

74S253 

74S2S7 

74S258 

74S260 

74S280 

74S287 

74S288 

74S373 

74S374 

74S387 

74S471 

74S472 

74S473 

74S474 

74S475 

74S570 

74S571 

74S572 

74S573 

74S940 

74S941 



CA3010H 
CA3013H 
CA3023H 
CA3035H 
CA3039H 
CA3046N 
CA30S9N 



.99 
2.15 
3.25 
2.49 
1.35 
1.30 
3.25 



CA-LINEAR 



CA3060N 


3.25 


CA3080H 


1.25 


CA3081N 


2.00 


CA3082N 


2.00 


CA3083N 


1.60 


CA30B6N 


.85 



CA3089N 
CA3096N 
CA3130H 
CA3140H 
CA3160H 
CA3401N 
CA3600N 



CD4000 


.39 






CO 40% 


2.49 


CD4001 
CD4002 


.39 
.39 


CD- 


CMOS 


CD4506 
CD4507 


.75 
.99 


CD4006 


1.19 


CD4041 


1.49 


CD4508 


3.95 


CO4007 


.25 


CO4042 


.99 


CD4510 


1.39 


CD4009 


.49 


CD4043 


.89 


CD4511 


1.29 


CO4010 


.49 


CO4044 


.89 


CD4512 


1.49 


CD4011 


.39 


CD4046 


1.79 


CD4514 


3.95 


CO4012 


.25 


CO4047 


2.50 


CD4515 


2.95 


CO4013 


.49 


1 CD4048 


1.3S 


C CM 5 16 


1.49 


CD4014 


1.39 


CD4049 


.49 


CD4S18 


1.79 


CO4015 


1.19 


CO4050 


.69 


CD4519 


.89 


CO4016 


.59 


CD4051 


1.19 


CD4520 


1.29 


CO4017 


1.19 


CO4052 


1.19 


CD4526 


1.79 


CO4018 


.99 


CO4053 


1.19 


C04528 


1.79 


CO4019 


.49 


CD4056 


2.95 


CD4529 


1.95 


CO4020 


1.19 


CD4059 


9.95 


CD4543 


2.79 


CO4021 


1.39 


CD4060 


1.49 


C04562 


11.95 


CD4022 


1.19 


CD4066 


.79 


CD4S66 


2.79 


CO4023 


.29 


CD4068 


.39 


CD4583 


2.49 


CO4024 


.79 


CD4069 


.45 


C04S84 


.75 


CO4025 


.23 


CD4070 


.55 


CD4723 


1.95 


CO4026 


2.95 


CO4071 


.49 


CD4724 


1.95 


CD4027 


.69 


CO4072 


.49 


MC14409 


17.95 


CD4028 


.89 


CD4073 


.39 


MC14410 


18.95 


CD4029 


1.49 


CD4075 


.39 


MC14411 


15.95 


CD4030 


.49 


CD4076 


1.39 


MC14412 


15 95 


CD4034 


3.49 


CD4078 


.55 


MC14419 


7.95 


CD4035 


.99 


CD4081 


.39 


MC 14433 


15 95 


CD4040 


1.49 


CD4082 


.39 


MC 14538 


2.49 


^ 




CD4093 


.99 


MC14541 


1.95 



( Jrhtf aflLnmrn 




At Seen on "Good Morning America" 

Replaces the Telephone Ringer Bell 
with a Selection of 30 Familiar Tunes 




Telephone 



PT030 Wall Jack 



• Rule Brittania 
• O Canada 

• Colonel Bogey 

• Westminister Chimes 

• Mexican Hat Dance 

• Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star 

• Deutschlandlied 

• God Save the Queen 



Eech Unit will play any ol the following tunes: 



• Close Encounters 

• Happy Birthday 

• Wedding March 

• Jingle Bells 

• Auld Lang Syne 

• Soldiers Chorus 
Sailor's Hornpipe 



1 Charge! 



• Greensleeves • Pomp & Circumstance 

• Lorelei • William Tell Overture 

• Eyes of Texas • Bach Toccata In D Minor 

• Star Spangled Banner • Shave and a Haircut 

• Oranges and Lemons • Blue Danube Waltz 

• Wilhelmus • Beethoven's 5th 

• Mozart Sonata • La Marseillaise 



FEATURES 



22!n22L ^ n ? ,on K US ,ele P h ? ne rin 0« r t>«"- Easily connects to any standard telephone. Can be used 

rd fl r;rtt^ 

^^iss^^tff^^^uadr con,ro1 and variable ,une speed con,v s^su'srso 

PT030 Phone Tunes $40 05 

AD30 AC Adapter .' I .' .' 1 1 ! .' .' .' I ! . $8!95 



DISCRETE LEDS 



XC556R 

XC556G 

XC556Y 

XC556C 

XC22R 

XC22G 

XC22Y 

MV10B 



.200" red 
.200" green 
.200" yellow 
.200" clear 
.200" red 
.200" green 
.200" yellow 
.170" red 



5/$l 
4/$l 
4/$l 
4/$l 
5/$l 
4/$l 
4/$l 
4/$l 



MV50 

XC209R 

XC209G 

XC209Y 

XC526R 

XC526G 

XC526Y 

XC526C 




.085" red 
.125" red 
.125" green 
.125" yellow 
.185" red 
.185" green 
.185" yellow 
.185" clear 



6/$l 
5/$l 
4/$l 
4/$l 
5/51 
4/$l 
4/$l 
4/$l 



C.A. — Common Anode 
D.D. — Double Digit 



■200(TIV4) Red/Green 



Diffused Bi-Color LED 
Part No. 1-99 1QQ+ 



XC5491 



.79 



.69 



XCSM RED LED, METAL 
"TO. HOW. 2-«" LEADS 



RL-2 . . $.39 ea. or 3/$ 1.00 



Type 

MAN 1 
MAN 2 
MAN 3 
MAN 52 
MAN 54 
MAN 71 
MAN 72 
MAN 74 
MAN 82 
MAN 84 
MAN 3620 
MAN 3630 
MAN 3640 
MAN 4610 
MAN 6610 
MAN 6630 
MAN 6640 
MAN 6650 
MAN 6660 
MAN 6710 
MAN 6740 
MAN 6750 
DLO304 
DLO307 
DLGSOO 



Polarity 
C.A.— red 
5x7 D.M.— red 
C.C.— red 
C. A.— green 
C.C.— green 
C.A.— red 
C.A.— red 
C.C.— red 
C. A.— yellow 
C.C.— yellow 
C.A. —orange 
C. A.— orange ± 1 
C.C.— orange 
C. A.— orange 
C.A.— orange— DD 
C. A.— orange ± 1 
C.C.— orange— DD 
C.C.— orange ± 1 
C.A. —orange 
C.A.— red— DD 
C.C.— red — DD 
C.C.— red ± 1 
C.C. — orange 
C.A. —orange 
C.C— green 



Ht 

.270 

.300 

.125 

.300 

.300 

.300 

.300 

.300 

.300 

.300 

.300 

.300 

.300 

.400 

.560 

.560 

.560 

.560 

.560 

.560 

.560 

.560 

.300 

.300 

.500 



DISPLAY LEDS 



Price 
2.95 
4.95 
.25 
.99 
.99 
.75 
.75 
1.25 
.49 
.99 
.49 
.99 
.99 
.99 
.99 
.99 
.99 
.99 
.99 
.99 
.99 
.99 

1.25 
1.2S 

1.25 



C.C. - 

RHD 



Common Cathode 
Right Hand Decimal 



Type Polarity Ht Price 

DLG507 C.A.— green .500 1.25 

DL704 C.C— red .300 1.25 

DL707 C.A.— red .300 1.25 

DL728 C.C— red .500 1.49 

DL741 C.A.— red .600 1.25 

DL747 C.A.— red .600 1.49 

DL750 C.C— red .600 1.49 

DL0847 CA.-orange .800 149 

DLO850 CC-orange .800 1*49 

DL33B CC-red .no .35 

FND358 C.C. ± 1 .357 99 

FND357 c.C .357 75 

FND500 c.C (FND503) .500 '99 

FND507 C.A. (FND510) .500 .99 

HDSP-3401 CA.-red .800 1.50 

HDSP-3403 C.C— red 800 1 50 

HDSP-3406 C.C red +1 800 1*50 

5082-7751 CA..R.H.D.-red .430 l.*25 

5082-7760 C.C.R.H.D.— red .430 1.25 

5082-7300 4x/ Numeric (RHD). 600 22 00 

5082-7302 4x7Numeric(LHD).6O0 22 00 

5082-7340 4x7Hxdcl.(0-9/A-F) .600 22 50 

4N28 Photo XsistorOpto-lsol. .69 

LIT-1 Photo Xsistor Opto-lsol. 69 

MOC3010 Optically Isol.Triac Driver 1.25 




MFO 



WVDC PRICE 



COMPUTER GRADE CAPACITORS 



2S0 
500 

1750 
1.500 
1.500 
2000 
??50 
2 300 

2 500 

3 000 
3 600 
4.500 
5 500 
6.100 
6.(00 



150 
200 
3 
25 
SO 
10 

loo 
33 
is 

25 
40 
SO 

n 

*t 

so 



1.H 
241 

n 

1 95 
2.H 

2 95 

3 95 
2 95 

2 95 
1.M 

3 95 

3 95 
449 
2 49 

4 95 



MFD 



WVDC PRICE 



10000 
10.000 

11.100 

11 000 

11 000 
13000 
14000 
14.000 
11.000 
20.000 
20.000 
21.000 
23.000 
23.000 
230 



IS 
16 
II 
55 
60 
10 
13 
35 
10 
20 

ss 

IS 
7 

10 
20 



2 95 

3 95 

4 95 

5 49 
5 95 
219 
209 
3 95 
3 95 
219 
3(9 
3 95 
1 95 
795 
3(9 



MFD 



WVDC PRICE 



24.000 
27.000 
32.500 
40.000 
43 000 
90.000 
92.000 
55.000 
56.000 
69.000 
73600 
10.000 
90.000 
160 000 
200 000 



20 
10 
25 
25 
10 
20 
20 
19 
20 
10 

S 
19 
10 
10 

3 



OVER 200 OTHER VALUES AVAILABLE - CALL OR WRITE FOR YOUR REQUIREMENT 



2(9 
2(9 

4 95 
9(9 
9(9 
7(9 
9(9 
9(9 

5 95 
7(9 
7(9 
9 95 
6(9 
1(9 

12(5 



II I N I I 



LOW PROFILE 
(TIN) SOCKETS 



1-24 



25-49 



50-100 



8 pin LP 
14 pin LP 
16 pin LP 
18 pin LP 
20 pin LP 
22 pin LP 
24 pin LP 
28 pin LP 
36 pin LP 
40 pin LP 



.17 
.20 
.22 
.29 
.34 
.37 
.38 
.45 
.60 
.63 



.16 
.19 
.21 
.28 
.32 
.36 
.37 
.44 
.59 
.62 



.15 
.18 
.20 
.27 
.30 
.35 
.36 
.43 
.58 
.61 



TrrrTrr 



SOLDERTAIL 
STANDARD (TIN) 



1-24 



TrTrnT 



8 pin SG 
14 pin SG 
16 pin SG 
18 pin SG 
24 pin SG 
28 pin SG 
36 pin SG 
40 pin SG 



SOLDERTAIL (GOLD) 
STANDARD 



1-24 



25-49 



50-100 



.39 
.49 
.54 

.59 

.79 

1.10 

1.65 

1.75 



.35 

.45 

.49 

.53 

.75 

1.00 

1.40 

1.59 



.31 
.41 
.44 
.48 
.69 
.90 
1.26 
1.45 



14 pin ST 
16 pin ST 
18 pin ST 
24 pin ST 
28 pin ST 
36 pin ST 
40 pin ST 



25-49 



50-100 



.27 
.30 
.35 
.49 
.99 
1.39 
1.59 



.25 
.27 
.32 
.45 
.90 
1.26 
1.45 



.24 

25 

.30 

.42 

.81 

1.15 

1.30 




WIRE WRAP SOCKETS 
(GOLD) LEVEL #3 



1-24 



25-49 



8 pin 
10 pin 
14 pin 
16 pin 
18 pin 
20 pin 
22 pin 
24 pin 
28 pin 
36 pin 
40 pin 



WW 
WW 
WW 
WW 
WW 
WW 
WW 
WW 
WW 
WW 
WW 



.59 

.69 

.79 

.85 

.99 

1.19 

1.49 

1.39 

1.69 

2.19 

2.29 



.54 

.63 

.73 

.77 

.90 

1.08 

1.35 

1.26 

1.53 

1.99 

2.09 



50-100 
.49 
.58 
.67 
.70 
.81 
.99 

1.23 

1.14 

1.38 

1.79 

1.89 



1/4 WATT RESISTOR ASSORTMENTS -5% 



ASST. 1 5ea. 



10 Ohm 12 Ohm 15 Ohm 18 Ohm 22 Ohm 
27 Ohm 33 Ohm 39 Ohm 47 Ohm 56 Ohm 



ASST. 2 5ea. 



68 Ohm 82 Ohm 100 Ohm 120 Ohm 150 Ohm 
180 Ohm 220 Ohm 270 Ohm 330 Ohm 390 Ohm 



ASST. 3 5ea. 



470 Ohm 560 Ohm 680 Ohm 820 Ohm IK 
12K 1.5K 1.8K 2.2K 2.7K 



50 pes. $1.95 
SOpce . $1.95 
50 pes. $1.95 



ASST. 4 5ea. 
ASST. 5 |om 



3.3K 
8.2K 



3.9K 

10K 



4.7K 
12K 



S.6K 
15K 



6.8 K 
18K 



22K 

56K 



27K 
68K 



50pcs. $1.95 



33K 
82K 



39K 

100K 



47K 
120K 



ASST. 6 5ea. 



150K 
390 K 



180K 
470K 



220K 
S60K 



270K 
680K 



330K 
820K 



50 pcs. $1.95 

50 P c$. $1.95 



Part No. 

7045IPI 

7045EV/KU* 

7106CPL 

7106EV/Klt* 

7107CPL 

7107EV/Kit« 

7116CPL 

7117CPL 

7201 1 DR 

7205IPG 

7205EV/KU* 

7206CJPE 

7206CEV/KU* 

7207 A I PD 

7207AEV/KU* 

7208IPI 
72091 PA 
7215 1 PG 

7215EV/Klt* 

7216AIJI 

7216CIJI 

7216DIPI 

7217IJI 

7218CIJI 

7224 1 PL 

7226AIJL 

7226AEV/Klt* 

7240IJE 

7242 IJ A 

7250UE 

7260IJE 

7555 1 PA 

7556IPD 

7611 BCP A 

7612BCPA 

7621 BCP A 

7631CCPE 

7641CCPD 

7642CCPD 

7660CPA 

8038CCPD 

8048CCPE 

8069CCQ 

8211CPA 

8212CPA 



DIMnjlir^E ^ 

Function Price 

CMOS Precision Timer 14.95 

Stopwatch Chip, XTL 24.95 

3Vi Digit A/D (LCD Drive) 16.95 

IC, Circuit Board, Display 34.95 

3% Digit A/D (LED Drive) 15.95 

IC, Circuit Board, Display 29 95 

3V2 Digit A/D LCD Dls. HLD. 18.95 

3Vi Digit A/D LED Dls. HLD. 17.95 

Low Battery Volt Indicator 2.25 

CMOS LED Stopwatch/Timer 12.95 

Stopwatch Chip, XTL 19.96 

Tone Generator 5.15 

Tone Generator Chip, XTL 12^95 

Oscillator Controller 6.50 

Freq. Counter Chip, XTL 13.95 

Seven Decade Counter 17.95 

Clock Generator 3.95 

4 Func. CMOS Stopwatch CKT 13^95 

4 Func. Stopwatch Chip, XTL 19.95 
8-Diglt Univ. Counter C.A. 32.00 
8-Dlgit Freq. Counter C.A. 26.95 
8-Diglt Freq. Counter C.C 21.95 
4-Diglt LED Up/Down Counter 12 95 
8-Diglt Univ. LED Drive 10.95 
LCD 4Vt Digit Up Counter DRI 11.25 
8-Digit Univ. Counter 31.95 

5 Function Counter Chip, XTL 74.95 
CMOS Bin Prog. Timer/Counter 4.95 
CMOS Dlvide-by-256 RC Timer 2.05 
CMOS BCD Prog. Timer/Counter 6.00 
CMOS BCD Prog. Timer/Counter 5.2S 
CMOS 555 Timer (8 pin) 145 
CMOS SS6 Timer (14 pin) 2.20 
CMOS Op Amp Comparator 5MV 2.25 
CMOS Op Amp Ext. Cmvr. 5MV 2.95 
CMOS Dual Op Amp Comp. 5MV 3.95 
CMOS Trl Op Amp Comp. 10MV 5.35 
CMOS Quad Op Amp Comp. 10MV 7.50 
CMOS Quad Op Amp Comp. 10MV 7.50 
Voltage Converter 2 95 
Waveform Generator 4^95 
Monolithic Logarithmic Amp 21 60 
50ppm Band— GAP Volt Ref. Diode 2 50 
Volt Ref/lndlcator 2 95 
Volt Ref/lndicator 2*95 



74C00 
74C02 
74C04 
74C08 
74C10 
74C14 
74C20 
74C30 
74C42 
74C48 
74C73 
74C74 
74C85 
74C86 
74C89 
74C90 
74C93 



.39 

.39 

.39 

.39 

.39 

.75 

.39 

.39 

1.39 

1.95 

.79 

.79 

1.95 

.99 

6.95 

1.29 

1.29 



74C95 

74C107 

74C151 

74C154 

74C157 

74C160 

74C161 

74 C 162 

74C163 

74C164 

74C173 

74C174 

74C175 

74C192 

74C193 

74C195 



74C 



1.59 

1.89 
2.95 
3.95 
2.25 
1.69 
1.60 
1.49 
1.69 
1.59 
1.39 
1.39 
1.19 
1.69 
1.69 
1.59 



74C221 

74C240 

74C244 

74C373 

74C374 

74C901 

74C903 

74C911 

74C912 

74C915 

74C917 

74C922 

74C923 

74C925 

74C926 

80C9S 

80C97 



1.95 

2.25 

2.25 

2.49 

2.59 

.69 

.69 

10.95 

10.95 

1.69 

10.95 

5.49 

5.75 

7.50 

7.50 

.79 

.79 



LH0002CN 

LM10CLH 

LM11CLH 

LH0070-OH 

TL071CP 

TL072CP 

TL074CN 

LH0082CD 

TL082CP 

TL064CN 

LH0094CD 

LM300H 

LM301CN 

LM302H 

LM304H 

LM305H 

LM307CN 

LM308CN 

LM309H 

LM309K 

LM310CN 

LM311/CN 

LM312H 

LM317MP 

LM317T 

LM317K 

LM318CN 

LM319N 

LM320K-5 

LM320K-12 

LM320K-15 

LM320T-5 

LM320T-12 

LM320T-15 

LM323K 

LM324N 

LM329DZ 

LM331N 

LM334Z 

LM335Z 

LM336Z 

LM337T 

LM337MP 

LM338K 

LM339N 

LM340K-5 

LM340K-12 

LM340K-15 



6.85 
4.50 


LINEAR 


4.75 


LM340T-5 


1.25 


4.95 


LM340T-12 


1.25 


.79 


LM340T-15 


1.25 


1.39 


LM341P-5 


.75 


2.49 


LM341P-12 


.75 


35.80 


LM341P-15 


.75 


1.19 


LM342P-5 


.69 


2.19 


LM342P-12 


.69 


36.80 


LM342P-15 


.69 


.99 


LM348N 


1.25 


.35 


LM350K 


5.75 


1.95 


LF351N 


.60 


1.95 


LF3S3N 


1.00 


.99 


LF355N 


1.10 


.45 


LF356N 


1.10 


1.00 


LM358N 


1.00 


1.95 


LM3S9N 


1.79 


1.25 


LM370N 


4.49 


1.75 


LM373N 


3.25 


.90 


LM377N 


2.95 


2.49 


LM380N 


1.25 


1.15 


LM381N 


1.95 


1.75 


LM382N 


1.79 


3.95 


LM384N 


1.95 


1.95 


LM386N-3 


1.29 


1.95 


LM387N 


1.45 


1.35 


LM389N 


1.3S 


1.35 


LM392N 


.69 


1.35 


LF398N 


4.00 


1.25 


LM399H 


5.00 


1.25 


TL494CN 


4.49 


1.25 


TL496CP 


1.75 


5.95 


NE510A 


6.00 


.99 


NE529A 


4.95 


.65 


NE531H 


3.95 


3.95 


NE536H 


6.00 


1.30 


NE540H 


6.00 


1.40 


NE544N 


4.95 


1.75 


NE550A 


1.30 


1.95 


NE555V 


.39 


1.15 


LM556N 


.99 


6.95 


NE564N 


3.95 


.99 


LMS65N 


1.25 


1.35 


LM566CN 


1.95 


1.3S 


LM567V 


1.25 


1.35 J 


NE570N 


4.95 



LM702H 

LM703CN 

LM709N 

LM710N 

LM711N 

LM723N 

LM733N 

LM739N 

LM741CN 



.79 
.89 
.29 
.79 
.79 
.69 
1.00 
1.19 
.35 



MC1741SCG 3.00 



LM747N 

LM748N 

LM1014N 

LM1310N 

LM1458CN 

LM1488N 

LM1489N 

LM1496N 

LM1556V 

LM1800N 

LM1871N 

LM1872N 

LM1877N-9 

LM1889N 

LM1896N 

LM2002T 

LM2877P 

LM2878P 

LM2896P-1 

LM3189N 

LM3900N 

LM3905CN 

LM3909N 

LM3914N 

LM391SN 

LM3916N 

RC4136N 

RC4151NB 

RC4194TK 

RC4195TK 

LM4500A 

ICL8038B 

LM13080N 

LM13600N 

75138N 

75450 N 

75451CN 

75492 



.79 

.59 
2.75 
1.95 

.59 
1.25 
1.25 
1.95 
1.75 
2.95 
5.49 
5.49 
3.25 
3.20 
1.75 
1.49 
2.05 
2.25 
2.25 
2.95 

.69 
1.2S 
1.15 
3.95 
3.95 
3.95 
1.25 
3.95 
6.95 
5.49 
3.25 
4.95 
1.29 
1.49 
1.95 
.89 
.39 
.89 



CAPACITOR CORNER 



Value 
10 pf 
22 pf 
47 pf 

100 pf 
220 pf 
470 pf 



50 VOLT CERAMIC DISC CAPACITORS 



1-9 
.08 
.08 
.08 
.08 
.08 
.08 



10-99 
.06 
.06 
.06 
.06 
.06 
.06 



100+ 

.06 

.05 

.05 

.05 

.05 

.05 



Value 
.OOImF 
.004 7uF 
.01/iF 

.022^ F 
.047uF 

IMF 



1-9 
.08 
.08 
.08 
.09 
.09 
.15 



10-99 

.06 

.06 

.06 

.07 

.07 

.12 



.OOlmf 
.0O22mf 
.0O47mf 
.Olrnf 



100 VOLT MYLAR FILM CAPACITORS 



.12 
.12 
.12 

.12 



.10 
.10 
.10 
.10 



.07 
.07 
.07 
.07 



022m f 
.047mf 
.lmf 

22mf 



.13 
.21 
.27 
.33 



.11 
.17 
.23 

.27 



100+ 

.05 

.05 

.05 

.06 

.06 

.10 

.08 
.13 
.17 
.22 



+20% DIPPED TANTALUMS (Solid) CAPACITORS 



ASST. 7 5ea. 



1M 
2.7M 



1.2M 
3.3M 



1.5M 
3.9M 



1.8M 
4.7M 



2.2M 
5.6M 



ASST. 8R 



50pcs. $1.95 



Includes Resistor Assts. 1-7 (350 pes.) $10.95 ea. 



$10.00 Min. Order - U.S. Funds Only 
Calif. Residents Add 6% Sales Tax 
Postage- Add 5% plus $1.50 Insurance 



^41 





1/82 



ameco 



ELECTRONICS 



MAIL ORDER ELECTRONICS - WORLDWIDE 

1355 SHOREWAY ROAD, BELMONT, CA 94002 
PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE 



Spec Sheets - 254 

Send 864 Postage for your 

FREE 1982 JAM ECO CATALOG 

PHONE 

ORDERS 

WELCOME 

(415) 592 8097 



.1/35V 
. 15/35 V 
. 22/35 V 
. 33/35 V 
.47/35V 
.68/35 V 
1.0/35V 



.39 
.39 
.39 
.39 
.39 
.39 
.39 



.34 
.34 
.34 
.34 
.34 
.34 
.34 



.29 
.29 
.29 
.29 
.29 
.29 
.29 



1.5/35V 

2.2/35V 

3.3/25V 

4. 7/25 V 

6.8/25V 

15/25V 

22/6V 



.41 
.51 
.53 
.63 
.79 
1.39 
.79 



.37 
.45 
.47 
.56 
.69 
1.25 
.69 



.29 
.34 
.37 
.45 
.55 
.95 
.55 



MINI. ALUMINUM ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITORS 



Axial 

.47/50V 

1.0/S0V 

3. 3/50 V 

4.7/25V 

10/25V 

10/50V 

22/25V 

22/50V 

47/25V 

47/S0V 

100/25 V 

100/50V 

220/2SV 

220/SOV 

470/25V 

1000/16V 

2200/16V 



1-99 
.16 
.19 
.17 
.18 
.18 
.19 
.19 
.24 
.25 
.29 
.28 
.41 
.39 
.49 
.54 
.79 
.89 



100-499 500+ Radial 1-99 100-499 500+ 



.14 


.10 


.47/25V 


.15 


.13 


.12 


.16 


.12 


.47/SOV 


.16 


.14 


.13 


.16 


.11 


1.0/16V 


.15 


.13 


.12 


.15 


.11 


1.0/25V 


.16 


.14 


.13 


.15 


.11 


1.0/50V 


.17 


.15 


.14 


.16 


.12 


4. 7/16 V 


.15 


.13 


.12 


.16 


.12 


4. 7/25 V 


.16 


.14 


.13 


.20 


.18 


4. 7/50 V 
10/16V 


.17 


.15 


.14 


.21 


.19 


.15 


.13 


.12 


.25 


.23 


10/25V 


.16 


.14 


.13 


.24 


.22 


10/50V 


.17 


.15 


.14 


.37 


.34 


47/50V 


.25 


.21 


.19 


.34 


.33 


100/16V 


.21 


.17 


.14 


.45 


.41 


100/25 V 


.25 


.23 


.21 


.49 


.45 


100/50V 


.37 


.34 


.31 


.69 


.61 


220/16V 


.25 


.21 


.19 


.79 


.69 


470/25V 


.35 


.31 


Jal 



t^See List of Advertisers on page 178 



Microcomputing, January 1982 159 



Why use their flexible discs: 

Athana, BASF, Control Data, Dysan, IBM, Maxell, Nashua, 
Scotch, Shugart, Syncom, 3M, Verbatim or Wabash 

when you could be using 




for as low as $1.94 each? 

Find the flexible disc you're now using on our cross reference list... 

then write down the equivalent Memorex part number you should be ordering. 



Piodutt F#m.l F 


■ toduil DeiCiiption 


Memoiea 

.ail Hurnbe. 

(3201 > 


CE quant. 
100 pnc. 
par disc (•> 


Ativan* 


BASF 


Oyean 


IBM 


Ma. .11 


Mavnua 


Scotch 
3<t 


Ihuaul 


Syncom 


Veibel-n 


W aba ah 


Contiul 
Data 




Fm«i Oi*c ■• 

If. Headt-d StaVaM 
SingW Dcnvl, MrOa 


T.u^hbie life) Bb ?*> btH. 
ual'blc K?.B'S it - * •' N 
IBM Comuelibie 1 1 76 B'S 76 Seuo.v » * I- N 1 Hub King 
IBM (un.oei.bie < 1 76 B S 76 Seclwal RIVIHSIBK 
IBM System 6 Compalible 
IBM ( ompal'ble l?M> B'S li Sniwii 
IBM i.oiwietibie IS 17 B'S 6 Sedoial 
Shuoa'l Coinualible 37 He'd Sectoi 
Wang Compatible 17 Maid Sectoi » Hub Ring 
CPI noon Comi alible 


3060 
3067 
3064 

IIM 

3066 
3109 
3110 
3016 
308? 
304S 


1 99 
2.04 
239 
319 
2.04 
199 
1 99 

1 99 

2 49 
269 


47.MI/I 

4F30/7 
47307/ 
473073 
473074 
470901 


53476 

54431 
54561 

53807 

64491 


8O0SU6 

800509 
800584 
800585 

1011 


7305830 

1669959 
7305845 
1689954 


FDl 178 
(HI 37 


FD 1 
FO 7 

FD 13? 


740 
740 

740/7 
740 0OS6 
740 3600 

740 3? 

740 37HM 


S'A too 
S* 101 


1500? 

16150 
15003 
15005 
I5O04 
15075 

15776 


FD34 9O00 
FD34 9000 
F034 9O00 
II 14 9O00 
F 0*0 9000 
f 036 9000 
F090 9000 
f 03? 9000 


F1 1 1 1 1 IX 

F 1 71 1 1 IK 
F 1 161 1 !> 
F !!?! Il« 
Fl 131 1 t K 

F37A4I1X 


47160? 
4713?? 




F ■*•*•* Oik i« 

Vnyte Fietdcd Dtivev 
OoulM D*n».li M«d.4 


IBM Compatible (176 B'S 76 Sec KM a) 

Soli Sec km It 7B B'S 7* SecKMtl Rl VI '• 

Shugail Compatible 3? He'd SecHM 

Wang Compatible 37 Ha'd Secloi ej'Hub Ring 


30*0 
3093 
3091 
3008 


269 

369 
269 
309 


474071 
47OB0I 


54568 
54596 


3740' 10 

101 ID 


FOI I78/M7I0C 
FHI 370 


ID 10 


741 
741 3? 


S/A 103 


15076 


F034 8000 
F 33? 8000 


FI3II11H 
F33A4I1X 


47300? 
4733?? 




F ataaM* Oik >• 

Double Headed Diniii 
Sioye 0*n»>1> Media 


Soil Se. lo. 1176 B'S 76 SacUval 
SoH Seek* I7S6 B'S iSSeclonl 


3113 
3106 


3.09 
309 


473477 


54478 
54776 


B008I4 
80O8IS 


1766870 
7736700 


FD? 7560 




74? 


S A 150 


15153 
15154 


F010 4076 
FOIO 4015 


FI7I111H 
F127111I 


47461? 




FtoaaMa Owe Id 

Oouble Headed Ofivea 
Doubt* Denary Media 


Soil Secloi lunloi mailed' 
SoltSecKMl 17. B/S 76 SecKMal 
Soli Secloi 1 766 B'S 76 SecHxal 
Soil SecKM I 617 B'S 16 Secloial 
Soil Secto. 11074 BS 8 Secloul 

aid SecKM 
Bui.oughi B HO Compatible 17 Haid SecKM 
Soil Secloi 11074 B'S 8 Secloial » Hub Ring 
Shugail Compatible 37 Ha.d Sectoi 


3107 
3116 
3103 
3114 
3104 
3I0S 
3097 
3116 
3181 


309 
309 
309 
309 
309 
309 
3.09 
3 49 
339 


473485 

473471 
473477 
473473 
470861 


54375 
544 79 
54485 


DVISO 

800817 
8O08I6 
80O819 
101/70 


1766877 
1669044 
1669046 


FO? XOM 
ID/ 7560 

FH? 3?D 


FD TO 


74*0 

743 0/756 

743 0/51? 

74>0/IO?4 

743 3? 


S/A 150 
S/A 151 


15103 

15101 
15100 

tsto? 

16175 


0034 4001 

0O34 4076 

OO 34 4015 
0O34 40O8 
003? 4000 

0037 40O0 


M 441 1 IK 
F I45H IX 
FI471I1X 
F34A4IIK 
F34A611K 


47500? 

47560? 
475.1? 
47567? 
47537? 




FaaaaM* Oik FO 

Mrmoiei 6b I Of Iquiv 
Ofive Compel ib*e 


FO VI ivm,i Jacket) 


30717003 


269 


470851 




FOIV 


- 


- 


FD 165 


51 1 


- 


15076 


F066 1000 


FS1A111K 


- 




N»>I>.M Oik la 

t> . S.r.gu- Headed 

■Maj. 
Single Dtr'ia.t, Media 


Soil Secloi lUnloimalledl 

10 Ha.d Seclo' 

16 Hard Seem 

Soil Secloi lUnloimalledl « Hub Ring 

10 Maid Secloi » Hub Bmg 

16 Maid Secloi » Hub Ring 


3401 
3403 
3406 
3431 
3433 
34 35 


1 94 
1 94 

1 94 

2 14 
2.14 
2 14 


47SO01 
475010 
476016 


54756 
54757 
547S8 


104/1 
107/1 
IOS/1 


- 


M01 

MHI 


MO 1 
MO 110 
MO 116 


744 
744 10 
744 16 


8/ A 104 
S A 107 
S/A 106 


15300 
15375 
15376 


M0575 01 
M0575 10 
MD57S 16 
M0575 01 
M0675 10 
MD575 16 


UlrAttt* 
M41A711K 
M5IA7I1K 


44 > our 

44110? 
44116? 


HwFluMtDlK 1. 

I . Sn.ua- Headed 

Diiweft 
Double Denailv Media 


Soil SecKM lUnloimalledl 

10 Maid Secloi 

16 Haid SecKM 

Soli Secloi lUnloimalledl » Hub Ring 

10 Haid Secloi « Hub Ring 

16 Haid Sectoi * Hub Ring 


34W 
3418 
3419 
3481 
3483 
3486 


2 14 
2 14 
2 14 
2.34 
234 
234 


- 


54646 

54649 
5465? 


104/10 
107/10 
106/10 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


M0675 01 
MD576 10 
M0575 16 
M0576 01 
M0575 10 
MD576 18 




- 




Mu.. rieiaMe Oik Id 

■> . Oouble Headed 

Diiwea 
Double Oenaily Media 


Soil SecKM lUnloimalledl 

10 Haid SecKM 

16 Haid SecKM 

toll SecKM lUnloimalledl w'Hub Ring 

10 Haid Sectoi * Hub Ring 

16 Haid SecKM w Hub Ring 


3471 
3473 
34 7S 
3491 
3493 
3496 


259 
259 
2.59 
279 
279 
279 




54674 
54677 
54630 


104/70 
107/70 
106/ TO 


- 




- 




S/A 154 
S/A 157 
S/A 155 


- 


MOSSO-01 
MD5S0 10 
MD550 16 
M0650 01 
MD550 10 
M0550 16 




- 





Memorex Flexible Discs... The Ultimate in Memory Excellence 






Quality 

Memorex means quality products that you can depend on. 
Quali y control at Memorex means starting with the best 
materials available. Continual surveillance throughout the 
entire manufacturing process. The benefit of Memorex's years 
of experience in magnetic media production, resulting, for 
instance, in proprietary coating formulations. The most sophis- 
ticated testing procedures you'll find anywhere in the business. 

100 Percent Error Free 

Each and every Memorex Flexible Disc is certified to be 100 
percent error free. Each track of each flexible disc is tested, 
individually, to Memorex's stringent standards of excellence. 
They test signal amplitude, resolution, low-pass modulation, 
overwrite, missing pulse error and extra pulse error. They are 
torque-tested, and competitively tested on drives available 
from almost every major drive manufacturer in the industry 
including drives that Memorex manufacturers. Rigid quality 
audits are built into every step of the manufacturing process 
and stringent testing result in a standard of excellence that 
assures you, our customer, of a quality product designed for 
increased data reliability and consistent top performance. 

Customer-Oriented Packaging 

Memorex's commitment to excellence does not stop with a 
quality product. They are proud of their flexible discs and they 
package them with pride. Both their packaging and their 
labeling have been designed with your ease of identification 
and use in mind. The desk-top box containing ten discs is 
convenient for filing and storage. Both box labels and jacket 
labels provide full information on compatibility, density, sec- 
toring, and record length. Envelopes with multi-language care 
and handling instructions and color-coded removable labels 
are included. A write-protect feature is available to provide 
data security. 

Full One Year Warranty — Your Assurance of Quality 

Memorex Flexible Discs will be replaced by Memorex if they 
are found to be defective in materials or workmanship within 
one year of the date of purchase. Other than replacement, 
Memorex will not be responsible for any damages or losses 
(including consequential damages) caused by the use of 
Memorex Flexible Discs. 



Quantity Discounts Available 

Memorex Flexible Discs are packed 10 discs to a carton and 
10 cartons to a case. Please order only in increments of 100 
units for quantity 100 pricing. We are also willing to accom- 
modate your smaller orders. Quantities less than 1 00 units are 
available in increments of 10 units at a 10% surcharge. 
Quantity discounts are also available. Order 500 or more 
discs at the same time and deduct 1%; 1,000 or more saves 
you 2%; 2,000 or more saves you 3%; 5,000 or more saves you 
4%; 1 0,000 or more saves you 5%; 25,000 or more saves you 
6%; 50,000 or more saves you 7% and 1 00,000 or more discs 
earns you an 8% discount off our super low quantity 1 00 price. 
Almost all Memorex Flexible Discs are immediately available 
from CE. Our warehouse facilities are equipped to help us get 
you the quality product you need, when you need it. If you need 
further assistance to find the flexible disc that's right for you, 
call the Memorex compatibility hotline. Dial 800-538-8080 
and ask for the flexible disc hotline extension 0997. In California 
dial 800-672-3525 extension 0997. 

Buy with Confidence 

To get the fastest delivery from CE of your Memorex Flexible Discs, send 
or phone your order directly to our Computer Products Division. Be sure 
to calculate your price using the CE prices in this ad. Michigan residents 
please add 4% sales tax. Written purchase orders are accepted from 
approved government agencies and most well rated firms at a 10% 
surcharge for net 10 billing. All sales are subject to availability, 
acceptance and verification. All sales are final. Prices, terms and 
specifications are subject to change without notice. Out of stock items 
will be placed on backorder automatically unless CE is instructed 
differently. Minimum order $50.00. International orders are invited with 
a $20.00 surcharge for special handling in addition to shipping charges 
All shipments are FOB. Ann Arbor, Michigan. No COD's please. Non- 
certified and foreign checks require bank clearance. 

Mail orders to: Communications Electronics. Box 1002, Ann 
Arbor. Michigan 48106 U.S.A. Add $8.00 per case or partial-case of 
100 8-inch discs or $6.00 per case of 100 5Vinch mini-discs for 
UPS. ground shipping and handling in the continental U.S.A. If you 
have a Master Card or Visa card, you may call anytime and place 
a credit card order. Order toll-free in the United States. Call 
anytime 800-521-4414. If you are outside the U.S. or in Michigan, 
dial 313-994-4444 Dealer inquiries invited. All order lines at 
Communications Electronics are staffed 24 hours. 
Copyright ' 1 981 Communications Electronics' 






VISA 



Order Toll- Free! 
(800)521-4414 

In Michigan (313) 994-4444 




For Data Reliability— Memorex Flexible Discs 




TM 



COMMUNICATIONS 
ELECTRONICS" ,m 



Computer Products Division 

854 Phoenix □ Box 1 002 U Ann Arbor, Michigan 48 1 06 U.S.A. 
Call TOLL-FREE (BOO) 521 -441 4 or outside U.S.A. (31 3) 904-4444 



~WAMECO 

THE COMPLETE PC BOARD HOUSE 
EVERYTHING FOR THE S-100 BUSS 



* CPU-2 Z80 PROCESSOR BOARD ON BOARD ROM 
AND HARDWARE POWER ON JUMP 

p CBD $35.95 KIT $135.95 

*■ MEM-3 24 ADDRESS LINES EXPANDABLE IN 1K 
INCR. ADDRESSABLE IN 8K BLOCKS. BIDIREC- 
TIONAL BUSSING. 

££. B 5 f ,-- • • S 42.95 KIT LESS RAM ... .$11995 

KIT WITH 2114L-4 $475.95 KIT WITH 21 14L-2 $549 95 
A&T WITH 2114L-4 $505.95 A&T WITH 2114L-2 $579.95 

* FPB-1A FRONT PANEL BOARD FOR 8080A AND Z80 
SYSTEMS IMSAI COMPATIBLE. 

PCBD $56.95 KIT $1 75.00 

#• EPM-2 16/32K ROM USES 2716 OR 2708. ADDRESS- 
ABLE IN 4K BOUNDARIES. 
PCBD $33.95 KIT (LESS ROMS) .... $74.95 

•* CPU-1 8080A PROCESSOR BOARD WITH VECTOR 
INTERRUPT. 
PCBD $33.95 KIT $124.95 



•* QMB-12 13 SLOT MOTHER BOARD. 

PCBD $42.95 KIT $125.95 

#• QMB-9 9 SLOT MOTHER BOARD. 

PCBD $35.95 KIT $109.95 

#• RTC-1 REAL TIME CLOCK BOARD WITH TWO 
INTERRUPTS. 
PCBD $29.95 KIT $79.95 

¥r IOB-1 I/O BOARD. ONE SERIAL, TWO PARALLEL 
WITH CASSETTE. PCBD $33.95 

* IOB-3 4 PHASE STEPPER CONTROLLER BOARD 
PCBD $39 95 

KITLESS SEQUENCING PROM ....'.'.' .' .' $79.95 

«* IOB-4 32 SINGLE BIT I/O FOR SENSING 

SWITCH CLOSURES AND PERIPHERAL DRIVER 
OUTPUTS FOR DRIVING RELAYS OR LIGHT BULBS 
AREA FOR CUSTOMIZING OUTPUTCONNECTORS. 

PCBD $39 95 

KIT LESS OUTPUT CONNECTORS* .' .' .' .' $79.95 



FUTURE PRODUCTS: 80 CHARACTER VIDEO BOARD 

8 PARALLEL PORT I/O BOARD. 

DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED, UNIVERSITY DISCOUNTS AVAILABLE 

AT YOUR LOCAL DEALER 



M/mc 



/nc. 



WAMECO. INC., P.O. BOX 877 • EL GRANADA, CA 94018 • (415) 728-9114 



>i 



CALIFORNIA COMPUTER SYSTEMS 

SI 00 
2032 32K STATIC RAM A & T 

450 NSEC $579 00, 300 NSEC $585 00, 200 NSEC $629 00 
21 IS 16K STATIC RAM A & T 

450 NSEC $285 00, 300 NSEC $289 00, 200 NSEC $329.00 
2065 64K DYNAMIC RAM A & T $548 95 

2200 S-100 MAIN FRAM A&T $37995 

2422 FLOPPY DISC WITH CP/M 2 2" $32995 

2102 6502 PROCESSOR A&T $282 95 

2SI0AZ80 CPU A& T $249.95 

2710A 4 SERIAL 1/0 A & T $291 95 

271IA 2 SERIAL, 2 PARALLEL A&T. $305 95 

2720A 4 PARALLEL A & T $214 95 

P00T0 BOARDS WW $39 95, SOLDERTAIL $29 95 

APPLE PR00UCTS 

7114A 12K ROM/PROM $68 50 

7424A CALENDAR/CLOCK $106 95 

744QA PROGRAMMABLE TIMER $98 50 

7470A A TO CONVERTER $105 95 

7400A GPIB (IE 488) INTERFACE $265 95 

7710AASYNC SERIAL $125 95 

77I2A SYNC SERIAL $15395 

7720A PARALLEL STANDARD $98 95 

7720S PARALLEL CENTRONICS $98 95 

70111 ARITHMETIC PROCESSOR W/DISC $342 95 

711 IC ARITHMETIC PROCESSOR W/R0M $342 95 

7S00A WW BOARD $22 95 

7510A SOLDERTArt BOARD $23 95 

SOFTWARE 
2610 CP/M"MACR0 ASSEMBLER ON DISK $76 95 

2620 CP/M* SYMBOLIC INSTRUCTION DEBUGGER. $64.25 
2630 CP/M'-TEXT FORMATER $64 25 

2640 CP/M" BACKGROUND PRINT UTILITY $42 95 



OTHER CCS PRODUCTS ARE AVAILABLE. 
CALL FOR PRICE. 



=Si7? 



MICROCOMPUTER PRODUCTS 

SI 00 PR00UCTS 
C8IA 8080 PROCESSOR PCBD $32 95 

KIT $155.95, A&T $21595 

C6-2 280 PROCESSOR BOARD. 

KIT $198.95, A&T $269.95 

VBIC 64 x 16 VIDEO. PCBD $32 95 

KIT $153.95, A&T $199.95 

VB2 64x 16 VIDEO, PCBD $32 95 

KIT $175.95, A&T $234 95 

VB3 80 CHARACTER VIDEO 4MHZ 

KIT $345.95, A&T $425 95 

UPGRADE RAMS FOR VB-3 $42.00 

104 2 PARALLEL, 2 SERIAL. PCBD $32 95 

KIT $155 95. A&T $194 95 

PB-1 2708. 2716 PROGRAMMER BOARD 

KIT $13595. A&T $185 95 

MB-10 16K STATIC RAM 

KIT $299 95. A&T $339 95 

APPLE PRODUCTS 

A48S IEEE 488 INTERFACE $399 95 

AI0 SERIAL/PARALLEL INTERFACE 

KIT $125 95, A&T $15595 

ASI0 SERIAL I/O 

KIT $87 95. A&T $97 95 

API0 PARALLEL 10 

KIT (W/0 CABLES) $67 95, A&T(W/0 CABLES) $87 95 

OTHER SSM PRODUCTS ARE AVAILABLE 
CALL FOR PRICES. 



C_ 



JAN. SPECIAL SALE 
ON PREPAID ORDERS 

(CHARGE CARDS ANO COO OR PO NIT AVAILABLE ON THESE OFFERS) 

WAMECO MEM-3 A&T (LESS RAM) $129 95 

WAMECO EPM-2 A&T (LESS ROM) $ 69.05 

SSM PB-1 SI 79 95 

SSM 10-4 $109.95 

^NJTJC/j nc WAMECO INC. 

BOARDS WITH MIK0S PARTS 
MEM-3 32K STATIC RAM, PCBD $36 95 

KIT LESS RAM $95 95, A&T . $135 95 

CPU-2 Z80 PROCESSOR, PCBD $3295 

KIT LESS ROM $10995. A&T $14995 

EPM-2 16K/32K EPROM, PCBD . ... $32 95 

KIT LESS ROM $65.95. A&T . $99.95 

FPB-1 FRONT PANEL. PCBD $48 50 

KIT S144 95. A&T $184 95 



CPU-1 8080 PROCESSOR, PCBD 
KIT $89 95, A&T 



$29 95 
$12995 



•See List of Advertisers on page 178 



M 




MONDAY-FRIDAY. 8 00 TO 1 2 OO. 1 OO TO 5 30 
THURSDAYS. 8 OO TO 9 OO P.M. 

(415)728-9121 
P.O. BOX 955 • EL GRANADA, CA 94018 

PLEASE SEND FOR IC, XIST0R AND COMPUTER PARTS LIST 



QMB-12 13 SLOT MOTHER BOARD. PCBD $39 95 

KIT $9595, A&T $13595 

OTHER WAMECO PRODUCTS ARE AVAILABLE 
CALL FOR PRICES. 



MIK0S PARTS ASSORTMENTS ARE ALL FACTORY MARKED PARTS KITS INCLUDE 
ALL PARTS LISTED AS REQUIRED FOR THE COMPLETE KIT LESS PARTS LISTED 
ALL SOCKETS INCLUDED 

LARGE SELECTION OF LS Til AVAILABLE. 

PURCHASE $50.00 WORTH OF LS TTL AND GET 1 0% CREDIT 
TOWARD ADDITIONAL PURCHASES PREPAID ORDERS ONLY 



VISA or MASTERCHARGE Send account number interbank number expiration date 
and sign your order Approx postage will be added Orders with check or money order will 
be sent post paid in u S If you are not a regular customer please use charge cashier s 
check or postal money order Otherwise there will be a two-week delay tor checks to 
clear Calif residents add 6% tax Money back 30-day guarantee We cannot accept 
returned IC s that have been soldered to Prices subiect to change without notice 120 
MiiiMM irlir $2 00 linnet clK|l ia trUrt Itsi || n SI 00 



Microcomputing, January 1982 161 




FULL LINE ALL PARTS & COMPUTER PRODUCTS 



ELECTRONICS 



* 44 P.O. Box 4430S 

Santa Clara, CA 95054 

Will calls: 2322 Walsh Ave. 
(408) 988-1640 



Same day shipment. First line parts only. Factory tested. Guaranteed 
money back Quality ICs and other components at factory prices. 

INTEGRATED CIRCUITS Pn ° n « order$ on, Y < 80 °) 538-8196 



74MTTL 

740ON 
7402N 
7404N 
7409N 
7410N 
7414N 
7420N 
7430N 
7442N 
7445N 
7447N 
7448N 
7474N 
7475N 
7485N 

7489N 

7490N 

7495N 

74100N 

74107N 

74123N 

74125N 

74145N 

741MN 

74151N 

74154N 

74157N 

74161N 

74162N 

74163N 

741 74N 

741 75N 

74190N 

74192N 

74193N 

74221 N 

74298N 

74365N 

74366N 

74367N 

74LS00 TTl 

74LS00N 

74LS02N 

74LS04N 

74LS05N 

74LS08N 

74LS10N 

74LS13N 

74LS14N 

74LS20N 

74LS22N 

74LS28N 

74LS30N 

74LS33N 

74LS38N 

74LS74N 

74LS75N 

74LS90N 

74LS93N 

74LS95N 

74LS107N 

74LS112N 

74LS113N 

74LS132N 

74LS136N 

74LS151N 

74LS155N 

74LS157N 

74LS162N 

74LS163N 

74LS174N 

74IS190N 

74LS221N 

74LS258N 

74LS367N 



19 
19 
22 
19 
19 
5b 
19 
19 
49 
69 
69 
69 
35 
49 
65 

1 70 
35 
55 

1 00 
30 
55 
45 
60 

1 20 
65 

1 25 
55 
70 
85 
85 
89 
85 

1 15 
79 
79 

1 25 
85 
65 
65 
65 



LM3171 1 65 CD4017 

LM317K 3 75 C04018 

LM318 1 49 CO4019 

LM320K-5 1 35 CD4020 

LM320K 12 1 35 C0402I 

IM320K 15 1 35 CD4022 

IM320T-5 95 CD4023 

LM320T-8 95 CD4024 

LM320T 12 95 CD4025 

LM320T 15 95 C04026 

LM323K-5 4 95 CD4027 

LM324N 99 CD4028 

LM339N 99 CD4029 

LM340K 5 1 35 CD4030 

LM340K 8 1 35 CD4035 

LM340K 12 1 35 CD4040 

LM340K15 1 35 CD4042 

LM340K 24 1 35 C04043 

LM340T-5 85 C04044 

LM340T-8 85 CD4046 

LM340T 12 85 CD4049 

LM340T 15 85 C04050 

LM340T 18 85 C04051 

LM340T24 85 CD4O60 

LM350 5 50 CD4066 

LM377 2 29 C04068 

LM380N 1 00 C04O69 

LM381 1 60 CO4070 

LM382 1 60 CD4071 

LM709H 59 CD4072 

LM723HN 49 CD4073 

L M733N 85 C04075 

LM741CH 35 CD4076 

LM741N 35 C04078 

LM747H N 75 CO4081 

LM748N 50 C04082 

LM1303N 1 75 C04116 

L VI 304 1 10 CD4490 

LM1305 1 27 C04507 

LM1307 1 10 CD4508 

LM1310 2 75 CD4510 

LM1458 55 C04511 

LM1812 8 25 CD4515 

LM1889 2 49 CD4516 

LM2111 1 75 CD4518 

LM2902 2 25 CU4520 

LM3900N 59 CD4527 

LM3905 ' 25 CD4528 

LM3909N 95 C04553 

MCI 458V 55 CD4566 

NE550N 1 30 CD4583 

NE555V 39 CD4585 

NE556A 85 C040192 

NE565* 1 00 74CO0 

NE566V 1 50 74C04 

NE567V 1 00 74C10 

NE570B 4 75 74C14 

78105 60 74C20 

78L08 60 74C30 

78M05 85 74C48 

75108 1 *9 74C74 

75491 CN 50 74C76 

75492CN .55 74C90 

75494CN 89 74C93 

74C154 
A to CONVERTER 74C160 



8126 I 69 

HI.'H ' » 

8T97 99 

8T98 ' 65 

MOS MEMORY RAM 

2101 1 1 95 

2102 1 85 
2102AI 4 1 45 
2102AN 21 1 65 
2104A 4 4 95 
2107B 4 3 75 
2111 1 2 99 
21122 2 99 
2114 2 24 
21141 300ns 2 50 
21141 450ns 2 37 
4116 200ns 2 50 
8 4116 200ns IS 40 



LINEAR 
CA3045 
CA3046 1 

CA3081 1 

CA3082 1 
CA3089 3 
LM301AN AM 
LM305H 
LM307N 
LM308N 
LM309K 1 
LM311HN 



H03HH 
8700CJ 
8701 CN 
8750CJ 
LD130 
9400CJV f 
ICL7103 
ICL7107 

CMOS 

C04000 
C04001 
C04002 
CD4006 
CD4O07 
CD40O8 
CD4009 
CD4010 
CD4011 
CD4012 
CD4013 
CD4014 
C04015 
CD4016 



4 50 
13 95 
22 00 

13 95 
9 95 
7 40 
950 

14 25 



74C175 
74C192 
74C221 
74C905 
74C906 
74C914 
74C922 
74C923 
74C925 
74C926 
74C927 

INTERFACE 

me 

8096 
8097 

nm 

8T09 
8T10 
8T13 
8T20 
8T23 
8T24 
8T25 



MM5280 3 00 

MM5320 9 95 

MM5330 5 94 

P5101I 8 95 

4200A 11 50 

g MM 3 50 

410D 10 00 

416 2 50 

CLOCKS 

MM5311 4 95 

MM5312 3 90 

MM5314 3 90 

MM5369 1 95 

MM5841 14 45 

MM5865 95 

CT7010 8 95 

CT7015 8 95 
MM5375AAN 3 90 
MM5375AG N 4 90 

7205 16 50 

7207 7 50 

7208 15 95 

7209 4 95 

MICROPROCESSOR 

695 
9 50 
6 95 
8 75 
950 

14 95 
11 85 

5 70 
11 95 
495 
350 
395 
8 50 
600 
18 95 
650 
5 95 
595 
8 65 

15 25 
18 75 
17 50 

27 50 
23 95 

28 95 
15 00 
23 90 
23 95 
28 95 
17 95 
1795 

2 25 
390 

8216 2 25 
8224 2 50 
8228 4 95 
8251 5 50 
8253 8 95 
8255 5 25 
8257 9 00 
8259 9 95 
1802CE pias 13 95 
1802E plas 17 95 
1861P 5 95 



UART FIFO 

AV5 1013 
AV5 1014 
3341 

PROM 

1702A 

2532 

2708 

2716TI 

2716 5 Vol! 

8 2716 5 Volt : 

2732 

2758 

8741A 

8748 ! 

87488 ! 

8755A 

N82S23 

N82S123 

N82S126 

N82S129 

N82S131 

N82S136 

N82S137 

8223 

CONNECTORS 

30 pin edge 
44 pin edge 
86 pm edge 
1 00 pin edge 



100 pin edge * w 4 95 

IC SOCKETS 

Solder Tin Low Profile 

PIN 1UP PIN 1UP 

8 13 22 30 

14 14 24 30 

16 16 28 40 

18 20 36 58 



6502 
6502A 
6504 
6522 
6530 
6532 
6551 
MOO 
M02 
6820 
6850 
BONA 
8085A 
Z80A 
/BOB 
Z80 P10 
280A P10 
Z80CTC 
Z80A CTC 
Z80 DART 
Z80A OART 
Z80 DMA 
Z80A DMA 
Z80S10 
Z80A S10 
Z80 S10 1 
Z80A S10 1 
Z80S10 2 
Z80A S10 2 
Z80B CTC 
Z80B P10 
8212 



29 40 49 

WIRE WRAP LEVEL 3 
PIK PW 

14 55 24 93 

16 57 28 1 00 

18 67 40 1 59 

? level 14 r>n <•« TO 



DE9S 1 95 

DA15P 2 10 

DA15S 3 10 

Complete Set 9 50 

Stopwatch Kit 26 M 
Avlo Clock Kit 17 95 
Digital Clock Kit 19 75 

RESISTORS v< watt 5% 

10 pei type 03 

25 per type 025 

100 pe' lyp« C5 

1000 pei type 012 

350 piece pack 

5 pei type 6 Ti 

k| watt 5% pei type 05 

DIP SWITCHES 

4 position 85 

5 position 90 

6 position 90 

7 position 95 

8 position 95 

KEYBOARDS 

56 key ASCII keyboard kil S74 95 

Fully assembled 84 50 

Enclosure Plastic 19 95 

Met.il Enclosure 59 95 

LEOS 

Red T018 '5 

Green Yellow T018 

Jumbo Red 25 

G'een Orange Yellow Jumbo 25 

Cliplitt LEO Mounting CMpt 8 $1 25 
i spec red amber green yellow clean 

CONTINENTAL SPECIALTIES in slock 
Complete line oi breadboard test equip 

OK WIRE WRAP TOOLS In flock 

Complete line ot AP Products in slock 



CRYSTALS 

1 MM: 
? MH; 

4 MH; 

5 MH; 
10 MH; 
18 MH; 
20 MH; 
3? MH; 
32768 H; 

1 84j? MH; 
3 5795 MH; 

2 0100 MH; 
? 097152 MH; 4 50 

2 4576 MH; 4 50 

3 2768 MH; 4 50 
5 0688 MH; 4 50 
5 185 MH; 4 50 

5 7143 MH; 4 50 

6 5536 MH; 4 50 
14 31818 MH; 4 25 
18 432 MH; 4 50 
22 1184 MH; 4 50 

KEYBOARD ENCOOERS 

AY5 2376 ' 1 95 

AY5-3600 17 95 

74C922 5 49 

74C923 5 50 

HD0165 5 7 95 

Connectors RS232 
0B25P 2 95 

DB25S 3 50 

Cover 1 67 



SPECIAL PRODUCTS 

2 5 MH; Freq Counter Kit 37 50 

30 MH; Freq Counter Kit 47 75 

AC TRANSFORMERS 

FRAME WALL PLUG 

6 3V CT 600 ma $4 60 10V 2 amp 



12V 250 ma 
1 2 6V CT 600 ma 
12 6VCT 2 amps 
12 6V CT 4 amp 
12 6V CT 8 amp 
24V CT 100 ma 
24V CT 600 ma 



l 95 12V 250 ma 

4 95 1 2V CT 250 ma 

5 95 12V 500 ma 
8 60 12V 1 amp 

10 80 12V 2 amp 

3 95 

4 95 



Constant Voltage Transformers 12V 11 amp 
5V 23 amp 24V 11 amp 15 00 



DISPLAY LEOS 

MAN 72 74 CACA 300 75 

DL704 CC 300 1 25 

DL707 DL707R CA 300 1 00 

DL727 728 CA CC 500 1 90 

DL747 750 CA CC 600 1 49 

FND359 CC 357 70 

FND500 507 CCCA 500 99 

FND503 510 CC CA 500 90 

FND800 807 CC CA 800 2 -20 

10 digit display i 25 

7520 Claire* photocells 39 

TIL311 Hex 9 50 

MAN3640 CC 30 99 

MAN4610 CA 40 99 

MAN4640 CC 40 1 20 

MAN4710 CA 40 95 

MAN4740 CC 40 1 20 

MAN6640 CC 56 99 

MAN6710 CA 60 99 

MAN6740 CC 60 99 

TELEVIDEO TERMINAL 

Model 950 $1010 00 



4116 200ns Dynamic RAM 8 $15 40 



ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS KITS 

Apple Peripheral Kits 

SERIAL I/O INTERFACE to 30.000 baud, 
D.T.R , Input & output from monitor or basic, or 
use Apple as intelligent terminal, Bd only (P/N 2) 
$14.95, Kit (P/N 2A) $51.25, Assembled (P/N 
2C) $62.95. 

PROTOTYPING BOARD (P/N 7907) $21.95. 
PARALLEL TRIAC OUTPUT BOARD 8 triacs, 
each can switch 110V, 6A loads, Bd only (P/N 
210) $19.20, Kit (P/N 21 OA) $119.55. 
OPTO-ISOLATED INPUT BOARD 8 inputs, can 
be driven from TTL logic. Bd only (P/N 120) 
$15.65, Kit (P/N 120A) $69.95. 

Interface Kits 

SERIAL/PARALLEL INTERFACE Bidirectional, 
Baud rates from 110 to 19. 2K, sw selectable 
polarity of input and output strobe, 5 to 8 data 
bits. 1 or 2 stop bits, parity odd or even or none, 
all characters contain a start bit, +5 & -12V 
required. Bd only (P/N 101) $11.95. Kit (P/N 
101A) $42.89. 

RS-232/TTL INTERFACE Bidirectional, re- 
quires i12V, Kit (P/N 232A) $9.95. 
RS-232/20mA INTERFACE Bidirectional, 2 
passive opto-isolated circuits, Kit (P/N 7901A) 
$14.95. 

PROM Eraser 

Will erase 25 PROMs in 15 minutes Ultraviolet, 
assembled 25 PROM capacity $37.50 (with 
timer $69.50). 6 PROM capacity OSHA/UL ver- 
sion $78.50 (with timer $108.50). 

NiCad Battery Fixer/Charger Kit 

Opens shorted cells that won't hold a charge and 
then charges them up, all in one kit w/full parts 
and instructions. $9.95 



Z80 Microcomputer 

16 bit 1/0. 2 MHz clock, 2K RAM, ROM Bread- 
board space. Excellent for control. Bare Board 
$28.50. Full Kit $99.00. Monitor $20.00. Power 
Supply Kit $35.00. Tiny Basic $30.00. 

Modem Kit $60.00 

State of the art, ong., answer. No tuning neces- 
sary. 103 compatible 300 baud. Inexpensive 
acoustic coupler plans included. Bd. only 
$17.00. Article in June Radio Electronics. 

60 Hz Crystal Time Base Kit $4.40 

Converts digital clocks from AC line frequency to 
crystal time base. Outstanding accuracy. 

Video Modulator Kit $9.95 

Convert TV set into a high quality monitor w/o 
affecting usage. Comp. kit w/full instruc. 

Multi-volt Computer Power Supply 

8v 5 amp, ±18v .5 amp, 5v 1.5 amp, -5v 
5 amp, 12v .5 amp, 12v option. ±5v. ±12v 
are regulated Basic Kit $35.95. Kit with chassis 
and all hardware $51 .95. Add $5 00 shipping Kit 
of hardware $16.00. Woodgram case $10.00. 
$1.50 shipping 

Type-N-Talk by Votrax 

Text to speech synthesizer with unlimited vocabu- 
lary, built-in text to speech algorithm. 70 to 100 
bits per second speech synthesizer, RS232C 
interface $369.00. 

1802 16K Dynamic RAM Kit $149.00 

Expandable to 64K Hidden refresh w/clocks up to 
4 MHz w/no wait states Addl 16K RAM $25.00. 
S-100 4-slot expansion $ 9.95 

Super Monitor VI. I Source Listing $15.00 



Quest Super Basic V5.0 

A new enhanced version ot Super Basic now 
available Quest was the first company worldwide 
to ship a full size Basic for 1802 Systems A 
complete function Super Basic by Ron Cenker 
including floating point capability with scientific 
notation (number range • 17E"). 32 bit integer 
♦ 2 billion, multi dim arrays, string arrays, string 
manipulation, cassette I/O save and load, basic, 
data and machine language programs, and over 
75 statements, functions and operations 
New improved taster version including re- 
number and essentially unlimited variables 
Also an exclusive user expandable command 
library 

Serial and Parallel I routines included 
Super Basic on Cassette $55 00 



RCA Cosmac 1802 
Super Elf Computer $106.95 

The Super Elf is a small single board computer that 
does many big things It's an excellent computer 
for training and for learning programming with its 
machine language and yet it's easily expanded 
with additional memory. Full Basic. ASCII 
Keyboards, video character generation, etc. 
ROM monitor; State and Mode displays Single 
step; Optional address displays; Power Supply; 
Audio Amplifier and Speaker; Fully socketed for all 
ICs; Full documentation 

The Super EH includes a ROM monitor for pro- 
gram loading, editing and execution with SINGLE 
STEP lor program debugging which is not in- 
cluded in others at the same price. With SINGLE 
STEP you can see the microprocessor chip oper- 
ating with the unique Quest address and data bus 
displays before, during and after executing in- 
structions. Also, CPU mode and instruction cycle 
are decoded and displayed on 8 LED indicators 
An RCA 1861 video graphics chip allows you to 
connect to your own TV with an inexpensive video 
modulator to do graphics and games There is a 
speaker system included for writing your own 
music or using many music programs already 
written. The speaker amplifier may also be used to 
drive relays for control purposes 
A 24 key HEX keyboard includes 16 HEX keys plus 
load, reset, run, wait, input, memory protect, 
monitor select and single step Large, on board 
displays provide output and optional high and low 
address There is a 44 pin standard connector slot 

Super Expansion Board with Cassette Interface $89.95 

This is truly an astounding value! This board has gram bugs quickly, then follow with single step If 

been designed to allow you to decide how you you have the Super Expansion Board and Super 

want it optioned. The Super Expansion Board Monitor the monitor is up and running at the push 

comes with 4K of low power RAM fully address- of a button 

able anywhere in 64K with built-in memory pro- other n board options include Paraifef Input and 

tect and a cassette interface Provisions have output Ports with full handshake They allow easy 



tor PC cards and a 50 pin connector slot tor the 
Quest Super Expansion Board Power supply and 
sockets for all ICs are included plus a detailed 
127 pg instruction manual which now includes 
over 40 pgs of software info including a series of 
lessons to help get you started and a music pro- 
gram and graphics target game Many schools 
and universities are using the Super Elf as a 
course of study OEMs use it tor training and 
R&D 

Remember, other computers only offer Super Elf 
features at additional cost or not at all Compare 
before you buy. Super EH KH $106.95. High 
address option $8.95, Low address option 
$9.95. Custom Cabinet with drilled and labelled 
plexiglass front panel $24.95. All metal Expansion 
Cabinet, painted and silk screened, with room for 
5S-100 boards and power supply $57.00. NiCad 
Battery Memory Saver KH $6.95. All kits and 
options also completely assembled and tested. 
Questdata a software publication for 1802 com- 
puter users is available by subscription for $12.00 
per 12 issues Single issues $1 50 Issues 1-12 
bound $16 50 

Moews Video Graphics $3.50, Games and Music 
$3.00, Chip 8 Interpreter $5.50, Starship 4K cas- 
sette $14.95. 

Free 14 page brochure 

of complete Super Elf system. 



been made for all other options on the same board 
and it fits neatly into the hardwood cabinet 
alongside the Super EH The board includes slots 
for up to 6K of EPROM (2708, 2758, 2716 or Tl 
2716) and is fully socketed. EPROM can be used 
for the monitor and Tiny Basic or other purposes 
A 1 K Super ROM Monitor $19.95 is available as an 
on board option in 2708 EPROM which has been 
preprogrammed with a program loader/editor and 
error checking multi file cassette read/write 
software, (relocatable cassette file) another exclu 



connection of an ASCII keyboard to the input port 
RS 232 and 20 ma Current Loop for teletype or 
other device are on board and if you need more 
memory there are two S-100 slots for static RAM 
or video boards Also a 1K Super Monitor version 
2 with video driver for full capability display with 
Tiny Basic and a video interface board Parallel 
I/O Ports $9.85, RS 232 $4.50, TTY 20 ma l/F 
$1.95, S-100 $4.50. A 50 pin connector set with 
ribbon cable is available at $18.95 for easy con- 
nection between the Super EH and the Super 



srve from Quest. It includes register save and Expansion Board. 

readout, block move capability and video graphics p^er supply KH tor the complete system (see 

driver with blinking cursor. Break points can be Multi-volt Power Supply below) 

used with the register save feature to isolate pro 



Rockwell AIM 65 Computer 

6502 based single board with full ASCII keyboard 
and 20 column thermal printer 20 char alphanu- 
meric display ROM monitor fully expandable 
$419.00. 4K version $449.00 4K Assembler 
$35.00 8K Basic Interpreter $65.00 

Special small power supply 5V 2A 24V 5A 
assem in frame $59.00. Molded plastic 
enclosure to fit both AIM 65 and power supply 
$52.50. AIM 65 1K in cabinet with power supply 
switch, fuse, cord assem $559.00. 4K $579.00. 
A65 40 5000 AIM 65/40 w16K RAM and monitor 
$1295.00. RAM Board Kit (16K $195) (32K 
$215) VD640 Video Interface Kit $119.00. A&T 
$149.00. Complete AIM 65 in thin briefcase with 
power supply $518.00. Special Package Price 4K 
AIM. 8K Basic, power supply cabinet $629.00 

AIM 65/ KIM- SYM, Super Elf 44 pin expansion 
board, board with 3 connectors $22.95. 






LL 



Elf II Adapter Kit $24.95 

Plugs into Elf II providing Super Elf 44 and 50 pin 
plus S-100 bus expansion. (With Super Ex- 
pansion). High and low address displays, state 
and mode LED s optional $18.00. 



Super Color S-100 Video Kit $129.95 

Expandable to 256 x 192 high resolution color 
graphics 6847 with all display modes computer 
controlled Memory mapped 1K RAM expand- 
able to 6K S-100 bus 1802. 8080, 8085, Z80, 
etc Dealers: Send for excellent pricing/margin 
program. 



TERMS $5.00 min. order U.S. Funds. Calif, residents add 6% tax 

$10.00 min. VISA and MasterCard accepted. $1.00 insurance optional 
Shipping: Add 5%; orders under $25.00—10%. 



FREE: Send for your copy of our NEW 1981 
QUEST CATALOG. Include 88c stamp 



162 Microcomputing, January 1982 



COMPONENTS 



SNMOOM 
SN7402N 
SM7404N 
SN7408N 
SN7410N 
I SN 74 1 2N 
SN7413N 
SN7414N 
SN7416N 
SN7417N 
SN7420M 
SN742SN 
SN7430N 
SN7437N 
SN7430N 
SN7440N 
SN7442N 
SN7443N 
SN744SM 
SN7451N 
SN74S4N 
SN7474M 
SN74 7»N 



SN7402M 

SN7492M 

SN7493N 

SN7499N 

SN7496N 

SN74122N 

SN7413«M 

SH7414AH 

SN741S1N 

SN741S3M 

SN741S4M 

SN741S5N 

SN74157N 

SN74160N 

SN74161N 

SN74163N 

SN74164N 

SN741SSN 

SN74174N 

SN7417SN 

SN74180N 

SN74181N 

SM74393N 



74LS00 



741 SOO 

MLS02 

741 SO 3 

74LS04 

74LS06 

74L3O0 

MLS09 

74LS10 

74LS14 

74LS20 

74LS21 

74LS26 

74LS27 

74LS28 

74LS30 

74LS32 

74LS3A 

74LS42 

74LS4A 

74LS74 

74LS75 

74LS86 

74LS90 

74LS93 

MlSM 

74LS107 

74LS113 

74LS122 

74LS123 

74LS12S 

74LS1M 

74 l sue 

74 LSI 39 

74LS151 
74LS1S3 
74LS157 



74LS150 

74LS161 

74LS1A2 

74LS1A3 

74L5164 

74 I S1«S 

74LS1«9 

74LS170 

74 LSI 74 

74LS17S 

74LS190 

74LS191 

74LS196 

74LS197 

74 LS221 

WLS240 

74 LS241 

74LS24J 

74 LS244 

74LS245 

74LS2S1 

74LS2S3 

MLS2S7 

74 LS259 

74LS2SO 

74 LS273 

74LS279 

74LS290 

74 LS293 

74LS3A5 

74LS367 

74 L S3 73 

74LS3M 

74LS377 

74 L SAM 

74LS«TO 



74 SOO 



74 SOD 

74S02 

74SOJ 

74S04 

74 SOS 

74S10 

74S15 

'4S20 

74S22 

74S30 

74S37 

74SSO 

74SM 

74S64 

74S74 

74S86 

74SH2 

74S132 



/4S1J8 
74S140 
74S1SB 
74S174 
74SI75 
74 S 182 
74 S 189 
74S201 
74S240 
74S244 
74S2S1 
74SP87 
74S286 
J4S299 
74S470 
74S471 
74S473 
74S4 74 



E PROMS 



2706 3 25m 8 tor 2 96m 

2716 SSOaa 8 tor S.OOaa 

2732 12 96m 4tor11(X)«a 

4116 300NS 2 00m 6 tor M 00 
200NS 2J6M 8 tor 16 00 

21141 300NS 2.23 •*• 4 tar 1 90m 
200MS 2 4SM 4tor 2.00m 

2111 450MS 2 SOMtttor 2 00m 



MISC 
2102 

450HS 96 

8036 246 

NES66 27 

AYS 1013A 4 25 

1486 96 

1489 96 

8T26 130 

8T28 1.30 

8212 1.96 

8216 1.96 

IS4108CR 85 

IT410TWIAC 86 

7906 .86 

7608 86 

7915 86 

7918 86 

7806 86 

7606 85 

7806 86 

7812 86 

MC1330MP 1 60 

MC1350P MS 

MC1358P ISO 

LM380 110 

LMS66M 96 

LM741 25 

MC1456P 56 

LM720 3D 



CPU* 
Z 60 

Z 80ACTC 
Z 80ACPU 
Z 80 002 16 6" 
8065A 
2901A 
MC66O0 



cont'd 



1103A 




75 


UPOT65 


19.85 


floppy da*. 


■ »P» 


control tar 




ULN2001 


196 


TMS4400 


1 40 


MC4O06P 


1 50 


MH0026 


1 56 


D3624 




196 


03001 




196 


D3003 




196 


1. 


c. 




SOCKETS 


WW 


p 


•t 




8 


10/120 


10/5 30 


14 


10/130 


10/5 70 


16 


10/140 


10/8 70 


18 


10/180 


10/9 70 


20 


10/2 70 


10/12 70 


22 


KV2 70 


10/13 70 


24 


10/2 70 


KV14 70 


28 


KV3O0 


10/1770 


40 


10/3 90 



SPECIALS 

ZENITH ZVM-121 

Video Mini tor /Green!! 
1 2 inch wi 
15 MHz Zf> 

*134.00 

8255-^*5.95 
8748-8 — *3L00| 
3341PC— $ 2.00 

MM5060 — * 35« 

MC6300 — $ 775 

MC6802 - $ 1495| 

MC6850 — $ 4.50 

MC6821 — *4.95 

CARDS 

MICROSOFT 

Z80* 

+295°° 

16K RAM 

$160°o 

VIDEX 

VIDEOTERM 

80 column 

$29500 

KEYBOARD 
ENHANCER 

$12000 

CALIF COMR SYS 

APPLE 
CLOCK 

$12400 

PROTO 
BOARD 

$25Q° 
PRINTERS 

EPSON 

MX- 80 
ST:*y^ 

$ 53500| 
i645po| 

INTERFACE 
ICARD/CABLE 

$ 7aso 



* * SPECIALS^ * 

3 inch. COMPUTER FANSw/cord-^9.95 
2111-256*4 Static RAM — ^ 1.75 ___ ^^ 
81 55 — RAM, I/O. Timor — $11 50 I 4inch FAN 
ER2051 — E AROM — $ 4 95 I "Whisper" 
8085A— CPU — $8.50 I w/cord 

MC6800— CPU — $/./5 I $ 8.95 

UPD 765A— Floppy Disk Controller- % 19 95 
2732A^ 250ns EPROM— $1550 
AY5 1013A— 30K Band UART— $2.95 
93419— 64*9 Static RAM— $550 



300H 



2901A — 4-Bit Slice — — ^ 7.50 

REAL-TIME CLOCK 
CALENDAR ( MSM 5832) 

Description Mono Metal Gate CMOS I C 

Features 

Time. Month. Date. Year. A 

'Day of Week 

* Bus Oriented 
'4 Bit Data Bus 
'4 Bit Address 
'R/WHold Selec • 

'Inter Signal 

-32 768Khz xtal Control 

• 5v Pow Sup 
'Low Power Dissipation 



45c 



ea 



COMPUTERS 

ATARI" 800™ 
COMPUTER SYSTEM 

400 Computet 8K — * 350 00 
800 Computer 16K — • 7S9O0 

, *800 COMPUTER 

* /*; 48K * *898°° 

Best Buy^ 

ATARI PERIPHERALS 

Pnmeite) 'mm Pi mei('8??') *3H0( 



'7.45 

W/SPECs 

XTAL 
*2.85 



Recorder s 65 00 

interlocal 85o)*W5 00 
Paddles »woo 

Stai Raiders $ 49 00 
Space invaders *l/00 
Chess »3? 00 
KmgdM *12 00 
Hangman *t 2 00 
Blaciiaik *1?00 



Si Or to s bbb 0( 

Modem 'ibSOO 
leisucis s i/00 




Assemfeiei to tor 

Music Compose 
MO'img list 
IV S* ten Boi 

1SK RAM 
8K RAM 



»4S 00 

Ms 00 
'woo 

'8 95 

*T55 00 
» 1 1 S 00 



POWER 
SUPPLY 

MODEL 
*CP198 

input *110/125v 
output — 5vdc 

At 6amps 

'29.95 

Oty. price avail. 




10 Sur|«s ii • t i iici 

THE MPD 117 

turns an ordinary 
outlet into a cont- 
rolled power source 



'79.50 



* DISKETTE SALEM 

WABASH 

5V4 8inch 
SS/SD $ 25.00 $ 25.00 

SS/DD 27.40 3040 

DS/SD o 34.90 

DS/DD 32.40 37.40 



£ 



+ N£W ATARI* 
+ SOfTtV4*£« 

MISSLE COMMAND- $ 36Po 
ASTEROIDS -*36PO 
VIDEO EASEL- *32?o 
3-D TIC-TAC-TOE- $ 32P° 

"APPLE II Plus" 



Box of 
10 pes 




4S/r-fl199PO 
64 k -*1399P° 



f. PRICE AVAIL^ 

DYSAN DISKS 

c also available!! 






CONCORD 



^297 



MONITORS 

12in B/W ^129.00 
12in Green ^155.°° 
13in Color ~*365P° 





AMDEK Corp. 



SUPER SPECIALS 

MRF 901:— RF TRANS. , — . 

1— - *2.75ea |x/| 

AY3-8603- Is— TV., GAME CHIP 

1— - *4.95ea 



1971 SO STATE COLLEGE 
ANAHEIM, CALIF. 92806 



- - NO COD 

*10.MIN ORDER/ CA RES ADD 6% 
FRT 

*200 » 



100 2W 8. 



^up r 



Bare Bones APPLE II 

W/O gjpL 

Keyboard ~ 

, *450. 

Pwr. Supply 



^See List of Advertisers on page 1 78 



Microcomputing, January 1982 163 



Years of conquering, years 
of victory and what do 
people remember Napoleon 
for? Waterloo. You've got to 
have. . . 

STRATEGY 

It's an acquired skill. And 
now, Instant Software has 
three programs to help you 
sharpen your tactical 
thinking. Don't make the 
same mistake Napoleon 
made — practice first, with 
Instant Software. 



"NOW they tell me. 



y? 



yte&^^m$ 




OIL TYCOON 

What would it be like to be one of the worlds biggest oil pro 
ducers? You and your friends can find out with this action 
packed simulation as you compete to become one of the oil 
industry s wealthiest tycoons. 

The game involves elements of both strategy and chance. 
Whether you wind up as one of the world's wealthiest men. or 
the bankrupt victim of too many oil spills, blowouts, and dry 
wells, you're sure to find Oil Tycoon both challenging and 
exciting. TRS 80 Model I and III Level II. I 6K RAM. 
0023R-16 TRS-80* tape $9.95 plus %2 soshippinj 

MASTER REVERSI 

Master Reversi is a tournament winning game program that 
has more features than any other reversi program on the market. 
It will challenge and teach you no matter what your degree of ex- 
pertise. 

What makes Master Reversi really special is its ability to allow 
in depth analysis of moves and games. You may examine the 
computer's evaluation and choice of moves. You can save and 
replay interesting moves and games. You will be able to study 
and manipulate dozens of tournament level games which are 
provided in the program s vast library. 

Master Reversi will enable you to overcome any barriers 
standing between you and a world championship Model I. Level 
II. I 6K. expansion interface. I disk drive. Not Mod III compatible 
0378RD— 16 TRS-80* Disk $29.95 plus $2 so shipping 

SANTA PARAVIA AND FIUMACCIO 

The year is AD. 1400. and you are the ruler of a tiny Italian 
city-state. You are ambitious by nature and intend to build your 
little city-state into a powerful kingdom. 

So begins Santa Paravia and Fiumaccio. where you and your 
fellow players compete as rulers of neighboring cities. You con- 
trol the grain harvest, feed your people, set tax rates, exercise 
justice, and invest in public works. 

Life was short back then, and you II have only a limited 
amount of time in which to build your kingdom. The lives of your 
serfs will depend on your decisions. If they are wise, then your 
city-state will grow and you will acquire loftier titles. If your rule 
is incompetent, your people will starve and your city-state may 
be invaded by your neighbors. 

How will you rule your kingdom? Will you become 
unscrupulous and follow the examples set by Niccolo 
Machiavelli in his book on government. The Prince — or will you 
be a benevolent ruler — an iron fist in a velvet glove? Only you 
can answer that question— with the Santa Paravia and Fiumaccio 
program. 

Level I & II. I6K 0043RI6 TRS-80* tape $9.95. 
Applesoft in ROM. 48K 01 74 A- 1 6 Apple tape $9.95. 
Applesoft in ROM. 48K 0229AD-I6 Apple* * disk $19.95. 
Tl 99 4. I6K 0273TM6 Texas Instruments tape $9.95. 

plus $2 SO shipping 



Our Guarantee 

Defective software may be returned for 
exact replacement at no cost to you. or for 
full credit, within thirty days of the invoice 
date You MUST enclose dated proof of pur 
chase for any replacement to be made, so 
please keep your invoice 

Should a disk or cassette become defec 
tive after the warranty period. Instant Soft- 
ware will still protect you. You may return 
the defective cassette along with $4 00. or 
any disk with $5.00 for a replacement 
Again, you must provide us with a copy of 
your invoice for any return to be made 



Instant Software 



TO ORDER: 

See your local 

Instant Software dealer 

or call toll-free 

1 -800-258-5473 

orders only 

In New Hampshire 
1 -603-924-7296 

Mon -Fri 8:00 am -4 30 pm EST 



master charge 





Peterborough, N.H. 03458 



A division of Wayne Green Inc. ^406 



'TRS-80 is a trademark of Radio Shack division of 

Tandy Corp 

* 'Apple is a trademark of Apple Computer Co 



164 Microcomputing, January 1982 



rr 



VAK-7 B" FLOPPY DISK SYSTEM 



FOR AIM- 65, SYM-1 



The VAK-7 Disk System was specifically designed 
for use with AIM-65 and SYM-1 Microcomputer 
Systems. The VAK-7 is a complete full size (8") 
Floppy Disk System. This system will Read, 
Write and Format IBM Single and Dual Density 
diskettes. The VAK-7 is available with both 
Single and Dual Sided Disk Drives. Each Disk 
Drive comes with its own cabinet and Power 
Supply. The VAK-7 can handle up to 4 disk 
drives, totaling more than 4.98 Megabytes of 
storage. 

The VAK-7 Disk System incorporates both ad- 
vanced hardware and innovative software de- 
signs. The addition of the VAK-7 produces a very 
powerful and useful computer system. Unlike 
most other disk systems, there is no require- 
ment for the user to provide RAM to hold the 
Disk Operating System software. No valuable 
time is wasted loading in the DOS from cassette 
tape, because the VAK-7 DOS software is in onboard ROM. The VAK-7 is located above the 32K boundary (8000 
HEX), leaving the user with a full 32K bytes of contiguous address space for his own use. 

AIM-65— Allows the user to save and load object code thru the AIM Monitor; to load, save, and append Text thru the 
AIM Editor; to load, save, and append Basic Programs thru the BASIC INTERPRETER; to assemble directly from 
disk single or multiple file programs. 

SYM-1— Allows the user to save and load Files for use with the SYM Monitor, SYM Basic, and RAE-1. 




ADDITIONAL COMMANDS: 



ACTIVATE A DELETED FILE 
COMPRESS A DISK 
RENAME A DISK FILE 
COPY A DISK 



FORMAT A DISK 
DELETE A DISK FILE 
INITIALIZE A DISK 
LIST CATALOG 



SPECIFICATIONS: 

1 Completely assembled, tested, and burned in. 
Occupies address 8000-8FFF for AIM-65, $9000-9FFF for 
SYM-1, or SE000-EFFF for KIM-1. 

► IBM Format; Single Density (128 bytes/sector); Dual Den- 
sity (256,512, or 1024 bytes/sector). 

► All ICs are in sockets. 

Fully buffered address and data bus. 

Standard KIM-4* BUS (both electrical pin-out and card 

size). 

' Designed for use with a regulated power supply, but has 
provisions for adding regulators for use with an 
unregulated power supply. 

• Dimensions: Board— 10" wide x 7" high (including card- 
edge). Cabinet— 9.25" wide x 10" high x 16" deep. 

» Power Requirements: + 5v DC @ 2 Amps. 

117 AC60Hz @ 2 Amps. 

► Shipping Weight: 25 lbs. 

KIM-4 is a product of MOS Technology/C.B.M. 



PRICING: 

VAK-7 $1,299.00 

Controller and One Single-Sided Drive 

VAK-7A $599.00 

Additional Single-Sided Drive with Cabinet 
and Power Supply 

VAK-7 B $1,599.00 

Controller and One Dual-Sided Drive 

VAK-7C $899.00 

Additional Dual-Sided Drive with Cabinet 
and Power Supply 

CALL OR WRITE FOR 
FREIGHT CHARGES 




^52 



ENTERPRISES 

INCORPORATED 



4030 N. 27th Avenue, Suite D 
Phoenix, AZ 85017 
(602) 265-7564 




•See List of Advertisers on page 178 



Microcomputing, January 1982 165 



B.6. MICRO 



P.O. Box 280298 Dallas, Texas 75228 

(214) 271 5546 

• Visa • MasterCard • American Express • 



STATIC RAM 



*21L02-1KX1250n.s. 
Low Power 95 

2114L-31KX4 300n.s. 

Low Power. . . 2.95 8/*22.00 

MM5257 (TMS4044) 4KX1 
450 n.s 2.95 

HM61 16P4-2KX8 + 5v-200 n.s. 
CMOS Low Power 2716 
Style Pin Out. 14.95 8/»1 05.00 

6514 J-5 1KX4-CMOS Super 
Low Power Similar to 350 n.s. 
21 14 Same Pin Out . . . 2.95 

TMM2016-2KX8 + 5v-NMOS 
200 n.s.-2716 Style Pin 
Out 14.95 8/»1 05.00 



TTL 






74LS 




7400 .19 7474 29 












7402 .19 7486 .29 


LS00 


.24 


LS139 


.79 


LS244 .99 


7404 .19 74109 .45 


LS04 


.24 


LS151 


.79 


LS245 1.95 


7406 .19 74125 .49 


LS05 


.24 


LS153 


.79 


LS266 .59 


7408 .19 74154 1.19 


LS10 


.24 


LS154 


1.75 


LS283 .99 


7410 .19 74175 .79 


LS14 


.89 


LS157 


.79 


LS290 .99 


7438 22 74367 .59 


LS20 


.24 


LS161 


.99 


LS293 1.75 


7440 .19 


LS27 
LS30 
LS32 
LS74 


.24 
.24 
.36 
.44 


LS164 
LS166 
LS175 
LS181 


.99 

.99 

.89 

1.99 


LS367 .79 
LS368 .79 
LS373 .99 
LS374 1.49 


74-S 


74S04 $ .39 

74S138 95 


74S240 1.99 


LS85 


.95 


LS193 


.89 


LS375 1.19 


74S244 1.99 


LS86 


.39 


LS221 


1.10 


LS377 1.49 




LS90 
LS123 
LS125 
LS138 


.69 
.99 
.95 
.79 


LS240 
LS241 
LS242 
LS243 


.99 

.99 

1.49 

1.49 


LS393 1.50 
LS399 .99 


SPECIAL! 

4116- 300 n.s. 

8/12.95 



CMOS 



CD4001 .25 

CD4011 .25 

CD4012 .20 

CD4017 .85 

CD4023 .20 

CD4042 .60 



CD4049 .40 

CD4050 .40 

CD4066 .65 

CD4511 60 

CD4520 .70 

74C903 .20 



DYNAMIC RAM 



2107B-4 (MM5280N-5)-4KX1 
22 pin 1.59 

4027-4KX1-250 n.s 1.75 

*4116-16KX1-300n.s.. 8/H2.95 
*41 16-16KX1-200 n.s.. 8/15.95 

HM4164- + 5v 64K Dynamic 

. . 15.95 8/120 



Z-80 



Z80A-4MHZ CPU $8.95 

Z80PIO Parallel $5.95 

ZBOSIO-Z-80 2 Chan. Ser. . $24.95 

'Z80DMA-DMA Controller $9.95 

Z80 2.5 MHZ CPU $6.95 



MISCELLANEOUS 



*TR1602-UART same as 

AY5-1013 $1.99 

•IM6402- + 5V. High speed 

UART-AY5-1013 pin out $3.95 
•MC1488-1489-RS232 Receiver 

and drive H.#.... pair $1.19 
AY3«910-Sound Chip with 60 

page data manual . . . $12.95 
82S1 23-32X8 Tri State Bi polar 

PROM $3.99 

*555-timer 5/$1.10 

1771 $22.50 

Single Denisty Floppy Disc Controller 

DM8131 $2.99 

6 Bit Unified Bus Comparator 



8 Pin Dip Jumpers 3/$1.00 



EPROM 



• Asterik Denotes Super Specials 

M702A 256X81 us 2.50 

2708 1KX8 450n.s. 2.95 

27A08 1 KX8 350 n.s. 3.95 

*2716 2KX8 + 5v 450 n.s. 5.95 

•2716-1 2KX8 + 5V 350 n.s. 9.95 

*2732 4KX8450n.s. 14.95 

Intel Pin Out 

*2532 4KX8450n.s. 14.95 

T.I. Pin Out 

2732A-3 4K x 8 350n.s. 17.50 

Intel Pin Out Low Power 



80 80 SUPPORT 



8216 Buffer $1.95 

8251 USAR $4.95 

8253 Baud Rate Gen. $8.95 



BIT SLICE 



AMD2901-4Bit Slice $7.95 

AMD2903-4 Bit Super Slice 

$12.95 

AMD2911 -Sequencer $3.95 

AMD29705-16 Register Files 

$4.95 



VOLTAGE REGULATORS 



7805 .99 

7812 .99 

7815 .99 

7824 .99 



7905 .99 

7912 .99 

7915 .99 

7924 .99 



* LM323K-5v-3amp to-3 *3.95 3/10.00 



TERMS: Add <1. SO postage *e pay balance. Orders over ■ 50. 00 add 85* for insurance. No C. 0.0. Texas Res. add 5". Ta*. 90 Day Money Back Guarantee on all 
items. All items subject to prior sale. Prices subject to change without notice. Foreign order - US funds only. We cannot ship to Mexico. Countries other than 
Canada add I 50 shipping and handling. 



166 Microcomputing, January 1982 





Single User System 

SBC-200, 64K ExpandoRAM II, Versafloppy II, CP/M 2.2 

$995.00 

4 MHz Z-80A CPU, 64K RAM, serial I/O port, 
parallel I/O port, double-density disk controller, 
CP/M 2.2 disk and manuals, system monitor, 
control and diagnostic software. 

-All boards are assembled and tested- 

ExpandoRAM III 



64K to 256K expandable RAM board 




SD Systems has duplicated the famous 
reliability of their ExpandoRAM I and II boards 
in the new ExpandoRAM III, a board capable of 
containing 256K of high speed RAM. Utilizing the 
new 64K x 1 dymanic RAM chips, you can 
configure a memory of 64K, 128K, 192K, or 256K, 
all on one S-100 board. Memory address decoding 
is done by a programmed bipolar ROM so that the 
memory map may be dip-switch configured to 
work with either COSMOS/MPM-type systems or 
with OASIS-type systems. 

Extensive application notes concerning how to 
operate the ExpandoRAM III with Cromemco, 
Intersystems, and other popular 4 MHz Z-80 
systems are contained in the manual. 

MEM-65064A 64K A&T $495.00 

MEM-65128A 128K A & T $639.95 

MEM-65192A 192K A & T $769.95 

MEM-65256A 256K A&T $879.95 

Versafloppy II 

Double density controller with CP/M 2.2 

. ^ ■ .. W ^ ■ 




• S-100 bus compatible • IBM 3740 compatible 
soft sectored format • Controls single and double- 
sided drives, single or double density, 5Va" and 8" 
drives in any combination of four simultaneously 
• Drive select and side select circuitry • Analog 
phase-locked loop data seperator • Vectored 
interrupt operation optional • CP/M 2.2 disk and 
manual set included • Control/diagnostic 
software PROM included 

The Versafloppy II is faster, more stable and more 
tolerant of bit shift and "jitter" than most 
controllers. CP/M 2.2 and all necessary control 
and diagnostic software are included. 

IOD-1160A A & T with CP/M 2.2 .. $370.00 



SBC-200 

2 or 4 MHz single board computer 




• S-100 bus compatible • Powerful 4M Hz Z-80A 
CPU • Synchronous/asynchronous serial I/O 
port with RS-232 interface and software 
programmable baud rates up to 9600 baud • 
Parallel input and parallel output port • Four 
channel counter/timer • Four maskable, vectored 
interrupt inputs and a non-maskable interrupt • 
IK of onboard RAM • Up to 32K of onboard 
ROM • System monitor PROM included 

The SBC-200 is an excellent CPU board to base a 
microcomputer system around. With on-board 
RAM, ROM, and I/O, the SBC-200 allows you to 
build a powerful three-board system that has the 
same features found in most five-board 
microcomputers. The SBC-200 is compatible with 
both single-user and multi-user systems. 

CPU-30200A A&T with monitor . $299.95 

ExpandoRAM II 

16K to 64K expandable RAM board 




• S-100 bus compatible • Up to 4MHz operation • 
Expandable from 16K to 64K • Uses 16 x 1 4116 
memory chips • Page mode operation allows up to 
8 memory boards on the bus • Phantom output 
disable • Invisible onboard refresh 

The ExpandoRAM II is compatible with most S- 
100 CPUs. When other SD System' series II 
boards are combined with the ExpandoRAM II, 
they create a microcomputer system with 
exceptional capabilities and features. 

MEM-16630A 16K A & T $325.00 

MEM-32631A 32K A&T $345.00 

MEM-48632A 48K A&T $365.00 

MEM-64633A 64K A&T $385.0 

COSMOS 

Multi-user operating system 

• Multi-user disk operating system • Allows up to 
8 users to run independent jobs concurrently • 
Each user has a seperate file directory 

COMOS supports all the file structures of CP/M 
2.2, and is compatible at the applications program 
level with CP/M 2.2, so that most programs 
written to run under CP/M 2.2 or SDOS will also 
run under COSMOS. 

SFC-55009039F COSMOS on 8" disk $395.00 



Multi-User System 

SBC 200, 256K ExpandoRAM III, Versafloppy II. MPC4 
COSMOS Multiuser Operating System, C BASIC II 

$1 995. 00 

Two Z-80A CPUs (4 MHz), 256K RAM, 5 serial I/O 
ports with independently programmable baud 
rates and vectored interrupts, parallel input port, 
parallel output port, 8 counter/timer channels, 
real time clock, single and double sided/single or 
double density disk controller for 5'/i" and 8" 
drives, up to 36K of onboard ROM, CP/M 2.2 
compatible COSMOS interrupt driven multi-user 
disk operating system, allows up to 8 users to run 
independent jobs concurrently, C BASIC II, 
control and diagnostic software in PROM 
included. 

-All boards are assembled and tested- 

MPC-4 

Intelligent communications interface 





I 

I 

I 
I 

I 

I 



• Four buffered serial I/O ports • Onboard Z- 
80A processor • Four CTC channels • 
Independently programmable baud rates • 
Vectored interrupt capability • Up to 4K of on- 
board PROM • Up to 2K of onboard RAM • On- 
board firmware 

This is not just another four-port serial 
I/O board! The on-board processor and firmware 
provide sufficient intelligence to allow the MPC-4 
to handle time consuming I/O tasks, rather than 
loading down your CPU. To increase overall 
efficiency, each serial channel has an 80 character 
input buffer and a 128 character output buffer. 
The onboard firmware can be modified to make 
the board SDLC or BISYNC compatible. In 
combination with SD's COSMOS operating 
system (which is included with the MPC-4), this 
board makes a perfect building block for a multi- 
user system. 

IOI-1504A A & T with COSMOS .. $495.00 



Place Orders Toll Free 

Continental U.S. Inside California 

800-421-5500 800-262-1710 

For Technical Inquires or Customer Service call: 

213-973-7707 






Computer Products 

1901 W. Rosecrans, Hawthorne. Ca 90250 

TKKMS of SALE: Cash, checks, credit cards, or 
Purchase Orders from qualified firms and institutions. 
Minimum Order $15.00. California residents add 6% 
tax. Minimum shipping & handling charge $:J.()0. 
Pricing & availibility subject to change 






»^48 



Computer Products 



Printers 



Accessories for Apple Single Board Computer 




BETTER THAN EPSON ! - Okidata 

Microline 82 A ho 132 column. 120 CPS. 9 x 9 dot 

matrix, friction feed, pin feed, adjustable tractor feed 
(removable), handles t part forms up to 9.5" wide, rear & 
bottom feed, paper tear bar, 100% duty cycle 200. 000,000 
character print head, bi directional logic seeking, both 
serial & parallel interfaces included, front panel snitch & 
program control of 10 different form lengths, uses 
inexpensive spool type ribbons, double width & condensed 
characters, true lou cr case descenders & graphics 

PRM -43082 with FREE tractor . ... $539.95 
Microline 83A 132 232 column. 120 CPS, handles 

forms up to 15" wide, plus all the features of the H2A. 

PRM-43083 with FREE tractor .... $749.95 

PRA-27081A Apple card $39.95 

PRA-27082A Apple cable $19.95 

PRA-27087A TRS-80 cable $24.95 

PRA-43080 Extra ribbons pkg. of 2 ... $9.95 

INEXPENSIVE PRINTERS - Epson 

MX-70 SO column. HO CPS. 5x7 dot matrix, adjustable 
tractor feed, & graphics 

PRM-27070 List $459 $399.95 

MX-80 HO column, HO CPS. bidirectional logic seeking 
printing, 9 x 9 dot matrix, adjustable tractor feed, & 64 
graphics characters 

PRM-27080 List $645 $469.95 

MX-80FT same as MX-HO with friction feed added. 
PRM-27082 List $745 $559.95 

MX- 100 132 column, correspondence quality, graphics, 
up to 15" paper, friction feed & adjustable tractor feed. 9 x 9 
dot matrix. HO CPS. 

PRM-27100 List $945 $759.95 

PRA-27084 Serial interface $69.95 

PRA-27088 Serial intf & 2K buffer .. $144.95 

PRA-27081 Apple card $74.95 

PRA-27082 Apple cable $22.95 

PRA-27086 IEEE 4HH card $52.95 

PRA-27087 TRS-80 cable $32.95 

PRA-27085 Graftrax II $95.00 

PRA-27083 Extra ribbon $14.95 

NEC 7700 & 3500 

NEC Spinwriter w/Intelligent Controller 

Standard serial, Centronics parallel, and current 
loop interfaces • Selectable baud rates 50 to 19,200 

• Automatic bidirectional printing • Logic 
seeking • 650 character buffer with optional 16K 
buffer • 55 characters per second print speed • 
Comes with vertical forms tractor, ribbon, thimble 
and cable • Diablo compatible software • 
Available with or without optional front panel 

PRD-55511 IK no front panel $2795.00 

16K no front panel ..$2895.00 

IK w front panel $2995.00 

16K w front panel . . . $3095.00 

Intersell NEC 3500Q 

New from NEC - the 3500 series Spinwriters. 
Incorporates all the features and reliability of the 
5500 and 7700 series Spinwriters into an 
inexpensive 30 CPS letter quality printer with an 
optional bi-directional tractor assembly. 

PRD-55351 3500Q1K $1995.00 

PRD-55352 3500Q 16K $20*5.00 

PRA-55100 Deluxe tractor option .. $300.00 



PRD-55512 
PRD-55515 
PRD-55516 



16K MEMORY UPGRADE 

Add HiK of RAM to your TRS-80, Apple, or Exidy in just 
minutes. We've sold thousands of these 16K RAM 
upgrades which include the appropriate memory chips (as 
specified by the manufacturer), all necessary jumper 
blocks, fool proof instructions, and our 1 year guarantee. 

MEX-16100K TRS-80 kit $25.00 

MEX-16101K Apple kit $25.00 

MEX-16102K Exidy kit $25.00 

16K RAM CARD - for Apple II 

Expand your Apple to 64K, 1 year warranty 

MEX-16500A Save $70.00 !!! $129.95 



Z-80* CARD for APPLE 

Two computers in one. Z-H0 & 6502, more than doubles the 
power & potential of your Apple, includes Z-80* CPU card, 
CP M '2.2, & BASIC 80 

CPX-30800A A & T $299.95 



8" DISK CONTROLLER 

New from Vista Computer, single or double sided, single or 
double density, compatible with DOS 12/33, Pascal, & CPM 
2.2. Shugart & Qume compatible 
IOD-2700A A&T $499.95 



2 MEGABYTES for Apple II 

Complete package includes: Two 8" double-density disk 
dm >es, Vista double-density 8" disk controller, cabinet, power 
supply, & cables, DOS 3.2/3.3, CP/M 2.2, & Pascal 
compatible. 

1 MegaByte Package (Kit) $1495.00 

1 MegaByte Package (A&T) $1695.00 

2 MegaByte Package (Kit) $1795.00 

2 MegaByte Package (A&T) $19.95 

CPS MULTICARD - Mtn. Computer 

Three cards in one! Real tunc clock calendar, serial interface. 
iV- parallel intvrfaiv all on one card. 

IOX-2300A A&T $199.95 

AIO, ASIO, APIO - S.S.M. 

Parallel & serial interface for your Apple (see Byte pg 11) 

IOI-2050K Par&Serkit $139.95 

IOI-2050A Par&SerA&T $169.95 

IOI-2052K Serial kit $89.95 

IOI-2052A Serial A&T $99.95 

IOI-2054K Parallel kit $69.95 

IOI-2054A Parallel A&T $89.95 

A488 - S.S.M. 

IEEE 48H controller, uses simple basic commands, 
include* firmware and cable, 1 year guarantee, (see April 
Byte pg 11) 

IOX-7488A A&T $399.95 



Modems 



CAT MODEMS - Novation 

CA T 300 baud, acoustic, answer orginate 

IOM-5200A List $189.95 $149.95 

D-CAT 300 baud direct connect, answer orginate 

IOM-5201A List $199.95 $169.95 

AUTO-CAT Auto answer orginate. direct connect 

IOM-5230A List $299.95 $239.95 

Apple-CAT - Novation 

Soft u arc selectable 1200 or 300 baud, direct connect, auto 
answer autodial, auxiliary .{aire KS232C serial port for 
printer. 

I OM -5232 A Save $50.00!!! $325.00 



SMARTMODEM - Hayes 

Sophisticated direct-connect autoanswer autodial modern, 
touch t7Trnorpul.se dialing. RS-2.'i2C interface, programmable 

IOM-5400A Smartmodem $269.95 




AIM-65 - Rockwell 

H502 (iimputcr tilth alphanumeric display, printer. & 
keyboard, and complete instructional manuals 

CPK-5O160 IK AIM $424.95 

CPK-50468 4K AIM $474.95 

SFK-74600008E SK BASIC ROM .. $64.95 
SFK-64600004E 4 K assembler ROM $43.95 

PSX-030A Power supply $64.95 

ENX-000002 Enclosure $54.95 

IK AIM. sE BASIC, power supply. <£ enclosure 
Special package price $649.95 



Z-80 STARTER KIT - SD Systems 

Complete Z-80 microcomputer with RAM, ROM, I/O, 
keyboard, display, kludge area, manual, & workbook 

CPS-30100K KIT $299.95 

CPS-30100A A&T $469.95 

SYM-1 - Synertek Systems 

Single board computer with I K of RAM. IK of ROM. key pad. 
LED display. JOrria & cassette interface on board. 

CPK-50020A A & T $249.95 



Video Monitors 



HI-RES 12" GREEN - Zenith 

15 MHz bandwidth. 700 lines inch. P31 green phosphor, 
switchabie it) or HO columns, small, light weight & portable. 

VDM-201201 List price $150.00 .... $1 18.95 
Leedex / Amdek 

Reasonably priced video monitors 

VDM-801210 Video 100 12" B&W . . $139.95 
VDM-801230 Video 100-80 12" H& W $179.95 
VDM-801250 12" Green Phospor .... $169.95 
VDC-801310 13" Color I $379.95 

12" COLOR MONITOR - NEC 

Hi res monitor with audio & sculptured case 
VDC-651212 Color Monitor $479.95 

12" GREEN SCREEN - NEC 

20 MHz. P.'il phosphor video monitor with audio, 
exceptionally high resolution A fantastic monitor at a 
very reasonable price 

VDM-651200 Special Sale Price $199.95 



Video Terminals 



AMBER SCREEN - Volker Craig 

Detachable keyboard, amber on black display, 7 x 9 dot 
matrix. 10 program function keys. I 1 key numeric pad. 12" 
non glare screen. SO to 19.200 baud, direct cursor control, 
auxiliary hi directional serial port 

VDT-351200 List $795.00 $645.00 



VIEWPIONT- ADDS 

Dctai liable keyboard, serial RS2'i2C interface, baud rates 
from 1 10 to I9.200. auxiliary serial output port. 21 x HO display, 

VDT-501210 Sale Priced $639.95 

TELE VI DEO 950 
VDT-901250 List $1195.00 $995.00 

DIALOGUE 80 - Ampex 
VDT-230080 List $1195.00 $895.00 



I 






^48 



Computer Products 



S-HM) CPU Boards 



THE BIG Z* - Jade 

2 or 4 MHz switchable Z-80* CPU with serial I/O, 
accomodates 2708, 2716, or 2732 EPROM, baud rates from 
75 to 96(H) 

CPU-30201K Kit $139.95 

CPU-30201A A&T $189.95 

CPU-30200B Bare board $35.00 

2810 Z-80* CPU - Cal Comp Sys 
2 4 MHz Z-80A *('!'( ' with HS-2.V2C serial I Opart and on 

board MOSS 2.2 monitor PROM, front panel compatible. 

CPU-30400A A&T $269.95 

CB-2 Z-80 CPU - S.S.M. 

2 or 4 MHz Z-80 CPU board with provision for up to 8K of 
ROM or 4K of RAM on board, extended addressing, IEEE 
S-IOO, front panel compatible. 

CPU-30300K Kit $239.95 

CPU-30300A A&T $299.95 



S-100 PROM Boards 



PROM- 100 - SD Systems 

2708, 2716, 2732 EPROM programmer w/ software 

MEM-99520K Kit $189.95 

MEM-99520A A&T $249.95 

PB-1 - S.S.M. 

2708, 2716 EPROM board with built-in programmer 

MEM-99510K Kit $154.95 

MEM-99510A A&T $219.95 

EPROM BOARD - Jade 

16K or 32K uses 2708's or 2716's, IK boundary 

MEM-16230K Kit $79.95 

MEM-16230A A&T $119.95 



8-100 Video Boards 



VB-3 - S.S.M. 

80 characters x 24 lines expandable to 80 x 48 for a full page 
of text, upper & lower case, 256 user defined symbols, 160 x 
192 graphics matrix, memory mapped, has key board 
input. 

IOV-1095K 4 MHz kit $349.95 

IOV-1095A 4 MHz A&T $439.95 

IOV-1096K 80x48 upgrade $39.95 

VDB-8024 - SD Systems 

HO x 24 I/O mapped video board with keyboard I O, and 

on board Z-HOA * 

IOV-1020A A&T $459.95 

VIDEO BOARD - S.S.M. 

84 characters x 16 lines. 12H x 48 matrix for graphics, full 
upper lower case ASCII character set. numbers, symbols, 
and greek letters, normal reverse blinking video, S-100. 

JOV-1051K Kit $149.95 

IOV-1051A A&T $219.95 

IOV-1051B Bare board $34.95 



S-100 Motherboards 



ISO-BUS - Jade 

Silent, simple, and on sale - a better motherboard 
6 Slot (5' A" x 8%") 

MBS-061B Bare board $19.95 

MBS-061 K Kit $39.95 

MBS-061A A&T $49.95 

12 Slot (9V 4 " x8%") 

MBS-121B Bare board $29.95 

MBS-121K Kit $69.95 

MBS-121 A A&T $89.95 

1 8 Slot (14'/j" x 8%") 

MBS-181B Bare board $49.95 

MBS-181K Kit $99.95 

MBS-181A A&T $139.95 



S-100 RAM Boards 



MEMORY BANK - Jade 

4 MHz, S 100, bank selectable, expandable from 16K to 64K 

MEM-99730B Bare Board $49.95 

MEM-99730K Kit no RAM $199.95 

MEM-32731K 32 K Kit $239.95 

MEM-64733K 64 K Kit $279.95 

Assembled & Tested add $50.00 

64K RAM - Calif Computer Sys 

/ MHz bank port / bank byte selectable, extended 
addressing, 16K bank selectable, PHANTOM line allows 
memory overlay, 8080 Z-80 / front panel compatible. 
MEM-64565A A&T $575.00 

64K STATIC RAM - Mem Merchant 

64K static S-100 RAM card, 4-16K banks, up to 8MHz 
MEM-64400A A&T $789.95 

32K STATIC RAM - Jade 

2 or 4 MHz expandable static RAM board uses 21 14L's 

MEM-16151K 16K4MHzkit $169.95 

MEM-32151K 32K 4 MHz kit $299.95 

Assembled & tested add $50.00 

16K STATIC RAM - Mem Merchant 

4 MHz 16K static RAM board, IEEE S-100, bank selectable. 
Phantom capability, addressable in 4K blocks, "disable-able" 
in IK segments, extended addressing, low power 
MEM-16171A A&T $164.95 



S-100 Disk Controllers 



DOUBLE-D - Jade 

Double density controller with the inside track, onboard Z- 
80A*, printer port, IEEE S-100, can function on an 
interrupt driven buss 

IOD-1200K Kit $299.95 

IOD-1200A A&T $375.00 

IOD-1200B Bare board $59.95 

DOUBLE DENSITY - Cal Comp Sys 

.)' /" and 8" disk controller, single or double density, with 
onboard boot loader ROM. and free CP/M 2.2* and 
manual set. 

IOD-1300A A&T $374.95 



S-100 I/O Boards 



S.P.I.C. - Jade 

Our new I/O card with 2 SIO's, 4 CTC's, and 1 PIO 
IOI-1045K 2 CTC's, I SIO, I PIO . . $179.95 

IOI-1045A A&T $239.95 

IOI-1046K 4 CTC's, 2 SIO's, 1 PIO $219.95 

IOI-1046A A&T $299.95 

IOI-1045B Bare board w/ manual . . . $49.95 

1/0-4 - S.S.M. 

2 serial I/O ports plus 2 parallel I/O ports 

IOI-1010K Kit $179.95 

IOI-1010A A&T $249.95 

IOI-1010B Bare board $35.00 



S-100 Mainframes 



MAINFRAME - Cal Comp Sys 

12 slot S-100 mainframe with 20 amp power supply 

ENC-1 12105 Kit $329.95 

ENC-1 12106 A & T $399.95 

DISK MAINFRAME - N.P.C. 

Holds 2 8" drives and a 12 slot S 100 system. Attractive 
metal cabinet with 12 slot nmtlu-rboard & card cage, power 
supply, dual fans, lighted switch, and other professional 
feat arcs 

ENS- 1 12325 with 25 amp p.s $699.95 



Disk Drives 




Handsome metal cabinet with proportionally 
balanced air How system • Rugged dual drive 
power supply • Power cable kit • Power switch, 
line cord, fuse holder, cooling fan • Never-Mar 
rubber feet • All necessary hardware to mount 2- 
8" disk drives, power supply, and fan • Does not 
include signal cable 

Dual S" Subassembly Cabinet 
END-000420 Bare cabinet $59.95 

END-000421 Cabinet kit $225.00 

END-000431 A&T $359.95 

H" Disk Drive Subsystems 
Singl<> Sided, Double Density 
END-000423 Kit w/2 FDlOOHDs . $924.95 
END-000424 A & T w 2 FDWOHDs $1124.95 
END-000433 Kit w/2 SAHOIRs ... $999.95 
KND-000434 A 4 T w/2 SAHOIRs $1195.00 

8" Disk Drive Subsystems 
Double Sided, Double Density 
END-000426 Kit w 2 DTHs $1224.95 

END-000427 A & Tic 2 DTHs $1424.95 

END-000436 Kit w/2 SA-85IR* $1495.00 
END-000437 A & Tu 2 SA -H51Rs $1695.00 

QUME DT-8 

8" Double-Sided, Double-Density Disk Drive 

1 Drive . . . $524.95 each 

2 Drives . $499.95 each 
10 Drives $479.95 each 

Jade Part Number MSF- 750080 

Shugart 801R 

8" Single-Sided, Double-Density Disk Drive 

1 Drive . . . $394.95 each 

2 Drives . $389.95 each 

Jade Part Number MSF-10801R 

SIEMENS 8" 

8" Single-Sided, Double-Density Disk Drive 

1 Drive . . . $384.95 each 

2 Drives . $349.95 each 
10 Drives $324.95 each 

Jade Part Number MSF-201 120 

MPI B-51 

5 1 i" Single-Sided, Double-Density Disk Drive 

1 Drive . . 

2 Drives 
10 Drives 



$234.95 each 
$224.95 each 
$219.95 each 



Jade Part Number MSM-155100 
ENI)-(>00213 Que & power supply $74.95 



INTELLIGENT VIDEO I/O FOR S-100 BUS 







VIO-X 

The VIO-X Video I/O Interface for the 
S-100 bus provides features equal to most 
intelligent terminals both efficiently and 
economically. It allows the use of standard 
keyboards and CRT monitors in conjunc- 
tion with existing hardware and software. It 
will operate with no additional overhead in 
S-100 systems regardless of processor or 
system speed. 

Through the use of the Intel 8275 CRT 
controller with an onboard 8085 processor 
and 4k memory, the VIO-X interface oper- 
ates independently of the host system and 
communicates via two ports, thus elimi- 
nating the need for host memory space. 
The screen display rate is effectively 80,000 
baud. 

The VIO-X1 provides an 80 character by 
25 line format (24 lines plus status line) 
using a 5 x 7 character set in a 7 x 10 dot 
matrix to display the full upper and lower 
case ASCII alphanumeric 96 printable 
character set (including true descenders) 
with 32 special characters for escape and 
control characters. An optional 2732 
character generator is available which 
allows an alternate 7 x 10 contiguous 
graphics character set. 




Distributed by 



The VIO-X2 also offers an 80 character 
by 25 line format but uses a 7 x 7 character 
set in a 9 x 10 dot matrix allowing high- 
resolution characters to be used. This 
model also includes expanded firmware for 
block mode editing and light pen location. 
Contiguous graphics characters are not 
supported. 

Both models support a full set of control 
characters and escape sequences, includ- 
ing controls for video attributes, cursor 
location and positioning, cursor toggle, 
and scroll speed. An onboard Real Time 
Clock (RTC) is displayed in the status line 
and may be read or set from the host 
system. A checksum test is performed on 
power-up on the firmware EPROM. 

Video attributes provided by the 
8275 in the VIO-X include: 

• FLASH CHARACTER 

• INVERSE CHARACTER 

• UNDERLINE CHARACTER or 

• ALT. CHARACTER SET 

• DIM CHARACTER 

The above functions may be toggled 
together or separately. 

The board may be addressed at any port 
pair in the IEEE 696 (S-100) host system. 
Status and data ports may be swapped if 
necessary. Inputs are provided for parallel 
keyboard and for light pen as well as an 
output for audio signalling. The interrupt 
structure is completely compatible with 
Digital Research's MP/M ®. 

»^285 



Additional features include: 

• HIGH SPEED OPERATION 

• PORT MAPPED IEEE S-100 
INTERFACE 

• FORWARD/REVERSE SCROLL or 

• PROTECTED SCREEN FIELDS 

• CONVERSATIONAL or BLOCK 
MODE (opt) 

• INTERRUPT OPERATION 

• CUSTOM CHARACTER SET 

• CONTROL CHARACTERS 

• ESCAPE CHARACTER 
COMMANDS 

• INTELLIGENT TERMINAL 
EMULATION 

• TWO PAGE SCREEN MEMORY 

VIO-X1 - 80 X 25 5 X7 A & T $295.00 

Conversational Mode 
VIO-X2 -80X25 7X7A&T $345.00 

Conversational & Block Modes 






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VIOX S-100 I/O INTERFACE 



FULCRUM , 

COMPUTER PRODUCTS WW COMPONENT SUPPLY INC. 1771JUNCTION AVENUE • SAN JOSE, CA 9511 2 • (408)295-7171 



1 70 Microcomputing, January 1982 



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DIGITAL RESEARCH COMPUTERS 

(214) 271-3538 



32K S-100 EPROM CARD 
NEW! 




$79.95 



USES 2716 s 
Blank PC Board - $34 

ASSEMBLED & TESTED 
ADD $30 

SPECIAL: 2716 EPROM s (450 NS) Are $9.95 Ea. With Above Kit. 

Any or all EPROM locations can be 



KIT FEATURES: 

1 Uses +5V only 2716 (2Kx8) EPROM's 

2 Allows up to 32K of software on line! 

3 IEEE S-100 Compatible 

4. Addressable as two independent 16K 
blocks. 

5 Cromemco extended or Northstar bank 
select 

6 On board wait state circuitry if needed 



disabled 

Double sided PC board, solder-masked, 

silk-screened 

Gold plated contact fingers 

Unselected EPROMs automatically 

powered down for low power. 

Fully buffered and bypassed. 

Easy and quick to assemble 



16K STATIC RAM KIT-S 100 BUSS 



PRICE CUT! 







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inn i ii n n 1 1 n 







• 



KIT FEATURES: ^^ 

1. Addressable as four separate 4K Blocks. 
2 ON BOARD BANK SELECT circuitry. (Cro- 
memco Standard') Allows up to 512K on line! 
3. Uses 2114 (450NS) 4K Static Rams 

4 ON BOARD SELECTABLE WAIT STATES 

5 Double sided PC Board, with solder mask and 
silk screened layout. Gold plated contact fingers 

6. All address and data lines fully buffered ASSEMBLED & TESTED-ADD $35 

7. Kit includes ALL parts and sockets 
8 PHANTOM is jumpered to PIN 67 
9. LOW POWER: under 15 amps TYPICAL from 
the +8 Volt Buss 

10 Blank PC Board can be populated as any 
multiple of 4K. 



BLANK PC BOARD W/DATA-$33 

LOW PROFILE SOCKET SET-$12 

SUPPORT IC'S & CAPS-$19.95 



OUR #1 SELLING 
RAM BOARD! 



H0«* STEREO! n^, 

S-100 SOUND COMPUTER BOARD 



COMPLETE KIT! 
$3495 

(WITH DATA MANUAL) 



At last, an S-100 Board that unleashes the full power of two 
unbelievableGeneral Instruments AY3-8910NMOS computer 
sound IC's. Allows you under total computer control to 
generate an infinite number of special sound effects for 
games or any other program. Sounds can be called in BASIC, 
ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE, etc 
KIT FEATURES: 

* TWO Gl SOUND COMPUTER ICS 

* FOUR PARALLEL I/O PORTS ON BOARD. 

* USES ON BOARD AUDIO AMPS OR YOUR STEREO. 

* ON BOARD PROTO TYPING AREA. 

* ALL SOCKETS. PARTS AND HARDWARE ARE INCLUDED 

* PC BOARD IS SOLDERMASKED. SILK SCREENED. WITH GOLD CONTACTS 

* EASY QUICK. AND FUN TO BUILD. WITH FULL INSTRUCTIONS 

* USES PROGRAMMED I/O FOR MAXIMUM SYSTEM FLEXIBILITY. 
Both Basic and Assembly Language Programming examples are included. 

SOFTWARE: 

SCL T " is now available! Our Sound Command Language makes writing Sound Effects programs 
a SNAP! SCL™ also includes routines for Register-Examine-Modify, Memory-Examine-Modify. 
and Play-Memory. SCL™ is available on CP/M' compatible diskette or 2708 or 2716. Diskette - 
$24.95 2706 - $19.95 2716 - $29.95. Diskette includes the source. EPROM'S are ORG at 
E0O0H (Diskette is 8 Inch Soft Sectored) 



BLANK PC 

BOARD W/DATA 

$31 



32K SS-50 RAM 



$29900 



■*►- * 



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For 2MHZ 
Add $10 



Blank PC Board 
$50 



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For SWTPC 
6800 - 6809 Buss 



Support IC's 

and Caps 

$19.95 

Complete Socket Set 

$21.00 



Fully Assembled, 

Tested, Burned In 

Add $30 



At Last! An affordable 32K Static RAM with full 
6809 Capability. 

FEATURES: 

1. Uses proven low power 2114 Static RAMS. 

2. Supports SS50C - EXTENDED ADDRESSING. 

3. All parts and sockets included. 

4. Dip Switch address select as a 32K block. 

5. Extended addressing can be disabled. 

6. Works with all existing 6800 SS50 systems. 

7. Fully bypassed. PC Board is double sided, 
plated thru, with silk screen. 



16K STATIC RAM SS-50 BUSS 



PRICE CUT! 




FULLY STATIC! 



FOR 2MHZ 
ADD $10 



^<^^t» ■*-*v**- H *$*t*np f * " * 



FOR SWTPC 
6800 BUSS! 



ASSEMBLED AND 
TESTED - $35 



KIT FEATURES 

1 Addressable on 16K Boundaries 

2 Uses ?114 Static Ram 

3 Fully Bypassed 

4 Double sided PC Board Solder mask 
and silk screened layout 

5 A'l Parts and Sockets included 

6 Low Powe' Under 1 5 Amps Typical 



BLANK PC BOARD— $35 COMPLETE SOCKET SET— $12 

SUPPORT IC'S AND CAPS— $19.95 



SPECIAL PURCHASE! 

UART SALE! 



TR1602B — SAME 
AY5-1013, ETC. 



TMS601 1 , 
40 PIN DIP 



TR1602B 



EACH 



4 For $ 10 



4K STATIC RAM 

National Semi. MM5257. Arranged 4K x 1. +5V, 18 PIN DIP. A 
Lower Power, Plug in Replacement for TMS 4044. 450 NS. 
Several Boards on the Market Will Accept These Rams. SUPER 
SURPLUS PURCHASE! PRIME NEW UNITS! 

8 for $16 32 for $59.95 



Digital Research Computers 



(OF TEXAS) 



P.O. BOX 401565 • GARLAND, TEXAS 75040 • (214) 271-3538 



CRT CONTROLLER CHIP 
SMC #CRT 5037. PROGRAMMABLE FOR 80 x 24, ETC. VERY RARE 
SURPLUS FIND. WITH PIN OUT. $12.95 EACH. 



NEW! G.I. COMPUTER SOUND CHIP 

AY3-8910 As featured in July, 1979 BYTE' A fantastically powerful Sound & Music 
Generator. Perfect for use with any 8 Bit Microprocessor Contains 3 Tone Channels. 
Noise Generator. 3 Channels of Amplitude Control 16 bit Envelope Period Control, 2-8 
Bit Parallel I/O. 3D to A Converters, plus much more' All in one 40 Pin DIP Super easy 
interface to the S-100 or other busses $11.95 PRICE CUT! 

SPECIAL OFFER: $44^5 each Add $3 for 60 page Data Manual. 



TERMS: Add $2.00 postage. We pay balance Orders under $15 add 75C 
handling. No COD. We accept Visa and MasterCharge. Tex. Res. add 5% 
Tax. Foreign orders (except Canada) add 20% P & H. Orders over $50, add 
85C for insurance. 



•TRADEMARK OF DIGITAL RESEARCH. 



WE ARE NOT ASSOCIATED WITH DIGITAL RESEARCH OF CALIFORNIA, THE SUPPLIERS OF CPM SOFTWARE. 



"THE BIG BOARD" 

OEM - INDUSTRIAL - BUSINESS - SCIENTIFIC 

SINGLE BOARD COMPUTER KIT! 

Z-80 CPU! 64K RAM! 







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THE FERGUSON PROJECT: Three years in the works, and maybe too good to be true. A tribute to hard headed, 
no compromise, high performance, American engineering! The Big Board gives you all the most needed 
computing features on one board at a very reasonable cost. The Big Board was designed from scratch to run the 
latest version of CP/M*. Just imagine all the off-the-shelf software that can be run on the Big Board without any 
modifications needed! Take a Big Board, add a couple of 8 inch disc drives, power supply, an enclosure, C.R.T., 
and you have a total Business System for about 1/3 the cost you might expect to pay. 



$ 649 



00 

** 



(64K KIT 
BASIC I/O) 



FULLY SOCKETED! 



FEATURES: (Remember, all this on one board!) 



SIZE. 8% x 13H IN. 
SAME AS AN 8 IN. DRIVE. 
REQUIRES: 5V @ 3 AMPS 
♦ - 12V @ .5 AMPS. 



64K RAM 



24 x 80 CHARACTER VIDEO 



Uses industry standard 4116 RAM'S. All 64K is available to the user, our VIDEO 
and EPROM sections do not make holes in system RAM. Also, very special care 
was taken in the RAM array PC layout to eliminate potential noise and glitches. 



Z-80 CPU 



With a crisp, flicker-free display that looks extremely sharp even on small 
monitors. Hardware scroll and full cursor control. Composite video or split video 
and sync. Character set is supplied on a 2716 style ROM, making customized 
fonts easy. Sync pulses can be any desired length or polarity. Video may be 
inverted or true. 5x7 Matrix - Upper & Lower Case 



Running at 2.5 MHZ. Handles all 4116 RAM refresh and supports Mode 2 
INTERUPTS. Fully buffered and runs 8080 software. 



FLOPPY DISC CONTROLLER 



SERIAL I/O (OPTIONAL) 



Full 2 channels using the Z80 SIO and the SMC 8116 Baud Rate Generator. FULL 
RS232! For synchronous or asynchronous communication. In synchronous 
mode, the clocks can be transmitted or received by a modem. Both channels can 
be set up for either data-communication or data-terminals. Supports mode 2 Int. 
Price for all parts and connectors: $85. 



Uses WD1771 controller chip with a TTL Data Separator for enhanced 
reliability. IBM 3740 compatible. Supports up to four 8 inch disc drives Directly 
compatible with standard Shugart drives such as the S A800 or SA801 . Drives can 
be configured for remote AC off-on Runs CP/M* 2 2. 



TWO PORT PARALLEL I/O (OPTIONAL) 



Uses Z-80 PIO. Full 16 bits, fully buffered, bi-directional. User selectable hand 
shake polarity. Set of all parts and connectors for parallel I/O: $29.95 



BASIC I/O 



Consists of a separate parallel port (Z80 PIO) for use with an ASCII encoded 
keyboard for input. Output would be on the 80 x 24 Video Display. 



REAL TIME CLOCK (OPTIONAL) 



Uses Z-80 CTC. Can be configured as a Counter on Real Time Clock. Set of all 
parts: $14.95 



SYSTEM COMPARISON 

64K RAM KIT $370.00 Talk about bangs per buck! The prices shown for 

80 x 24 Video Kit 365.00 S100 kits were taken from the July 1980 BYTE. 

Z-80 P ^PU*Kil Controller Kit 235.00 T hls will give some basis for comparison between 

SER & PAR I/O 129 95 ,h « Big Board and a similar system implementa- 

S-100 Mother Board 45!oO *'° n ° n **»« S100 Buss. 

SUB TOTAL $1330.90 



CP/M* 2.2 FOR BIG BOARD 



The popular CP/M* DOS modified by MICRONIX 
SYSTEMS to run on Big Board is available for $150.00. 



PC BOARD 



Blank PC Board with Rom Set and Full Documentation. 

$199 00 



PFM 3.0 2K SYSTEM MONITOR 



The real power of the Big Board lies in its PFM 3.0 on board monitor. PFM commands include: Dump Memory, Boot CP/M*. Copy, Examine. Fill Memory. Test Memory. Go To. 
Read and Write I/O Ports, Disc Read (Drive, Track, Sector), and Search. PFM occupies one of the four 2716 EPROM locations provided. 
Z-80 is a Trademark of Zilog. 



Digital Research Computers 

*" (OF TEXAS) r 

P.O. BOX 401565 • GARLAND, TEXAS 75040 • (214) 271-3538 



TERMS: Shipments will be made approximately 3 to 6 weeks after we 
receive your order VISA. MC, cash accepted. We will accept COD's (for the 
Big Board only) with a $75 deposit Balance UPS COD Add $3 00 shipping 

USA AND CANADA ONLY 



'TRADEMARK OF DIGITAL RESEARCH. 



NOT ASSOCIATED WITH DIGITAL RESEARCH OF CALIFORNIA, THE ORIGINATORS OF CPM SOFTWARE 
"1 TO 4 PIECE DOMESTIC USA PRICE. 



64K S100 STATIC RAM 




$ 4999f? 




«»»»»» 






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BLANK PC BOARD 

WITH DOCUMENTATION 

$55 



SUPPORT ICs ♦ CAPS - $17.50 
FULL SOCKET SET - $14.50 



ASSEMBLED AND TESTED ADD $40 



• 
* 
• 

• 
• 
* 



FULLY SUPPORTS THE NEW 

IEEE 696 S100 STANDARD 

(AS PROPOSED) 



FEATURES: 

* Uses new 2K x 8 (TMM 2016 or HM 6116) RAMs. 
Fully supports IEEE 696 24 BIT Extended Addressing. 
64K draws only approximately 500 MA. 

200 NS RAMs are standard. (TOSHIBA makes TMM 2016s as fast as 100 NS. FOR YOUR 
HIGH SPEED APPLICATIONS.) 

SUPPORTS PHANTOM (BOTH LOWER 32K AND ENTIRE BOARD). 
2716 EPROMs may be installed in any of top 48K. 

Any of the top 8K (E000 H AND ABOVE) may be disabled to provide windows to eliminate any 
possible conflicts with your system monitor, disk controller, etc. 

Perfect for small systems since BOTH RAM and EPROM may co-exist on the same board. 
BOARD may be partially populated as 56K. 



16K STATIC RAMS? 



FOR 56K KIT 
$449 



The new 2K x 8, 24 PIN, static RAMs are the next generation of high density, high 
speed, low power, RAMs. Pioneered by such companies as HITACHI and 
TOSHIBA, and soon to be second sourced by most major U.S. manufacturers, 
these ultra low power parts, feature 2716 compatible pin out. Thus fully 
interchangeable ROM/RAM boards are at last a reality, and you get BLINDING 
speed and LOW power thrown in for virtually nothing. 



Digital Research Computers 

(OF TEXAS) 
P.O. BOX 401565 • GARLAND, TEXAS 75040 • (214)271-3538 



TERMS: Add $2.00 postage. We pay balance. Order under $15 add 75C 
handling. No COD We accept Visa and MasterCharge Tex Res add 5% 
Tax. Foreign orders (except Canada) add 20% P & H. Orders over $50. add 
85C for insurance 




'<& 



* 




&/& 

&&&# 



EPSON mx-«o 
Now in stock! 

C-ITOH STARWRITER: LETTER 
QUALITY PRINTING FOR UNDER 
$1900!/ This daisy wheel printer 
gives high quality at a low price 
25 cps Parallel and serial inter- 
laces available 

NEW INTEGRAL DATA'S 560 
PRINTER/A11 the exciting features 
of the 400 series plus 14 W 
paper capacity. 132 col graphics 
printer. 

IDS 445/Lower price and im- 
proved print head. Available with 
or without graphics. 
IDS 460/Features include corre- 
spondence quality printing. High 
resolution graphics. 

NEC SPINWRITER FROM THE 
FIRST NAME IN LETTER QUALITY 
PRINTERS/ Spinwriter 7700 series 
Compumart offers beautiful print 
quality with NEC Spinwriter Termi- 
nals. We carry all models from RO 
THRU KSR WITH NUMERIC KEY- 
PAD- 7710-7730 All versions give 
unsurpassed hard copy output! 

CENTRONICS 739/The latest inno- 
vations from the industry leader, 
and quiet too! 



Visit our giant 

ANN ARBOR STORE 

1250 North Main Street 
Ann Arbor, Michigan 



CLEARANCE ZENITH COLOR 
VIDEO MONITOR $275. 

SUPER SELLING TERMINALS FROM 
LEAR SIGLER/Call for quotes. 

ADM-3A/Industry's favorite dumb 
terminal for some very smart 
reasons. 

ADM-5/More features for less than 
you think! 

IT IS HERE! It is the new Intermedi- 
ate Terminal from Lear Siegler. 

NEC COLOR MONITOR/RECEIVER 
HIGH RESOLUTION/ 

Composite video using BNC con- 
nectors. 8-Pin connector for VCR/ 
VTR video loop In/Out and 
television reception. 

SANYO MONITORS AT LOW COM- 
PUMART PRICES/Sanyo's new line 
of CRT data display monitors are 
designed for the display of alpha- 
numeric or graphic data. 

9" SANYO B/W $169. 

12" SANYO B/W $289. 

12" SANYO W/ 

GREEN SCREEN $299. 

13" SANYO COLOR $495. 



WRITE FOR YOUR 
CHOICE OF FREE 
CATALOGS WITH 
YOUR LETTERHEAD 
OR BUSINESS CARD. 



MICRO 

The most com- 
plete catalog 
of micro-com- 
puters, acces- 
sories and 
peripherals. 



DEC PDP/ 

LSI -II Systems 
configured and 
integrated with 
other manufac- 
turers compat- 
ibles. 



NOVATION CAT ACOUSTIC 
MODEM Answer Originate. 
NEW! D-CAT Direct Connect 
Modem from Novation. 

MATROX PRODUCTS/the 

complete line. 

DYSAN DISKETTES/The standard 
Available in 5W. 8" soft or hard 
sectored, single or double density. 

MEMOREX DISKETTES/5 Vi" disks 
with hub ring for Apple drives 

MOTOROLA 4116-2/200 nano sec- 
ond, plastic case. $3.50 ea. 

NEW! GILTRONIX RS 232 SWITCH/ 

You can connect three peripherals 
to one computer or three com- 
puters to one peripheral. Switches 
the eight most important RS 232 
signals. 

DEC LSl-11/Compumart now 
offers the entire product line. 
CALL FOR PRICES AND DELIVERY 

HP-41C CALCULATORS 

MEMORY MODULES for storing 

programs of up to 2000 lines of 

program memory. 

"EXTRA SMART" CARD READER. 

Records programs and data back 

onto blank magcards. 

THE PRINTER. Upper and lower 

case. High resolution plotting 

APPLICATION MODULES 

NEW SUPER 41-CV SYSTEMS with 

Quad RAMS built-in. Maximum 

memory on-board leaves slots 

open for Application Pacs and 

peripherals. 

82104A CARD READER 

82143A + PRINTER 



RM EXPANSION ACCESSORIES FOR 
AIM -CALL SPECS AND PRICES 

APPLE III IS IN STOCK/Apple III 

Information Analyst Package— 
128K Apple III. Black and White 
Monitor 12", and information ana- 
lyst software. 

TOP SOFTWARE PACKAGES FROM 
COMPUMART 

VISICALC/FOR APPLE/ FOR HP/ 
FOR COMMODORE/FOR ATARI 

SOFTWARE FROM APPLE/ Apple 
Plot (the perfect graphic comple- 
ment for Visicalc/Dow Jones News 
& Quotes/ Apple Fortrom/ Apple 
Writer/ Pascal Language System/ 
Controller Business System 

PERSONAL SOFTWARE/ Visidex/ 
Visitrend/ Visiplot/ Visiterm 

MUSE/Super Text 

MOUNTAIN COMPUTER/ 

Expansion accessories for Apple/ 
Super Talker/The Music System/ 
ROM plus board with Keyboard 
filter/ ROM Writer/Clock Calen- 
dar/A to D and D to A Converter/ 
Clock for Apple/CPS Multifunction 
Board 

VIDEX/ Video Term (80 col. x 24 
line. 7x9 Matrix plug in compati- 
ble board for Apple II) w/wo 
graphics EPROM/SSM Serial & 
Parallel, Apple Interface/ABT's 
Numeric Key Plan/ California 
Microcomputer Keyboard 

VIC 20 PERSONAL COMPUTER 
FROM COMMODORE 




IMPORTANT ORDERING INFORMATION 

CALL 8CO 343-5504. in Massachusetts (617) 491-27CO, phones open 
bom 8.30 am to 7CO p.m Mon-Fri 1LOO am to 4CO p.m. Sat. 
PO'Si Accepted from Dun & Bradstreet rated companies— shipment 



contingent upon receipts of signed purchase order 
SALE PRICES. Valid lor month of magazine date only— all prices sub- 
ject to change without notice Our Ann Arbor retail store is open 
11:00 a.m. to 700 p.m. Tues-Fri. 1 1 00 am to 500 p.m. on Saturdays 





WE HAVE IT! $5699 



At last a CPM based system that looks like it belongs in your office. 
The 820 can be ordered with 51/4" or 8" drive and a family of printers 
from NEC SPINWRITERS. for letter quality, to the many currently avail- 
able dot matrix printers. 

We recommend this system to our professional/ business customers. 

A GREAT PRICE FOR A LOT OF MACHINE. SPECS: SCREEN 24 LINES x 
80 CHARACTERS. DISK 51/4 DUAL OR I 8" DUAL. KEYBOARD TYPEWRITER 
STYLE WITH 20 KEY PADS. PORTS INCLUDE SERIAL AND PARALLEL 
(1 EACH). 



CONSTELLATION/Up to 64 com- 
puters connected to a 5, 10 or 20 
megabyte Winchester 

MIRROR/ Interface for video 
backup system. 



OMNI NET/ Unlimited number of 
computers and peripherals con- 
nected by two wire twisted pair 
cable. Maximum of 4000 feet end 
to end. 



CALL US FOR PRICES ON YOUR SPECIFIC CONFIGURATION. 



SPECIAL INTRODUCTORY SYSTEM PRICE SAVE $1000. 

820 SYSTEM II (8 DUAL) W/ 
SPINWRITER CPM AND WORD 
STAR -$6699. 



620 SYSTEM I (51/4" DUAL) W/ 
SPINWRITER CPM AND WORD- 
STAR -$5699. 




Authorized Dealer 
Accept No Less 




Sys{ems 




COMPUMART 

65 Bent Street, Dept 121 

PO Box 568, Cambridge, MA 02139 

TELEX: 921401 compumartcam 

800-343-5504 

IN MASS CALL 617-491-2700 

IF YOU PREFER, CALL OUR ANN ARBOR MICHIGAN STORE: 

(313) 994-6344. 



From THE LEADER . . . 

We just might be the largest independent small systems dealer in the country. Here's why: 

COMPUMART has been serving the computer needs of industry since 1971. 

We stock, for immediate shipment, only those products from the finest micro-computer 
manufacturers. 

And any product, except software, can be returned within 10 days for a full refund— even 
if you just change your mind. We also honor all manufacturers' warranties. Our expert 
technicians will service any product we sell 

Call us for more information on products, product configuration and service. Our phones 
are open Monday thru Friday, 8:30 a.m. to 7:00 p.m. and Saturday 1LOO am to 400 p.m. 

We have a staff of highly knowledgeable sales people waiting to hear from you, and 
to help. Because service is what we're all about. 



WE WILL NOT BE UNDERSOLD 



DISK DRIVES 




FOR TRS-80* Model I 

CCMOO 5 1 /4",40Track(102K) $299 

ADDON DRIVES FOR ZENITH Z 89 
CCI-189 5 1 /4", 40 Track (102K) $389 

Z-87 Dual 5 Va " system $995 



External card edge and power supply included. 90 day warranty/one 
year on power supply. 

CORVUS 5mg $3089 10 mg $4489 Mirror $899 

RAW DRIVES 8" SHUQART 801 R $399 

5 1 /4"TANDON $CALL POWER SUPPLIES $CALL 



DISKETTES - box of 10 

5V4* Maxell $40 

8" Maxell $45 

PLASTIC FILE BOX-Holds 50 5 Va " diskettes 



PLASTIC LIBRARY CASE 
HEAD CLEANING DISKETTE 
FLOPPY SAVER $10.95 



5 1 /4 W $3.00 



BASF/Verbatim 

BASF/ Verbatim 

8" 



RINGS 



$26.95 
$38.00 
$19.00 
$ 4.00 
$25.00 
$ 6.95 



16K RAM KITS 

200ns for TRS-80,* Apple II, (specify): 

COMPUTERS/SYSTEMS 

ALTOS ACS8000 Series 

ZENITH 48K, all-in-one computer 

ATARI 400 

800 
APPLE PERIPHERALS 



TERMINALS 

ADDS Viewpoint 

ZENITH Z-19 

TELEVIDEO 910 

920C 
950 



2 for $37 $19 

Jumpers $2.50 




SCALL 
$2149 
$ 359 
$ 789 

SCALL 



SCALL 
$719 
$559 
$729 
$929 



S-100 CALIFORNIA COMPUTER SYSTEMS 

MAINFRAME $349 Z80 CPU $ 239 

84K RAM $569 FLOPPY DISC CNTRL $ 339 

INTEGRATED SYSTEM W/INTERNAL CABLES, TESTED $1975 



2P + 2S I/O 

4 PORT SERIAL I/O 

4 PORT PARALLEL I/O 

CABLES 

CASIO CALCULATORS 

POCKET COMPUTER 

DESK PRINTER /CALCULATOR 

SCIENTIFIC CALCULATOR 

GAME WATCH 

GAME WATCH 

SPORT WATCH 

BUSINESS SOFTWARE 

WORDSTAR for Apple II 
WORDSTAR for Zenith Z89 




$ 269 
$ 249 

$ 179 

SCALL 



FX702 
FR100 
FX8100 
CA90 Plastic 
CA901 Steel 
AX210 Calendar 



$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 



79.95 
49.95 
49.95 

69.95 
59.95 

$ 329 
$ 329 



PRINTERS 




NEC SPINWRITER 

7710 R.O. Par 
7710 R.O. Par w/tractor 
7720 KSR w/tractor 
7730 R.O. Ser 
7730 R.O. Ser w/tractor 
NEW 3500 Series 
EPSON MX-70 MX-80 MX-80FT 

PAPER TIGER 

IDS 445 Graphics & 2K buffer 

IDS 460 Graphics & 2K buffer 

IDS 560 Graphics 

ACCESSORIES 
ANADEX DP-8000 $849 

OKIDATA 

Microline 80 Friction & pin feed 
Microline 82A Friction & pin feed 
Microline 83A 120 cps, uses up to 15" paper 
Call for new Microline series! 
CENTRONICS 739, new model with graphics 
C. ITOH 
Starwriter I 
Starwriter I 
Starwriter II 
Starwriter II 
AXIOM 
DATA SOUTH 
OLIVETTI 



MX100 



DP-9500/01 



25 cps, parallel interface 
25 cps, serial interface 
45 cps, parallel interface 
45 cps, serial interface 
GP-80M 
180 cps 



DY211 Daisy Wheel 

MONITORS 



BELL & HOWELL 
LEEDEX 



9"B&WBHD911 



$2395 
$2595 
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SCALL 
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$1389 

SCALL 
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$ 739 

$1525 

$1620 

$1950 

$2075 

$ 319 

SCALL 

SCALL 



$125 

Green Screen $155 



Green Screen $238 
Color $399 

Green Screen $129 



12"B&W $129 12' 

13" Color $329 

SANYO 9"B&W $149 12 

12" B & W $219 13' 

ZENITH 13" Color $349 12' 

TELECOMMUNICATIONS 

PRENTICE STAR MODEM 1 year guarantee $125 
UNIVERSAL DATA SYSTEMS UDS103LP $149 UDS103JP $215 

NOVATION CAT $139 D-CAT $149 

AUTO-CAT $199 APPLE CAT II $339 

D.C. HAYES SMART/STACK MODEM $249 

MICRO-MODEM II $295 

CCI Telnet Communications Package $135 

APPLE ACCESSORIES AND SOFTWARE 



Mfr. by Microsoft - Mountain Computers - Videx - CCS - Personal 



VISICALC 
VISITERM 

Z 80 SOFTCARD $259.00 

KEYBOARD ENHANCER $110.00 

APPLE JOYSTICK $ 49.00 

SUP-RMOD $ 25.00 

APPLE CARDS $ CALL 

SUPERCALC $199.00 
CPS MULTIFUNCTION CARD 



$159.00 VISIDEX 
$119.00 VISIPLOT 



VIDEX BOARD 
16KCARD 
SUP R FAN 
CCS CARDS 
ASCII EXPRESS 
ALF9 VOICE BOARD 



$199.00 METACARD 8088 MICROPROCESSOR FOR APPLE 



Software 
$159.00 
$139.00 
$249.00 
$159.00 
$ 39.00 
$CALL 
$ 59.00 
$149.00 
$199.00 
SCALL 



ENTERTAINMENT 

Mfr. by On Line - Broderbund 

FLIGHT SIMULATOR $29.00 

WIZARD & PRINCESS $28.00 

MYSTERY HOUSE $24.00 

HI RES FOOTBALL $35.00 

RASTER BLASTER $25.95 

SPACE EGGS $17.95 



Sirius 
SARGON II 
ABM 

GORGON 
MICROPAINTER 
APPLE PANIC 
POOL 1.5 



California Pacific 
$29.00 
$21.95 
$34.95 
$29.00 
$27.95 
$25.95 



For fast delivery, send certified checks, money orders or call to arrange direct bank wire transfers. Personal or company checks require two 
to three weeks to clear. All prices are mail order only and are subject to change without notice. Call for shipping charges. 



dealer (national/international) inquiries invited Send for FREE Catalogue 



The CPU SHOP 



TO ORDER CALL TOLL FREE 1-800-343-6522 

TWX: 710-348-1796 Massachusetts Residents call 617/242-3361 



420-438 Rutherford Ave., Dept. KOIM 
Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129 
Hours 10AM-6PM (EST) Mon.-Fri. (Sat. till 5) 

176 Microcomputing, January 1982 



Technical Information call 617/242-3361 
Massachusetts Residents add 5% Sales Tax 
Tandy Corporation Trademark/® Digital Research 




CALL TOLL FREE 



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1800 228 4097 



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Apple Computers 

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EPSON Printers 
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DC Hayes Micromodem II 
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PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND AVAILABILITY 



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9 NEC Monitor $139.95 

12 NEC Monitor $179.95 

1 2 Green Screen CALL 

13 NEC Color Monitor With Tuner $499.95 

1 9 NEC Color Monitor $499.95 



WE TRADE — WE EXPORT 




f iccmoNics Piayoioyfti© 

1840 "O" Street Lincoln, Nebraska 68508 
In Nebraska Call (402) 476-7331 



VISA 



^See List of Advertisers on page 178 



Microcomputing, January 1982 177 



Peterborough NH 03458 



ROCOMPUTING 



T.M. 



Reader Service Number 



Page 



Reader Service Number 



Page 



273 ABM Products 126 

91 Aardvark Technical Services 193 

466 Abacus Software 194 

314 A Bargain Distributors 30 

171 Addmaster Corp 149 

334 Advanced Operating Systems 70 

39 Advanced Systems Concepts 149 

220 Adventure International 105 

311 Alpha Byte Stores, Inc CIII 

56 American Square Computers 12,13 

187 Ancie Labs I 7 

319 Armadillo Computer Commuter 23 

193 Aurora Software 51 

96 Automated Equipment, Inc 51,75 

485 Axiom Corp 186 

B.G. Micro 166 

124 B.T. Enterprises 48 

488 Barretoand Associates, Inc 186 

326 The Bourbon Street Press 187 

79 C & S Electronics Mart Ltd 88 

148 CDR Systems, Inc. (Control Data Record) 144 

256 CPU Shop 176 

259 C.S.D.S. Inc 70 

495 Cambridge Development Laboratory 191 

398 Card Electronics 70 

469 China Institute in America, Inc 194 

170 Chips & Dale 36 

376 Communications Electronics 160 

90 CompuCover 37 

• Compumart 174,175 

147 CompuServe 123 

320 Computer Case Company 51 

18 Computer Design Labs 71 

120 Computer Discount of America 64 

384 Computer Mail Order 43 

331 Computer Marketing Services, Inc 84 

110 Computers, Peripherals Unlimited 42 

362 Computer Plus 140 

298 The Computer Shoppe 144 

36 Computer Shopper 85 

227 Computers Wholesale 39 

6 Computronics 1 1 1 

297 Concord Computer Products 163 

58 Coosol, Inc./LRC400 46 

292 Coosol, Inc 46 

346 Corsair Computer Corp 56 

• Cybernetics, Inc 196 

293 D& N Micro Products 74 

145 DG Electronic Development 67 

113 Data Resource Corp 195 

63 Davis Systems, Inc 23 

472 Dickens Data Systems 195 

155 Digatek Corp 70 

• Digital Research Computers 171,172,173 

• Digital Research Parts 166 

250 Discount Software Group 138 

482 Doss Enameling Company 184 

34 Dr. Daley's Software 40 

345 Eclectic Systems 202 

82 Ecosoft 35 

169 Elcomp Publishing Inc 38 

25 Electronics Center 177 

93 Electronic Specialists 35 

272 Ellis Computing 74 

191 Floppy Disk Services 77 

471 Frank Hogg Laboratory 195 

22 GIMIX, Inc 185 

351 Gryphon Micro Products 134 

• Hanley Engineering 101 

243 Happy Hands 53 

484 Hayes Microcomputer Products, Inc 186 

498 Heath Company 190 



279 IDPCCo 149 

242 I/O Systems Inc 106 

223 The Information Center 186 

Instant Software 

401 Memo 89 

402 Easy Calc 90 

403 Master Reversi 91 

404 Super Terminal 92 

405 Gypsy 94 

405 Dealer List 95 

75 Programmers Kit 70,144,198 

77 Integrand Research Corp 48 

151 Interface, Inc 55 

3 I ntertec Data Systems 3 

203 J.C. Datatron 49 

180 J. E.S. Graphics 51 

353 JMCCorp 52 

92 J.P.C. Products 42 

126 JR Inventory Co 204 

48 Jade Computer Products 167,168,169 

41 Jameco Electronics 158,159 

* John Bell Engineering 117 

499 KF Industries, Inc 190 

289 KV-33Corp 192 

222 Kalglo 50 

475 Kate's Komputers 195 

54 Key Software 191 

Kilobaud Microcomputing 

Subscriptions 83 

Desktop Computing 127 

University Microfilms 70 

Dealers 206 

Books 99,155,156,157 

Boxes, Binders 197 

Encyclopedia 130,131 

Back Issues 70 

Moving 206 

L98 LNW Research 121 

355 Leading Edge Products CIV 

477 Level 10 Division 196 

373 Logical Devices, Inc 76 

491 Lynx Design & Technology, Inc 188 

234 Magnolia Microsystems 116 

486 Mako Data Products 184 

218 Mason Electronics 52 

72 Master Electronics, Inc 109 

496 Maxi-Switch Co 191 

468 Media Service Concepts 194 

165 Med Systems 193 

161 Meta Technologies Corp 7 

260 The Microcomputer Warehouse 34 

248 MicrOdome 78 

308 Micro 80 Inc 53 

Micro Ink, Inc 139 

100 Micro Management Systems 150 

134 Micro Matrix 56 

347 Micro Mint, Inc 22 

480 Micro-Sparc 197 

467 Micro-Tax, Microcomputer Taxsystems, Inc 194 

154 Micro Technology Unlimited 143 

144 Midwest Scientific Instruments 18,19 

* Mikos/Wameco 161 

255 Miller Microcomputer Services 107 

50 Mini Micro Mart 207 

226 Mini Micro Mart 208 

238 Mini Micro Mart 209 

391 Minis & Micros Inc 88 

37 Mullen Computer Products 197 

81 Multi Bus Computer Systems 44 

497 MuSysCorp 191 

186 N.F.Systems 137 

NRI Schools 47 



Reader Service Number 



Page 



286 

487 

53 

130 

89 

140 

29 

21 

329 

464 

172 

153 

• 

266 
303 
106 

146 

• 

202 

492 

44 

52 

390 

101 

465 

102 

• 

142 

74 

67 

111 

146 

483 

132 

• 

302 

213 

357 

229 

194 

143 

306 

217 

479 

179 

358 

66 

489 

244 

189 

350 

95 

328 

478 

150 

476 

• 

214 

490 

474 

• 

285 

45 

• 

163 

470 

122 
493 



NetronicsR&DLtd 45,108,199 

NIBBLE Magazine 189 

North Star Computers, Inc 188 

OkidataCorp 147 

Olensky Brothers, Inc 54 

Omega Sales Co 57 

Omnitek Systems 69 

Optimal Technology, Inc 109 

Options-80 144 

Orion Software 8 

PCD Systems, Inc 194 

Pacific Exchanges 8,70,116,198 

Pacific Office Systems 191 

Percom Data Company, Inc CII 

Perry Oil & Gas 100 

Personal Computer Systems 151 

Philadelphia Consulting Group 55 

Pocket Computer Newsletter 78 

Probability Software 125 

Progressive Computing 55 

Project Planning Centre 186 

Quest Electronics 162 

RNB Enterprises 165 

R.W. Electronics 124 

Racet Computes Ltd 190 

Rainbow Computing 194 

Rand's Inc 134 

Realty Software 200 

Riverbank Software 192 

Rondure Company 200 

SGL Waber Electric 16 

S.Z. Software Systems 56 

Scelbi Publications 78 

Sinclair Research Ltd 184 

Sixty Eight Micro Journal 88 

Snappware, Inc 201 

Software Connection 134 

Software Consultants 200 

Software Toolworks 70 

Speedway Electronics 187 

Standard Software Corp. of America 55 

Standard Software Corp. of America 76 

Standard Software Corp. of America 187 

Standard Software Corp. of America 188 

Starside Engineering 196 

Stellation Two 109 

Stoneware Inc 63 

Strawberry Tree Computers 23 

Strawberry Tree Computers 192 

Sun Research 27 

TAB Sales 50 

Tatum Labs 66 

Technical Software Systems 41 

Texas Computer Systems 54 

Time Management Software 196 

Traxx Computer Corp 15 

U.S. Software 1% 

VR Data 135 

Van Horn Office Supply 44 

Vector Graphic, Inc 190 

Versa Computing, Inc 195 

Voice-Tek 31 

WW. Components Supply 170 

Wameco/Mikos, Inc 161 

Westland Electronics 198 

West Side Electronics 49 

Wintek Corp 8 

WITS, World Information and 

Technology Systems Corp 195 

World Wide Electronics, Inc 116 

Young People's Logo Association 186 



For further information from our advertisers, please use the Reader Service card. 



'This advertiser prefers to be contacted directly. 



178 Microcomputing, January 1982 



READER 
SERVICE 

Please help us to bring you a better 
magazine— by answering these questions: 



Reader Service: Return this card to receive full information on the products 
advertised in this issue. Refer to the ad. You will find numbers near the logo of 
each advertiser. Each represents the advertiser's individual Reader Service 
number. Circle the corresponding numbers on one of the cards on this page, in- 
clude your name, address & zip, and drop in a mailbox. In 4-6 weeks you'll hear 

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This card is valid until February 28, 1982 



A What kind ol microcomputers) do you own? 

1 Apple 

2 Atari 

3 Ex.dy 

4 Heath 

5 Hewlett-Packard 

6 North Star 

7 OSI 

8 PET/CBM 

9 SWTP 

10 Tl 

1 1 TRS-80 

12 Other 



B. How much have you invested in hardware (in- 
cluding peripherials)? 

1 S1000-S2000 

2 $2001 -$3000 

3 $3001 -$4000 

4 More than $4000 

C. What will be your next major Hardware pur- 
chase? 

1 Printer 

2 Modem 

3 Disk System 

4 Other 



D On average, how many ot each issue's program 
listings do you actually type into your micro? 

1 0-2 

2 3-5 

3 6-8 

4 9 or more 

E. How much have you spent on software? 



1 
2 
3 

4 
5 



Less than $100 
$100-$250 
$261 -$500 
$501-$$1000 
Over $1000 



F. 



How do you acquire your software' 7 

1. I program it myself 

2 From magazines 

3 From friends and fellow programmers 

4 From software houses 



G. From what companies have you purchased soft- 
ware? 



1 Hayden 

2 Hewlett-Packard 

3 Instant Software 

4 Microsoft 

5 Personal Software 

6 SAMS 

7 Other 



H. To what types of software users groups do you 
betong? 

1 Hardware exclusive 

2 General club 

3 College organization 

4 Other 



I. How many people read your copy of Kilobaud 
Microcomputing 7 

1 1 

2 2 

3 3 

4 4 or more 

J. Where did you obtain this copy of Kilobaud 
Microcomputings 

1 Subscription 

2 Newsstand 

3 Computer store 

4 Friend 

5 Other 

K. Which cover style do you prefer for this 
magazine? 

1 The old table ot contents cover 

2 The newer picturetype cover 

3 Don t care 

4 Other ideas 

L. On a scale of (no interest) to 5 (most interest) 
please rate your interest in the following 
specialized article themes: 

1 Artificial Intelligence 

2 Robotics 

3 Applications 

4 Business 

5 Speech Synthesis 

6 Languages 

7 Other interests 

M. I would like to see more of the following news 
topics covered: 

1 New Product Announcements 
Technological Developments 
Profiles and Company News 
Personal Profiles 
Other 



t. 
3. 

4. 
5. 



N. It you are not a subscriber, please circle #500 



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Name 



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City 



State. 



Zip 



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LETTERS TO THE EDITOR 



NTS Molasses 

I found J.C. Hassall's article in the Oct. 
1981 issue of Microcomputing ("Become 
a Troubleshooter — In 34 Easy Lessons," 
p. 182) most interesting, and, in a sense, 
comforting because I am also caught in 
the grip of the National Technical 
Schools molasses-like administration. 
My experience so far with NTS seems to 
be no better, and in one respect worse, 
than Mr. Hassall's. (I am enrolled for VA 
educational assistance reimbursement — 
the GI Bill— and NTS seems unable to 
properly handle the few additional bits of 
paperwork required by the VA!) 

There is one bit of confusion in Mr. 
Hassall's article. NTS actually has (at 
least they did when I enrolled in April 
1981) three microcomputer courses 
which eventually result in the student 
getting a Heath HN-89A computer. 
Course No. 1 is the long course (28 
months to complete) without advanced 
standing; the cost is $2875 at the 
$75/month payment rate, $2632 at the 
$100/month rate. Course No. IB (with 
advanced standing) has an estimated 
completion time of 25 months and costs 
$2576/$238 1 at the payment rates men- 
tioned. Course No. ID (with advanced 
standing) has an estimated completion 
time of 18 months and costs $2278/ 
$2130 at the foregoing payment rates. 
The difference between ID and IB is 
partly that ID gets only the HN-89A com- 
puter, while IB also gets the NTS "Com- 
pu-Trainer" and a digital logic probe. 

In my view, the NTS ID course is worth 
the money— provided the student is 
prepared to be patient with the slowness 
and confusion of NTS administration, 
and is not expecting to depend on NTS 
advisors for special help. Frankly, they 
don't seem to know what they're doing, 
at least in respect to microcomputers. 
The NTS advertisements are still saying 
that the Heath All-in-One Computer can 
have up to 32K bytes of memory! 

I am especially disturbed by the "ex- 
amination" system used by NTS. As Mr. 
Hassall said, almost all of the questions 
are really quoted statements from the 
text. Often they are used completely out 
of context in that the quotation is from 
discussion of a specific example in the 
text, but its use in an examination im- 
plies a general applicability that is false. 
The examination technique using quota- 
tions forces the student only to scan the 
text for the key words, but requires 
him/her to actually understand or learn 
nothing. 

So far, I have pointed out to NTS eight 



outright errors in their grading of ex- 
amination questions, or in the wording of 
questions that resulted in more than one 
correct answer. In one case, a question 
quoted an error in the text (which mis- 
stated the meaning of the letters ASCII) 
indicating to me that the staff preparing 
and reviewing the examination ques- 
tions know little or nothing about their 
subject! 

My conclusion is that it is entirely up to 
the student to get his money's worth of 
learning from the NTS microcomputer 
course. He cannot even rely on the ex- 
aminations, which should normally be a 
major part of the educational process. 

Elmer A. Goetsch 
Three Lakes, WI 



'IN 



LM323 



I have received mail every day since 
the October issue came out with the Na- 
tional Technical Schools review "Be- 
come a Troubleshooter— In 34 Easy Les- 
sons," p. 182. Every writer experienced 
the same problems which I described. 
Most indicated that, while the treatment 
described in the article is inexcusable, 
there is solace in the knowledge that 
others have been given the treatment. 

I sent a courtesy copy of the article to 
Mr. R. Hessler, the manager of student 
services, inviting his comments. Three 
months later he responded that my 
"... comments are being studied and we 
will use them in making adjustments to 
the microcomputer course." New stu- 
dents who wrote indicate that no im- 
provements have resulted from the arti- 
cle, so apparently I failed in my attempt 
to improve the situation through the 
' ' power of the pen . ' ' 

Therefore, I suggest all students who 
are having trouble to send a letter to the 
National Home Study Council, 1601 18th 
Street N.W., Washington, D.C. 20009. I 
understand that these people certify 
home study schools. Include in the letter 
as much substantiating documentation 
as possible. Angry diatribes with no cor- 
roboration will have little effect. A 
word to G.I. Bill students: send a letter to 
the VA with the same information, also. 
They may reconsider the school's 
certification. 

Beyond that, all I can say to presently 
enrolled students is either make a lot of 
phone calls to Mr. Hessler, or expect to 
wait. Eventually the kits will arrive. 
Good luck. 

J.C. Hassall 
Blacksburg, VA 



T 



♦ 5 
V 0UT 



5A 

FUSE 



-o o m o — 



TO 
COMPUTER 



-±*5000 TO 
30.000 H F 



CROWBAR 



J 



Fig. 1 . Power supply modification. 



Still Won't Burn 

I have just read your reply to Ron Has- 
singer on p. 16 of the March 1981 issue. I 
wish to remind him that his 2 A fuse still 
won't burn. 

He must be aware that a fuse rating at 2 
A means it is specified to carry 2 A safely. 
The fusing current for a 2 A fuse is 4 A. 
Please note that fusing current is always 
double the rating current. 

Further, the 2 A fuse he uses draws too 
much voltage and will upset his comput- 
er. (A 2 A fuse usually measures 0.2 or 
0.3 ohms.) That's why OSI supplied him 
with a 5 A fuse. 

To blow his 5 A fuse from a 3 A power 
supply, he must add a large value capaci- 
tor to the output point of his power sup- 
ply as shown in Fig. 1 . The extra capaci- 
tor will supply the current to blow the 5 A 
fuse when his crowbar works. 

Cham-Leung Kong 
Hong Kong 



Lazy Writer Rave 

I completely sympathize with the com- 
plaints in your October Microcomputing 
editorial: as a businessman I know what 
it's like trying to use a computer at a 
work station that wasn't designed for 
somebody who has more to do than enter 
data all day. But I think you're short- 
changing your system with the remark, 
"I find (a typewriter) better for most of 
my writing than the slower word process- 
ing systems." 

I'm a fast typist, too. I used to write 
news for a TV station and I frequently 
write advertising copy for pocket money 
now. When I was in college I had a job as a 
secretary; at one time I was clocked at 65 
words a minute. Most typewriters are too 
slow for my fingers. 

About a year ago I purchased Lazy 
Writer, a word processing program by 
David Welsh, for my TRS-80 Model I. It's 
wonderful. Even though my machine 
has the old style (mechanical contact) 
keyboard, the processor keeps up with 
my fastest bursts of inspiration. Words 
wrap around the screen before I can say 
them in my head. Changes and revisions 

Microcomputing, January 1982 179 



are easy in the text entry mode, and 
almost automatic in the editing mode. In 
fact, the only software I've ever owned 
that I was this happy with was the stuff I 
wrote myself. 

The publisher is also good about docu- 
mentation (my Lazy Writer manual is 
almost half an inch thick) and terrific 
with support. When an upgrade was is- 
sued six months after I bought the pro- 
gram, they mailed me a copy— without 
my asking. When the package was re- 
turned by the post office as undeliver- 
able, they sent it UPS. I suspect if UPS 
hadn't gotten through, they would have 
strapped it to a Saint Bernard. 

In fact, the only problem I've had with 
the system (other than hardware prob- 
lems; it's an old TRS-80) was with the 
upgrade. I like to use NEWDOS; the 
upgrade was released on TRSDOS, and I 
had some problems transferring one of 
the files. When I explained my problem 
to Therese Welsh (and sent her a few 
bucks to cover media and mailing), she 
mailed me a NEWDOS disk and a spare 
TRSDOS disk, just in case. 

Lazy Writer offers straight and format- 
ted disk saves, complete printer support, 
full editing, and even a module that'll 
process text in and out of an RS-232 
board for communications. The publish- 
ers run their business as well as I try to 
run mine. If you're still convinced that 
you can write faster on your IBM, get a 
copy from them. 

Jay Rose 
Boston, MA 



Plotting Data Revised 

In the March 1980 issue of Microcom- 
puting the article "Plotting Data or Func- 
tions'' by Dr. Gordon W. Wolfe (page 167) 
contained a program for plotting a graph 
(in SWTP 8K BASIC) which we have re- 
vised and use almost every day in our en- 
gineering work. 

The TRS-80 version that we use is 
shown in the Program listing. A sample 
problem printout is also shown. 

This program combines Listings 1 and 
3 from Dr. Wolfe's article as our work in- 
volves plotting X-Y coordinates rather 
than functions. 

The only difference between Dr. 
Wolfe's original program and our version 
(other than changes in format due to the 
differences in BASIC) is that we have 
used - 1 , - 1 as the flags to indicate the 
completion of coordinate entrances. This 
enables the plotting of (0,0), the origin of 
the X-Y coordinate axis, where desired 
(as in the sample problem). 

The only difference between our TRS- 
80 version and an OSI Microsoft BASIC 
version that we also use is that line 9870 
(TAB(3)) in the TRS-80 version becomes 
TAB (5) in the OSI version. 

Bernard L. Golding, PE 
Orlando, PL 

180 Microcomputing, January 1982 



T3=T1(I1,2) 
T5=T1(I1,1) 
T4=Tl(Il r 2) 
T6=T1(I1,1) 



Program listing. 

5 DIM Tl(60 r 2) 
10 T2=0 

20 INPUT"X f Y COORDINATE" ;X f Y 

30 T2=T2+1 

31 Tl(T2 f l)=X 

32 Tl(T2 f 2)=Y 
40 IF XO-1 THEN 20 

50 IF YO-1 THEN 20 

51 T2=T2-1 

55 PRINT: PRINT 

56 FOR 1=1 TO T2 
60 PRINT Tl(I,l) ,T1(I,2) 
65 NEXT I 
70 PRINT: PRINT 
80 INPUT "X TITLE" ;X$ 
90 INPUT "Y TITLE" ;Y$ 
95 PRINT: PRINT 
9520 PRINT TAB(10);Y$ 
9530 T3=9E-9:T5=T3 
9540 T4=9E+9:T6=T4 
9550 FOR 11=1 TO T2 
9560 IF T1(I1,2)>T3 THEN 
9570 IF T1(I1,1)>T5 THEN 
9580 IF Tl(Il r 2)<T4 THEN 
9590 IF Tl(Il r l)<T6 THEN 
9600 NEXT II 
9610 U5=INT(2.3*LOG(ABS(T3) ) ) 
9620 PRINT TAB(9) ;T4;TAB(56) ;T3 
9630 PRINT TAB(10) ; 

9640 FOR 11= 1 TO 53 

9650 PRINT "-"; 

9660 NEXT II 

9665 PRINT 

9685 U8=l 

9690 T8=(T5-T6)/40 

9700 T9=(T3-T4)/50 

9710 FOR 11=1 TO 40 

9720 U9=ASC(X$) 

9730 IF U9=0 THEN U9=32 

9740 X$=MID$(X$,2) 

9741 IF X$="" THEN X$=" " 
9745 U7=T6+(I1-1)*T8 

9760 PRINT CHR$(U9) ;CHR$(32) ; 

9762 PRINT USING"###. ##";U7; 

9763 PRINT CHR$(33) ; 

9764 IF U8+1>=T2 THEN 9766 

9765 IF U7>T1(U8+1,1) THEN U8=U8+1 

9766 IF 11=40 THEN 9780 
9770 IF U7<T1(U8,1) THEN9840 

9780 U6=INT((T1(U8,2)-T4)/T9-.01) 

9785 IF U6<=0 THEN 9820 

9790 FOR 12=1 TO U6 

9800 PRINT CHR$(32); 

9810 NEXT 12 

9820 PRINT CHR$(42) 

9825 U8=U8+1 

9830 GOTO 9860 

9840 PRINT CHR$(32) 

9860 NEXT II 

9870 PRINT TAB (3) ;T5 

9880 END 



Sample run. 



X f Y COORDINATE? 0,0 
X f Y COORDINATE? 10 r 40 
X,Y COORDINATE? 20,100 
X,Y COORDINATE? 30,80 
X,Y COORDINATE? 40,60 
X,Y COORDINATE? 50,40 
X,Y COORDINATE? 60,20 
X,Y COORDINATE? 70,10 




More 




Sample run continued. 

X,Y COORDINATE? 80,0 
X f Y COORDINATE? -l r -l 





10 

20 

30 

40 

50 

60 

70 

80 



X ^ITLE? X-AXIS 
1 TITLE? Y-AXIS 





40 

100 

80 

60 

40 

20 

10 





Y-AXIS 




100 



X 0.001* 

2.001 
A 4.001 
X 6.001 
I 8.001 
S 10.001 
12.001 
14.001 
16.001 
18.001 
20.001 
22.001 
24.001 
26.001 
28.001 
30.001 
32.001 
34.001 
36.001 
38.001 
40.001 
42.001 
44.001 
46.001 
48.001 
50.001 
52.001 
54.001 
56.00! 
58.001 
60.001 
62.001 
64.001 
66.001 
68.001 
70.001 
72.001 
74.001 
76.00! 
78.001* 
80 



service with it. However, this summer a 
piece broke in the PerSci disk drive and I 
have been unable to get it fixed. I have 
written PerSci, Cromemco, an advertiser 
in the Cromemco User's Group Newslet- 
ter, as well as having a local dealer try to 
get the part for me. 

Cromemco did answer my letter after 
about six weeks, but offered no help. 
PerSci has yet to be heard from. The ad- 
vertiser answered promptly, but did not 
sell parts. The local dealer drew a blank 
with PerSci, also. 

So I limp along with a single drive, not 
knowing where to turn. Cromemco is do- 
ing well, probably best of the S-100 com- 
panies, and I see that PerSci has a new 
prestigious ad out. But can they compete 
with IBM without spare parts support? 

Malcolm Gillis, president 

MEGA Corporation 

Toney, AL 



Dealer's Fault? 

I was surprised to see the letter by Dun- 
can Moyer in your November issue (p. 
21 1). I too have bought an Osborne. The 
problem Mr. Moyer had (additonal charge 
for setup) must have been just a problem 
he had with his local dealer. I bought 
mine through Computer Center in Ro- 
chester, NY. The dealer was helpful from 
the time I first inquired about the 
Osborne until the final delivery. The only 
extra costs I encountered were the New 
York state sales tax. There was no setup 
or any other extra charges. I have not had 



the opportunity to test his warranty 
repair, as the machine has functioned 
perfectly since I have had it. The problem 
Mr. Moyer has is not with Osborne Com- 
puter Corp. but rather with a dealer at- 
tempting to make a few extra bucks. 

William L. Roberts 

Brook tondale, NY 



Where to Turn? 

My business uses a Cromemco Z2 com- 
puter and I have had three years of good 



Literature Appreciation 

After reading the review of Stan Kelly - 
Bootle's The Devils DP Dictionary by 
John Edwards (Microcomputing, Oct. 
1981, p. 260), it is my studied opinion 
that the review should have never been 
allowed to reach print. It is obvious that 
Mr. Edwards did not (or more likely was 
unable to) understand the context within 
which, and the viewpoint from which, 
the Devils DP Dictionary was written. 

One's earliest training in literature ap- 
preciation concerns the idea of reading 
the introduction or preamble (if one is 
provided). If Mr. Edwards had done this, 
he would have learned that the book was 
intended to be sort of an appendix of 
technical terms to Ambrose Bierces 
Devils Dictionary. Bierce's book ex- 
pounds on words common to all human 
experience, therefore its humor is 
accessible to everyone. Kelly-Bootle's 
concerns itself with those terms in the 
common experience of the mainframe 
computer world not those in the world of 
the micro "baby boom." In both cases, 
the humor is witty and subtle. Not of the 
type that clubs one over the head as Mr. 
Edwards seems to require. If the reader is 
not intimately familiar with the words 
and phrases and their real meanings, 
much of the humor could fly right over 
their heads. It is easy to get some help 
from a knowledgeable friend as I did (and, 
apparently, as Mr. Edwards did not). 
About the only point on which I concur is 
that the price is a bit high. But the group 
to which the book is directed (long-time 
dp professionals) is still rather small 
compared to the prospective audience for 
a Harold Robbins novel. The economics 
of scale apply. 






Welbrey A. Hill, Jr. 
Tallahassee, FL 

Microcomputing, January 1982 181 



BOOK REVIEWS 



Beware the New Electronic Media 
Intro for 68OO Experimenters 
Stargazer's Guide to Computing 



Edited by Lise Markus 



Electronic Nightmare: The 
New Communications 
And Freedom 

John Wicklein 
Viking Press, 1981 
Hardcover, 282 pp., $14.95 



Is there Jife after high tech? John Wick- 
lein thinks so— but as the title of this book 
indicates, he doesn't think it 's going to be 
handed to us on a platter. 

Wicklein, a former New York Times 
editor and once a programmer for several 
TV stations, foresees a wide range of 
problems arising from what he calls the 
"multifaceted, integrated communica- 
tions system" offered by modern elec- 
tronic communications. 

The new technologies of communica- 
tion can provide great benefits to socie- 
ty—I have no doubt about that," he says. 
"But unless we plan carefully for their ar- 
rival, rather than let them hit us head- 
on, the threats they bring with them may 
outweigh the benefits we may enjoy." 

In particular, Wicklein is afraid that 
electronic media will lead to serious 
abuses of our right to privacy. Corpora- 
tions or the government could compile a 
highly detailed profile of anyone who 
uses videotext systems for home bank- 
ing, shopping and information retrieval. 
Such a dossier could, for instance, tell 
any interested party whether you'd 
bought books that espoused unpopular 
political views. It could tell to what 
causes you had made contributions. It 
could provide details on who you asso- 
ciated with, what products you bought 
and what magazines you read. Two-way 
television— such as the Qube system in 
Columbus, OH— offers other possibili- | 
ties. The central computer can, for in- 
stance, keep careful track of what you 
watch, or monitor the views you express 
during interactive programs. 

But the potential problems don't end 
here. Consider, for example, the ease 
with which this information could be 
made available. No laws currently pre- 

182 Microcomputing, January 1982 



vent corporations from selling such dos- 
siers to anyone with the money. Further- 
more, it is a simple matter to tap com- 
munications lines without the knowl- 
edge of either the citizen or the host com- 
puters. And finally, a system could select 
from its database what Wicklein calls 
"guidance" items "to apply a corrective 
to the subscriber's mindset" if that sub- 
scriber is deemed to have objectionable 
political opinions. 

Such a scenario seems, on the surface, 
to be absurd. But two prominent names 
in recent American history prove differ- 
ent—Joseph McCarthy and Richard Nix- 
on. It was McCarthy who used seemingly 
innocent facts to persecute innocent citi- 
zens, and it was Richard Nixon who tried 
to systematically undermine our right to 
freedom of expression and belief through 
illegal wiretaps and surveillance. 

Even Wicklein 's proposal that infor- 
mation could be prescreened to correct 
a citizen's opinions doesn't seem so 
ridiculous when one considers the extent 
to which the Moral Majority and other 
conservative groups are trying to control 
what Americans see, hear and read. 
(Wicklein points to a case in which five 
dictionaries were pulled from the shelves 
of a Texas school because they contained 
too many objectionable words. What 
would the Moral Majority think about 
an electronic encyclopedia that includ- 
ed details about the human reproduc- 
tive system?) 

Privacy is not the only issue Wicklein 
tackles. He also discusses, for example, 
the question of who will provide and con- 
trol information that will be transmitted 
to American homes. Does videotext fall 
within the regulative boundaries of the 
Federal Communications Commission? 
If so, will newspapers that transfer to new 
electronic media slowly lose their First 
Amendment right to freedom of the 
press? If a monolithic communications 
system develops in the hands of a mega- 
corporation like AT&T, how can we be 
sure that the news will not be censored to 
support that corporation's self-serving vi- 
sion of the world? 



Also, who will have access to such a 
system? Will citizen's organizations and 
individuals be able to use it for a reason- 
able price? Will people with questionable 
political opinions be given a fair chance 
to use the medium? 

Wicklein is committed to the idea that 
AT&T should not be allowed to operate as 
both a carrier and information-provider. 
He points to enormous problems in call- 
ing to account "the world's largest pri- 
vate corporation with an annual budget 
and revenues greater than most coun- 
tries of the world." 

Wicklein continues: "The temptation 
of such a powerful entity to influence, to 
interfere with, or subtly or openly to try 
to control the content of the nation's 
news and information lifeline over which 
it had been given exclusive jurisdiction 
would be very great indeed." 

If Wicklein had stopped with these ma- 
jor questions, he would have had himself 
a substantial book. Unfortunately, he 
tries to cover a number of other issues: 
the impact of modern telecommunica- 
tions on social relationships, whether 
governments and corporations will t^nd 
to centralize or decentralize, whether 
rich countries and multinational corpo- 
rations will use information extracted 
from less-developed countries for nation- 
al and commercial gain, and the impact 
of satellite technology. While Wicklein 
intended his book to be an overview of 
the potential dangers of electronic media, 
he tries to cover far too much. By the end 
of the book, the reader is following far too 
many threads of thought, and Wicklein 
fails to tie them up satisfactorily. 

Nevertheless, Electronic Nightmare of- 
fers some important insights into the 
potential ramifications of the new elec- 
tronic media. We would do well to re- 
member Wicklein's concluding sentence: 
"None of the potential benefits of the 
new communications will come about 
unless we shape the technology to 
human ends and not let it shape us in a 
commercial or authoritarian mold." 

Eric Moloney 
Microcomputing staff 



Microcomputer 
Experimentation with the 
Motorola MEK 6800D2 

Lance A. Leventhal 
Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1981 
Softcover, 438 pp. 



Microcomputer Experimentation with 
the MEK 6800D2 is a good introductory 
text on microcomputers and also offers 
material for the more advanced student 
or hobbyist. The book is set up so that the 
reader can carry out the problems and 
examples on an MEK 6800D2 microcom- 
puter, a 6800-based machine-language 
computer with a keyboard and seven- 
segment LED displays. This computer 
has a well-thought-out monitor program 
and doesn't require a CRT terminal, 
making it a good low-cost tool for indi- 
vidual or class study. 

The text is clearly written and well or- 
ganized. Each chapter covers a particu- 
lar topic and introduces terms and 6800 
instructions as required. Many of the ex- 
amples and problems involve running 
programs on the MEK 6800D2 as is; oth- 
ers require a small amount of addition- 
al hardware such as LEDs, TTL ICs and 
switches. The hardware additions are mi- 
nor in nature and are well documented so 
they should pose little problem, even for 
the novice. The author often presents 
both hardware and software approaches 
to the same problem and discusses the 
trade-offs in cost, development time and 
performance. The examples in the book 
which I ran on the computer were bug 
free, which supports the statement on 
the back cover that the examples are ful- 
ly tested. 

The first five chapters cover use of the 
MEK 6800D2 JBUG monitor commands 
as well as simple input and output using 
switches and LEDs. Switch debouncing 
as well as output to seven-segment dis- 
plays are discussed using both hardware 
and software methods. Later chapters 
cover how to handle tables of data using 
6800 machine or assembly language, 
flowcharting and debugging, the use of 
breakpoints and single stepping, and 
binary and BCD arithmetic. Chapters 
A-F treat slightly more advanced topics 
including subroutines and stack. I/O (us- 
ing handshaking), interrupts, timing 
methods, serial I/O and microcomputer 
timing and control. Topics are covered 
clearly from the ground up with exam- 
ples and problems to be carried out on 
the MEK 6800D2. 

Of particular interest to me were dis- 
cussions of the proper use of the stack, 
the JBUG monitor subroutines, subtle- 
ties of various instructions, changing of 
parameters on the stack using indexed 
addressing and the use of timing loops to 
determine the rate of incoming serial 
data. The chapter on serial I/O was partic- 
ularly good because the examples used 
the on-board UART hooked up in a loop- 



back mode allowing you to send and 
receive serial data and get a feel for 
the process. 

This book is set up to teach microcom- 
puter techniques by having the reader try 
the problems and examples on his own 
system. Although it doesn't include any 
full blown projects, you should be well 
prepared to use a microcomputer in your 
own application after you finish the book. 

The only shortcoming I can find with 
the book is that its dedication to one mi- 
crocomputer may discourage its use by 
other 6800 microcomputer users. I rec- 
ommend it as a text for an introductory 



structure from the start. Every function 
performed by Erlewine's programs, from 
planetary calculations to keyboard input, 
is contained in discrete subroutines. 
These routines may be chosen and com- 
bined by students to custom tailor their 
own programs with whatever features 
they desire. 

While the features described above 
make this book useful to any beginning 
BASIC programmer, the manual is espe- 
cially valuable to those who are interest- 
ed in astrological, or even straight astro- 
nomical, calculations. 

A few years ago I wanted to write a pro- 



The manual is especially valuable 
to those who are interested in astrological 
or even straight astronomical calculations. 



microcomputer lab course. Owners of 
other 6800-based systems will also find 
the book of interest if they plan to use it 
for reference only, or don't mind modify- 
ing the examples and problems to run on 
their particular machine. 

Peter W. Marcus 
Miami, FL 



Manual of Computer 
Programming for 
Astrologers 

Michael Erlewine 

The American Federation of Astrologers 

Tempe, AZ, 1981 

Paperback, 218 pp., $13.95 

This book is valuable for two groups of 
people: astrology buffs and students of 
BASIC programming. 

The opening sections deal with all the 
fundamentals one would expect to be 
covered in a good primer: direct versus 
programming (or deferred) modes, vari- 
ables, arrays, operators, hierarchy of op- 
erations, error messages, editing, etc. 
Erlewine's treatment of these basic con- 
cepts is lucid and concise. 

A valuable feature of the book is its ref- 
erence section of BASIC keywords. This 
is like an extremely abridged edition of 
Lien's BASIC Handbook. It contains a 
rundown of the Microsoft keywords, and 
describes how different dialects accom- 
plish similar functions. For example, 
both the TRS-80's INKEY$ and the PET's 
and Apple's GET statements are cov- 
ered. The information is also summa- 
rized in a BASIC language reference list. 
Erlewine's section on compacting is 
one of the best treatments I've seen on 
the venerable art of squeezing that last 
byte of programming into your dwind- 
ling memory reserves. 

After covering the basics, Erlewine 
goes on to deal with program planning 
and flow. One of the advantages of his ap- 
proach is that the student learns modular 



gram to draw astrological charts. My 
search for the algorithms for calculating 
planetary motions proved frustrating. 
Before dropping the project, I checked 
city and college libraries. I also made a 
trip to NYC's Hayden Planetarium to 
use their special astronomical reference 
section. I could find no material to even 
help me get a handle on the raw mathe- 
matics involved, let alone predigested 
computer algorithms. 

This book provides three different rou- 
tines and databases for calculating plane- 
tary motions. The three methods differ in 
precision, memory-use. speed and date 
range. One accepts any dates from 4713 
B. C. forward and is accurate to within 
one degree. Another may be used only for 
dates between A.D. 1900 and A.D. 2000, 
but is accurate to within several minutes 
of arc, is quite fast and easily fits into 8K. 
The third is accurate to within one 
minute of arc. Routines are also given for 
the moon and its nodes, asteroids and the 
Uranian planets. 

Some of the other topics covered are 
progressions, returns, relocations, as- 
pects, midpoints and sorts. House sys- 
tems supported are Regiomontanus. Por- 
phyry, Equal. Morinus. Koch, Topocen- 
tric. Campanus and Placidus. Attention is 
given to formatting the output and repre- 
senting a chart on a video monitor. 

One warning note: The book states thai J 
all its routines arc copyrighted and that 
while they may be freely used by the stu- 
dent in his own programs, they must not 
be sold. So if you are planning to use this 
book to create your own commercial as- 
trological software, be prepared to com- 
prehend the ideas involved and write your 
own programs from the algorithms up. 



The Manual of Computer programming 

may be purchased for $13.95 from Ma- 
trix Software. 315 Marion Ave.. Big 
Rapids. MI 49307. 

Paul Weiner 

Microcomputing, January 1982 183 



NEW PRODUCTS 



Edited by Linda Stephenson 



Get It Together with Apple 
Sound Synthesis for Heath 
New Sinclair, North Star Micros 



Apple Organizer 

The Apple-Center from 
Doss Enameling Company, 
1224 Mariposa St., San Fran- 
cisco, CA 94107, was de- 
signed to house an Apple 
computer, a 9-inch monitor 
and two disk drives. The cir- 
cuitry protects your Apple 
from voltage surges, and a 
cooling fan prevents over- 
heating. A key-locking on/off 
switch prevents unwanted 
use. The monitor is angled for 
comfortable viewing, and the 
organizer's flat top provides a 
handy place for an extra mon- 
itor or a printer. The price will 
be approx. $300. Reader Ser- 
vice number 482. 



Heath/Zenith Sound 
Effects 

Create sound effects for 
games or play music from 
your keyboard. Multiple pro- 
grammable sound generators 
using the General Instru- 
ments AY3-8910 psg chip are 
available for Heath/Zenith 
computers. This chip can pro- 
duce a wide variety of com- 
plex sounds under software 
control. The psgx2 for the 
Z/H-89 has two psg chips, 
plugs into P504 or P505 of the 
H-89 bus and uses any decod- 
ed port address. The psgx4 
contains four of these chips 
and plugs directly into the H8 
bus. Each board comes with a 



speaker and features a built-in 
audio monitor amplifier and 
crystal time base. Multiple 
chips give multiple complex 
sounds, and each chip offers 
two eight-bit parallel I/O ports, 
which have been pinned out 
on the board. The psgx2 costs 
$125 and the psgx4 costs 
$225, plus $5 for shipping 
and handling. 

Mako Data Products, 
144 IB N. Red Gum, Ana- 
heim, CA 92806. Reader Ser- 
vice number 486. 



Portable Computer 
From Sinclair 

Sinclair Research Ltd., 2 
Sinclair Plaza, Nashua, NH 



03061, has introduced the 
ZX81 microcomputer. The 
Sinclair ZX81 is based upon 
an innovative four-chip de- 
sign, and it measures just 
6x6.5x1.5 inches and 
weighs 12 ounces. It has an 
8K-byte BASIC ROM, enabling 
it to operate in decimal arith- 
metic with full scientific func- 
tions. A 40-key touch-sensi- 
tive membrane keyboard 
gives the equivalent of 91 
keys using function mode and 
single-press keyword system. 
Graphics mode enables an ad- 
ditional 20 graphical and 54 
inverse video characters. Pro- 
grams can be loaded and saved 
on any home cassette play- 
er. A 16K RAM attaches to the 





The Apple-Center from Doss Enameling Company. 
184 Microcomputing, January 1982 



The Sinclair ZX81 microcomputer. 





JUDGE THE REST, THEN BUY THE BEST 

Only GIMIX offers you SOFTWARE SWITCHING between MICROWARE's OS-9 and TSC's 

FLEX. Plus you get the power of the GMXBUG system monitor with its advanced debugging 
utility, and memory manipulation routines. A wide variety of languages and other software is 
available for these two predominant 6809 Disk Operating Systems. 
You can order a system to meet your needs, or select from the 6809 Systems featured below. 

JUDGE THE FEATURES AND QUALITY OF GIMIX 6809 SYSTEMS 

GIMIX' CLASSY CHASSIS™ is a heavyweight aluminum mainframe cabinet with back panel cutouts to conveniently connect your terminals, printers, drives, monitors, 
etc. A 3 position keyswitch lets you lock out the reset switch. The power supply features a ferro-resonant constant voltage transformer that supplies 8V at 30 amps, + 15V at 
5 amps, and - 15V at 5 amps to insure against problems caused by adverse power input conditions. It supplies power for all the boards in a fully loaded system plus two 
5 V4 ' ' drives (yes! even a Winchester) that can be installed in the cabinet. The Mother board has fifteen 50 pin and eight 30 pin slots to give you the most room for expansion 
of any SS50 system available. 11 standard baud rates from 75 to 38. 4K are provided and the I / section has its own extended addressing to permit the maximum memory 
address space to be used. The 2 Mhz 6809 CPU card has both a time of day clock with battery back-up and a 6840 programmable timer. It also contains 1K RAM, 4 
PROM/ROM/RAM sockets, and provides for an optional 951 1A or 9512 Arithmetic Processor. The RAM boards use high speed, low power STATIC memory that is fully com- 
patible with any DMA technique. STATIC RAM requires no refresh timing, no wait states or clock stretching, and allows fast, reliable operation. The system includes a 2 port 
RS232 serial interface and cables. All GIMIX boards use gold plated bus connectors and are fully socketed. GIMIX designs, manufactures, and tests in-house its complete 
line of products. All boards are twice tested, and burned in electrically to insure reliability and freedom from infant mortality of component parts. All systems are assembled 
and then retested as a system after being configured to your specific order. 

56KB 2MHZ 6809 SYSTEMS WITH GMXBUX/FLEX/OS-9 SOFTWARE SELECTABLE 

With #58 single density disk controller $2988.59 

With #68 DMA double density disk controller W2 ^ 

to substitute Non-volatile CMOS RAM with battery back-up, add qh no 

for 50 Hz export power supply models, add 

Either controller can be used with any combination of 5" and/or 8" drives, up to 4 drives total, have data recovery 
circuits (data separators), and are designed to fully meet the timing requirements of the controller I.C.s. 

5 %" DRIVES INSTALLED IN THE ABOVE with all necessary cables 



SINGLE DENSITY 



40 track (48TPI) single sided 
40 track (48TPI) double sided 
80 track (96TPI) single 
80 track (96TPI) double 



Formatted 

199,680 
399.360 
404.480 
808.960 



Unformatted 

250.000 

500.000 

500.000 

1,000.000 



DOUBLE 


DENSITY 




Formatted 


Unformatted 




341.424 


500,000 


2 for $700.00 


718.848 


1,000,000 


2 for 900 00 


728,064 


1.000.000 


2 for 900 00 


1.456,128 


2,000,000 


2 for 1300 00 



Chart shows total 
capacity in Bytes for 
2 drives. 



600.00 
639.67 
988.64 
. 30.00 



Contact GIMIX for price and availability of 8" floppy disk drives and cabinets; and 5" and S" Winchester hard disk system 

128KB 2Mhz 6809 DMA Systems for use with TSC's UNIFLEX or MICROWARES's OS-9 Level 2 

(Software and drives not included) * 37 ^ 

to substitute 128KB CMOS RAM with battery back-up, add 

for each additional 64KB NMOS STATIC RAM board, add 

for each additional 64KB CMOS STATIC RAM board, add 

for 50 Hz export power supply, add 

NOTE: UNIFLEX can not be used with 5" minifloppy drives. 

GIMIX has a wide variety of RAM, ROM, Serial and Parallel I/O, Video, Graphics, and other SS50 bus cards that 

can be added now or in the future. Phone or write for more complete information and brochure. 

THE SUN NEVER SETS ON GIMIX USERS 

GIMIX Systems are found on every continent, except Antarctica. (Any users there? If so, please contact GIMIX so we can 
change this.) A representative group of GIMIX users includes: Government Research and Scientific Organizations in 
Australia, Canada, U.K., and in the U.S.; NASA, Oak Ridge, White Plains, Fermilab, Argonne, Scripps, Sloan Kettering, 
Los Alamos National Labs, AURA. Universities: Carleton, Waterloo, Royal Military College, in Canada; Trier in Germany, and 
in the U.S.; Stanford, SUNY, Harvard, UCSD, Mississippi, Georgia Tech. Industrial users in Hong Kong, Malaysia, South 
Africa, Germany, Sweden, and in the U.S.; GTE, Becton Dickinson, American Hoechst, Monsanto, Allied, Honeywell, Perkin 
Elmer, Johnson Controls, Associated Press, Aydin, Newkirk Electric, Revere Sugar, HI-G/AMS Controls, Chevron. Computer 
mainframe and peripheral manufacturers, IBM, OKI, Computer Peripherals Inc., Qume, Floating Point Systems. Software 
houses; Microware, T.S.C., Lucidata, Norpak, Talbot, Stylo Systems, AAA, HHH, Frank Hogg Labs, Epstein Associates, 
Softwest, Dynasoft, Research Resources U.K., Microworks, Analog Systems, Computerized Business Systems. 

GIMIX Systems are chosen by the Pros 
because of quality, reliability and features. 




TO ORDER BY MAIL 

SEND CHECK OR MONEY ORDER OR USE YOUR VISA OR MASTER CHARGE Please alio* 3 weeks tor personal checks to clear 
US orders add $5 handling it order 6 under $200 00 Foreign orders add $10 handling It order is under $200 00. 
Forwgn orders over $200 00 wi be shipped via Emery Air Freight COLLECT, and we wiH charge no handling All orders must be prepaid in US 
funds Ptease note that torwgn checks have been taking about 8 weeks tor coHedton so we would advise wiring money, or checks dr awn on a 
bank account in the U S Our bank is the Continental Illinois National Bank of Chicago, account #73-32033 Visa or Master Charge also accepted 

GIMIX INC reserves the right to change prtang and product specifications at any time without further notice 
GIMIX* and GHOST- are regstered trademarks of GIMIX Inc 1981 GIMIX Inc 

FLEX AND UnJflex are trademarks of Technical Systems 

Consultants inc OS-9 is a trademark of Microware Inc See their ads for 

other GIMIX compatible software 



Gimix 



See List of Advertisers on page 178 



inc. 

The Company that dalivers 

Quality Electronic products since 1975. 

1337 WEST 37th PLACE, CHICAGO, IL 60609 
(31 2) 927-551 • TWX 91 0-221 -4055 

Microcomputing, January 1982 185 



back of the ZX81 to expand 
the size of the computer's 
memory. Assembled price is 
$149.95: kit is $99.95. Reader 
Service number 483. 



It's About Time 

Hayes Microcomputer Prod- 
ucts, Inc., 5835 Peachtree 
Corners East. Norcross, GA 
30092, has introduced the 
Hayes Stack Chronograph, an 
RS-232-compatible calender/ 
clock for microcomputers. 
The Chronograph quartz- 
crystal control adds precise 
timekeeping to computer sys- 



tems. With the Chronograph 
and user-developed software, 
your computer can log pro- 
grams and reports by day, 
date and time. The Chrono- 
graph can also provide infor- 
mation to control lights, bur- 
glar alarms and sprinkler sys- 
tems. To cut the cost of elec- 
tronic mail, the user can de- 
velop programs to batch 
messages during the day and 
send them at night when tele- 
phone rates are lowest. The 
system, including Chrono- 
graph unit, power pack, three 
AA batteries and owner's 
manual, costs $249. Reader 
Service number 484. 




The Hayes Stack Chronograph from Hayes Products, Inc. 



=iiiiiiiiiimiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimmimiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiimie 

Heath/Zenith 

SOURCEBOOK 

| A directory to Heath/Zenith compatible | 

| products, The Information Center Source- 1 

| book features over 200 pages of abstracts I 

| and listings, including: | 

| HARDWARE SOFTWARE I 

I PRINTED MATTER USER'S GROUPS I 

I LOCAL DEALERS SERVICE CENTERS I 

| BUSINESS APPLICATIONS | 

| Three quarterly updates are mailed free 1 

| to all owners of the Sourcebook. | 

| The Information Center Sourcebook is I 

1 available at Heathkit Electronic Centers* 1 

1 and computer stores nationwide, or for I 

| $20.00 from: 1 

3 

I The Information Center ^223 I 

| 642- AW. Rhapsody I 

| San Antonio, Texas 78216 | 

| 512/340-1561 | 

| Dealer inquiries invited. | 

"Heathkit is a registered trademark of Heath Company 
aiiuiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiHni,,,, imiiimiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiE 

186 Microcomputing, January 1982 




Axiom Corporation's Model 
EX- 1650 printer. 



Electronic Notepad 

Axiom's Model EX- 1650 
printer produces full-sized 
hard copy directly from a 
video input device, such as a 
video computer terminal, 
graphics terminal, video 
monitor or TV set. Any dis- 
played data, including com- 
plex graphics, alphanumeric 
data in any size or font, 
foreign symbols or even 
hieroglyphics can be quickly 
reproduced on electrosen- 
sitive paper. The printer oper- 
ates from the composite video 
information displayed on the 
screen, and requires only a 
single connection to a stan- 
dard video jack. No external 
hardware or software is re- 
quired. Price is $3495. 

Axiom Corporation, 5932 
San Fernando Road, Glen- 
dale, CA 91202. 



Business Computing 

The MicroMaster from Bar- 
reto and Associates, Inc., 507 
West 16, Sedalia, MO 65301. 
is a self-contained desktop 
computer. It operates under a 



modified CP/M, and is de- 
signed for use in small and in- 
termediate businesses. The 
system is IEEE S-100 based, 
and contains both a 5 14 -inch 
5 megabyte Winchester drive 
and a floppy drive. Standard 
64K-byte random access 
memory is expandable to 16 
megabytes. The system can 
be configured for single or 
multiple users. The 12-inch 
monitor has an 80 character 
by 24 line format. The unit's 
multiprocessor architecture 
and special operating system 
speed operation. The Micro- 
Master sells for $12,500. 
Reader Service number 488. 



Publications of Note 

A helpful publication on 
school use of microcomputers 
is available from the Project 
Planning Centre. Ministry of 
Education, Legislative Build- 
ings, Victoria, BC V8V 1X4. 
The discussion paper, "In- 
structional Use of Microcom- 
puters: A Report on BC's Pilot 
Project," is an 80-page docu- 
ment which outlines the re- 
sults of an innovative test 
project in British Columbia's 
schools. Reader Service 
number 492. 

The Turtle News is offered, 
free, to subscribers under 18 
years of age. The monthly 
newsletter is published by the 
Young People's Logo Associa- 
tion, 1208 Hillsdale Drive, 
Richardson, TX 75081, to 
bring together young pro- 
grammers using Logo and 
other languages. It will pro- 
mote educational and recrea- 
tional use of microcomputers. 




The MicroMaster business microcomputer from Barreto and 
Associates. 



Enjoy The 



SEXPLOSION 




Subscribe Today 

Take a break from the space 
wars and shoot em ups. The 
Dirty Book will bring you the 
latest collection of bedroom 
programs and games geared 
to creative and joyful living 
and loving. Here's a great 
opportunity to chart your 
own course to greater 
intimacy and satisfaction in 
the months to come. 



Bourbon Street Press 

3225 Danny Park, New Orleans 

(Metairie). LA 70002 

(You must be ot legal age to enter subscription) 



^326 
(504) 455-5330 



Name 

Company (if any) 
Add'f- 



Charler Subscnption 

1 yr 4 issues ^29 95 

Single issue a>9 95 

Dealer Inquiries or Call in Orders 

Bourbon St Press i504) 455-5330 

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MC# 

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COMPUTERS 

* * IN STOCK * • READY FOR DELIVERY * * 

N0W $ 2595 



The Xerox 820 is more than just a 
word processor. And it's more than 
just a desktop computer. Because 
this multi-function machine is both! 

4s an inexpensive word processor, 
the 820 allows you to upgrade exist 
ing offlca typewriters and non- 
display text editors. Now you can 
have WP capabilities without paying 
for equipment with mora features 
than you really need. 

4s a desktop compufr, the 820 
gives you a cost-effective way to 
automate your daily work routine 
through a wide range of software 
options. Xerox will offer applica- 
tions software to cover many uses... 
and the CP/MR operating system 
available on the 820 opens the door 
for use of thousands of software 
packages available from STAND- 
ARD SOFTWARE CORPORATION 



NOT INCLUDING SOFTWARE 

THE XEROX 820: EASY TO USE 
This Amazing machine is perfect 
for: Secretaries who type 
documents less than 10 pages; 
General Ledger purposes: Job 
Costing and Scheduling; Financial 
planning; Business scenarios; In 
ventory; Engineering tabulation & 
bookkeeping; Real Estate applica- 
tions; Managers for forecasting & 
business analysis; Wholesalers 
tracking sales: Medical billing; the 
list goes on!!! 



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CP/M^ is a registered 
trademark of Digital 
Research. Inc 



STANDARD SOFTWARE 

CORPORATION OF AMERICA 

10 MAZZEO DRIVE, RANDOLPH, MA 02368 ^ 306 



* SOFTWARE * HARDWARE * SUPPLIES * DISCOUNT PRICES 
* SOFTWARE * HARDWARE * SUPPLIES * DISCOUNT PRICES 



CONVERT YOUR SERIAL PRINTER TO PARALLEL 



NEW MODEL UPI-3 SERIAL PRINTER INTERFACE MAKES IT 
POSSIBLE TO CONNECT AN ASCII SERIAL PRINTER TO THE 
PARALLEL PRINTER PORT ON THE TRS-80. 

Software compatibility problems are totally eliminated because 
the TRS-80 "THINKS" that it has a parallel printer attached. 
NO MACHINE LANGUAGE DRIVER NEEDS TO BE LOADED 
INTO HIGH MEMORY BECAUSE THE DRIVER ROUTINE FOR 
THE UPl-i IS ALREADY IN THE TRS80 ROM! SCRIPSIT, PENCIL, 
RSM 2, ST80D, NEWOOS, FORTRAN, BASK etc . all work as if a 
parallel printer was in use 

The UPI-3 is completely self contained and ready to use. A 34 
conductor edge card connector plugs onto the parallel printer 
port of the model I Expansion Interface or onto the parallel 
printer port on the TRS-80 III. A DB25 socket mates with the 
cable from your serial printer. The UPI-3 converts the parallel 
output of the TRS-80 printer port into serial data in both the 
RS232-C and 20 MA. loop formats. 

SPEEDWAY ELECTRONICS ^229 

Division ot Binary Devices 

11560TIMBERLAKE LANE 
NOBLESVILLE, IN 46060 
(317) 842-5020 



fRS 80 is a trademark ot landy 



VISA MasterCard 



»i 



3 



Switch selectable options include: 

• Linefeed after Carriage Return 

• Handshake polarity (RS232-C) 

• Nulls after Carriage Return 

• 7 or 8 Data Bits per word 

• 1 or 2 Stop Bits per Word 

• Parity or No parity 

• ODD or EVEN Parity 



NOW 
AVAILABLE 
FOR 
MODEL II 



UPI-2 for TRS80 Model II 

UPI-3 for TRS80 Model I or \ 

UPI-4 for use with Model 1 and RS Printer 

Interface Cable (no expansion interface required) 

Manual only (may be applied to order) 

Ten day return privilege — 90 day warranty 

Shipping and Handling on all orders 

Specify BAUD rate 50-9600 BAUD 



$149.95 
$149.95 

$159.95 
$ 5.00 

$ 4.00 



See List of Advertisers on page 178 



Microcomputing, January 1982 187 



dBASEII— $595 



00 



• C ieneral Ledger 

• Journal of Amounts 

• Accounts Receivable 

• At count v Payable 

• Siilcs Tax Records 

• Payroll 



FREE BOX OF DISKETTES WITH EVERY ORDER 

30 DAY MONEY-BACK GUARANTEE 

With dBASE 11 you can extend the power of your microcomputer to 
jobs that were previously reserved for the larger mainframes. Here's a par- 
tial list of applications that dBASE II has been used for: 

• Check Management • l\x ument ( "n >ss Referencing 
and Writing • Legal Office Accounting 

• Time Billing • Scheduling 

• Inventory Control • Mailing Libels 

• Job Costing • Calendar Event* 

• Tax Computation 

If your application calls for managing data, dBASE II may be the answer. 

You can create a database and start entering data into it in less than a 
minute. 

Type CREATE, then respond to the dBASE II prompts to name the 
file and define the fields in your records. 

Once the record is defined, you can start entering data immediately, or 
add information later by typing APPEND. In both cases, dBASE 
presents you with an entire record structure for which you simply fill in 
some or all of the blanks. 

Now, for a limited time only, you can purchase the most powerful 
DBMS system for your micro for the incredibly low price of $595 
delivered. We'll send you a copy of dBASE II, that you can run on your 
system, for 30 days. If you're not completely satisfied, then just send 
everything back and we'll return your money, no questions asked! Even 
if you go for another system, you'll be an informed buyer!! (dBASE II is a 
fine product by Ashton-Tate) 



STANDARD SOFTWARE ^ 217 

CORPORATION OF AMERICA 

10 MAZZEO DRIVE, RANDOLPH, MA 02368 
CALL (617) 963-7220 



LARGEST SELECTION 

OF CPM SOFTWARE 

IN THE U.S.A. 



VISA 



Ma^w-fCo'd 



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| You can keep up with the fast paced world f 
| of microcomputing. Subscribe to Kilobaud I 
| Microcomputing. | 

| Kilobaud Microcomputing has more articles | 
| to keep you informed than any other mi- f 
| crocomputing journal-three times more 
| than the leading competitor. Kilobaud 
$ Microcomputing has programs that are use 
| able and save you money. Plus Kilobaud 



i 




and provide a catalog for ex- 
change of software written by 
YPLA members. The use of 
microcomputers in the educa- 
tion of the learning disabled 
and handicapped will also be 
encouraged by the exchange 
of information and software. 
Annual subscription price for 
parents, teachers and other 
grown-up people is $ 1 5. Read- 
er Service number 493. 

Programmer, a new publi- 
cation from Media21. offers 
programming and marketing 
tips to writers of microcomput- 
er software. It provides infor- 
mation on contracts, agents 
and royalties, as well as spe- 
cific help with programming 
techniques. Programmer 
gives the small, independent 
software producer a chance to 
express market needs, and 
fields as many questions from 
readers as possible. The news- 
letter is not currently accept- 
ing advertising. Subscription 
cost is $13 for the first six 
issues. 

Programmer, PO Box 32 10, 
Manchester, NH 03105. Read- 
er Service number 494. 



Dual-Processor Micro 

North Star's Advantage mi- 
crocomputer uses two proces- 
sors: the Z80A as the main 
CPU and an Intel 8035 as the 
keyboard and disk controller. 
The full system has 64K bytes 
of random-access memory 
with parity as the main mem- 
ory, 20K of dedicated random- 
access memory for the display 
and a 2K bootstrap program- 
mable read-only memory for 
the display and floppy disks. 
The standard screen format is 
24 lines by 80 characters, with 
a graphics resolution of 240 
pixels high by 640 pixels wide. 







The Lynx-300 disk align- 
ment tool. 



The Advantage is supported 
by one of three different oper- 
ating systems: the Applica- 
tion Support Program (ASP), 
Graphics CP/M or North Star's 
Graphics BASIC/Graphics 
DOS. Priced under $4000. 

North Star Computers, Inc., 
14440 Catalina St., San Lean- 
dro, CA 94577. Reader Ser- 
vice number 487. 



Quick Alignment 
Tool 

The Lynx-300 is a portable, 
compact and low-cost solu- 
tion to the problem of verify- 
ing and adjusting the align- 
ment of floppy-disk drives. 
This instrument lets techni- 
cal support personnel make 
all the necessary adjustments 
without the need for an oscil- 
loscope. Any technician can 
quickly and easily verify and 
adjust the alignment of any 
floppy drive encountered. The 
Lynx-300 uses a scries of 
LEDs to indicate the proper 
setting for radial and index/ 
sector adjustments. If the 
proper LED is not illuminated, 
the drive adjustment is not 
within specifications. The 
Lynx is powered by the disk 
drive being adjusted. It comes 
with a set of color-coded 
probes that are attached si- 
multaneously to the drive 
PCB. reducing the possibility 
of error in hookup and speed- 




North Star's Advantage offers sophisticated microcomputer 
graphics. 



188 Microcomputing, January 1982 



11 



NIBBLE IS TERRIFIC 

(For Your Apple) 



If 




Apple Disk Master 

l Major DOS 3.2 3.3 
^Utility 

Biorhythms 
Apple Trap 
Miracles 



18: The Reference for Apple computing! 

NIBBLE 18: One of the Fastest Growing new Magazines in 
the Personal Computing Field. 

NIBBLE IS: Providing Comprehensive, Useful and 
Instructive Programs for the Home, Small Business, and 
Entertainment. 

NIBBLE IS: A Reference to Graphics, Games, Systems 
Programming Tips, Product News and Reviews, Hardware 
Construction Projects, and a host of other features. 



NIBBLE IS: A magazine suitable for both the Beginner and 
the Advanced Programmer. 

Each issue of NIBBLE features significant new Programs of Commercial Quality. Here's 
what some of our Readers say: 

- "Certainly the best magazine on the Apple //" 

- "Programs remarkably easy to enter" 

- "Stimulating and Informative; So much so that this is the first computer magazine I ve 

subscribed to!" 

- "Impressed with the quality and content " 

- "NIBBLE IS TERRIFIC!" 



In coming issues Jook for: _ 

□ Stocks and Commodities Charting □ Assembly Language Programming Column 

□ Pascal Programming Column □ Data Base Programs for Home and Business 

□ Personal Investment Analysis □ Electronic Secretary for Time Management 

□ The GIZMO Business Simulation Game 

And many many more! 

NIBBLE is focused completely 
on the Apple Computer systems. 

Buy NIBBLE through your local 
AppJe Dealer or subscribe now with 
the coupon below. 

Try a NIBBLE! 



NOTE *n cn . 

— Domestic US First Class subscription rate is $26.95 

— Write or call for Foreign subscription rates 

All payments must be in U S funds drawn on a U S bank 

* 1980 by MICRO-SPARC . INC Lincoln Mass 01773 All rights reserved 

• Apple II is a registered trademark of Apple Computer Company 



nibble 



»^286 



We accept Master Charge & Visa 
Box 325, Lincoln, MA. 01773 (617) 259-9710 

III try nibble! 

Enclosed is my $19.95 (for 8 issues) Price effective Jan. 1, 1982 
(Outside U.S., see special note on this page.) 

□ check □ money order 

Your subscription will begin with the next issue published after receipt of your 
check/money order 



Card # 



Expires 



Signature 
Name 




ing the alignment process. 
The Lynx-300 comes in a 
plastic case, priced at $379 
U.S., $459 Canadian. 

Lynx Design & Technology, 
Inc., 3880 Chesswood Drive, 
Downsview, Ontario, Canada 
M3J 2W6. Reader Service 
number 491. 



Flood Alarm 

An electronic protection 



device that sounds an alarm 
at the first trace of water in the 
double floor and other loca- 
tions in computer rooms is 
available from KF Industries, 
Inc., 2310 North American 
St., Philadelphia, PA 19133. 
Flood Alarm sounds a loud 
buzzer when it detects water 
in unwanted places, so that 
action can be taken to prevent 
cable and other damage. The 
power unit contains the 
power supply and buzzer as- 




Vector Graphics 3105 computer system in the laboratory. 



sembly, and the two-probe 
sensor unit contains solid 
state circuitry. As many sen- 
sors as necessary can be add- 
ed to a single power unit to 
protect several areas at once. 
The Model 200 power unit 
costs $30; each sensor unit is 
also $30. Reader Service 
number 499. 



Industrial and 
Scientific System 

The Vector Graphic 3105 
technical computer system 
includes a Vector 3 Z-80- 
based processor and terminal, 
an 18-board card cage for 
S-100 bus interface cards and 
a five-inch Winchester disk 
with five megabytes of stor- 
age backed by a single 630K- 
byte floppy disk. Available pe- 
ripheral boards include a fast 
scan video digitizer, a high- 
resolution graphics module, 
precision 12-bit digital-to- 
analog converter, high-speed 
multichannel ADC, clock/cal- 
endar, PROM/RAM board, 
IEEE-488 interface, relay 
driver and stepper motor in- 
terface board. The system can 



be tailored for pilot process 
control, non-destructive and 
other testing, biophysics, 
medical electronics, food 
technology and a wide range 
of electronics, physics, optical 
and electromechanical exper- 
iments. The basic 3105 
system price is $8495. 

Vector Graphic, Inc., 500 N. 
Ventu Park Road, Thousand 
Oaks, CA 91320. Reader Ser- 
vice number 490. 



A Quieter Printer 

A new dot matrix printer 
has been added to the Heath/ 
Zenith line of microcomputer 
peripherals. The bidirectional 
H-25 prints 150 cps; all 95 
ASCII characters, upper/low- 
ercase, and 33 graphics char- 
acters are included. Pitch can 
be varied from 10-16.5 cpi. 
Standard edge-punched or 
fanfold paper feeds easily. 
Paper exits from the rear of 
the printer and the cabinet is 
totally enclosed, thus reduc- 
ing noise. LEDs light up to in- 
dicate when the printer is on, 
on-line with the computer, 
out of paper, jammed or has 



£ RACFT SORTS — RACET UTILITIES — RACET computes — RACET SORTS — RACET UTILITIES — RACET computes — RACET SORTS — RACET UTILITIES — RACET computes — 



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FIELD PROVEN!! 

10 MEGABYTES and MORE for the TRS-80* Model II 

plus SHARED ACCESS to HARD DISK DRIVE 

Hard/Soft Disk System (HSDS) Software allows access as single drive. You can 
have that 10 Megabyte continuous file - that 50,000 name maillist or inventory! Or 
a directory with 1000 entries! All completely compatible with TRSDOS 2.0 BASIC. 
You can mix floppy and hard disk drives. Includes special utilities including HPURGE, 
DCS Directory Catalog System, HZAP Hard Disk Superzap, and many special 
formatting options. Three to eight times faster than floppy! RACET quality. 

HARD DISK DRIVE & CONTROLLER $5995. Second User $595. 

HSDS Software $400. (Note: HSDS now also available for CORVUS drives!!) 

INFINITE BASIC (Mod I & III Tape or Disk) Mod I $50.00, Mod III $60.00 

Extends Level II BASIC with complete MATRIX functions and 50 more string 
functions. Includes RACET machine language sorts! Sort 1000 elements in 9 
seconds!! Select only functions you want to optimize memory usage. 

INFINITE BUSINESS (Requires Infinite BASIC) Mod I * III $30.00 

Complete printer pagination controls — auto headers, footers, page numbers. 
Packed decimal arithmetic — 127 digit accuracy + , -, *, /. Binary search 
of sorted and unsorted arrays. Hash codes. 

BASIC CROSS REFERENCE UTILITY (Mod II 64K) $50.00 

SEEK and FIND functions for Variables, Line Numbers, Strings, Keywords. 'All' 
options available for line numbers and variables. Load from BASIC — Call with 
'CTRL'R. Output to screen or printer! 

DSM Mod I $75.00, Mod II $150.00. Mod III $90.00 

Disk Sort/ Merge for RANDOM files. All machine language stand-alone package for 
sorting speed. Establish sort specification in simple BASIC command File. Execute 
from DOS. Only operator action to sort is to change diskettes when requested! 
Handles multiple diskette files! Super fast sort times — improved disk I/O times 
make this the fastest Disk Sort/Merge available on your TRS. 

(Mod I Min32K2-drive system. Mod II 64K 1 -drive. Mod III 32K 1 -drive) 

GSF (Mod I & III Tape or Disk - Specify Memory Size) 
Mod I $25; Mod II $50; Mod III $30 

Generalized Subroutine Facilities. The STANDARD against which all other sorts are 
compared! And then compare prices! Machine language — fast and powerful! 
Multi-key multi-variable and multi-key character string. Zero and move arrays. 
Mod II includes USR PEEKS and POKES. Includes sample programs. 

RACET SORTS — RACET UTILITIES — RACET computes — RACET SORTS - RACET UTI 



DISCAT (32K 1 -drive Min) Mod I, III $50.00 

This comprehensive Diskette Cataloguing/Indexing utility allows the user to keep 
track of thousands of programs in a categorized library. Machine language program 
works with all TRSDOS and NEWD0S versions. Files include program names and 
extensions, program length, diskette numbers, front and back, and diskette free space. 

KFS-80 (1 -drive 32K Min — Mod II 64K) Mod I, III $100.00; Mod II $175.00 

The keyed file system provides keyed and sequential access to multiple files. Provides 
the programmer with a powerful disk handling facility for development of data base 
applications. Binary tree index system provides rapid access to file records. 

MAILLIST (1 -drive 32K Min - Mod II 64K) Mod I, III $75.00; Mod II $150.00 

This ISAM-based maillist minimizes disk access times. Four keys — no separate 
sorting. Supports 9-digit zip code and 3-digit state code. Up to 30 attributes. Mask 
and query selection. Record access times under 4 seconds!! 

C0MPR0C (Mod I & Mod III — Disk only) Mod I $20; Mod III $30 

Command Processor. Auto your disk to perform any sequence of Instructions that 
you can give from the keyboard. DIR, FREE, pause, wait for user input, BASIC, No. 
of FILES and MEM SIZE, RUN program, respond to input statements, BREAK, 
return to DOS, etc. Includes lowercase driver software, debounce and screenprint! 

UTILITY PACKAGE (Mod II 64K) $150.00 

Important enhancements to the Mod II. The file recovery capabilities alone will pay 
for the package in even one application! Fully documented in 124 page manual! 
XHIT, X6AT, XC0PY and SUPERZAP are used to reconstruct or recover date from 
bad diskettes! XC0PY provides multi-file copies, 'Wild-card' mask select, absolute 
sector mode and other features. SUPERZAP allows examine/change any sector on 
diskette include track-0, and absolute disk backup/copy with I/O recovery. DCS 
builds consolidated directories from multiple diskettes into a single display or 
listing sorted by disk name or file name plus more. Change Disk ID with DISKID. 
XCREATE preallocates files and sets 'L0F' to end to speed disk accesses. DEBUGJI 
adds single step, trace, subroutine calling, program looping, dynamic disassembly 
and more!! 

DEVELOPMENT PACKAGE (Mod II 64K) $125.00 

Includes RACET machine language SUPERZAP, Apparat Disassembler, and Model 
II interface to the Microsoft 'Editor Assembler Plus' software package including 
uploading services and patches for Disk I/O. 



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CHECK, VISA. M/C, COO., PURCHASE ORDER 
TELEPHONE ORDERS ACCEPTED (714) 997-4950 

•TRS-80 IS A REGISTERED TRADEMARK 
OF TANDY CORPORATION 
LITIES — RACET computes — RACET SORTS — RACET UT\UT\ES — RACET computes — 



1330 N. GLASSELL, SUITE M, 

ORANGE, CA 92667 ^ 101 



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190 Microcomputing, January 1982 




) Riverbank Software inc. 

t* 142 

PROUDLY INTRODUCES 



INTERNATIONAL GRAN PRIX 

an arcade like race car simulation 

by RICHARD ORBAN 
author of THREE MILE ISLAND* 



REQUIRES 

APPLE II* * OR 

APPLE II PLUS* * 

48K. 13 OR 16 

SECTOR DISK, 

PADDLE CONTROL 



VISA/MASTERCHARGE 
MONEY ORDERS/COD 
DEALER/DISTRIBUTOR 
INQUIRIES INVITED 




$30.00 PER DISK 

MO RESIDENTS ADD 5% 
U S CURRENCY ONLY 

See your local dealer 



INQUIRIES AND 
ORDERS 301 479 1312 
SMITH S LANDING ROAD 
POST OFFICE BOX 128 
DENTON. MD 21629 



• SPECIAL FEATURES • 

Five GRAND PRIX-style road circuits, including: Oulton Park, War- 
wick Farm, Karlskoga. and Monaco • Five speed manual or 
automatic transmission (with or without cruise control) • Eight 
levels of difficulty. 

• ADDITIONAL FEATURES • 

Speeds to 198 MPH • controlled skids • spinouts • spectacular crashes • hair pin turns • 
narrow corners • obstacles • identified circuit features • number of laps selection • 
flashing last lap indicator • Christmas tree' controlled start • switch for silent operation • 
blue post marks 300' intervals • best lap/best race times posted • fully instrumented control 
panel: lap timer • race timer • indicator lights • edge detectors • position indicator • 
steering indicator • moving speed tape • lap counter • gear and RPM indicators • operating 
fuel gauge 



RIVERBANK WILL REPLACE DAMAGED DISKS WITHIN 1 YEAR OF PURCHASE RETURN DISK WITH PROOF OF 
PURCHASE PLUS FIVE DOLLARS POSTAGE AND HANDLING FOR IMMEDIATE REPLACEMENT 
(TEN DOLLARS OVERSEAS) 

•TRADEMARK MUSE CO BALT MD •• APPLE COMPUTER INC CUPERTINO CA 



Special versions for 
the Apple, Radio 
Shack, Commodore, 
Atari, IBM P.C., and 
other small systems 
will be available soon. 

For immediate noti- 
fication of availability, 
pteasfe send name, ad- 
dress, and description 
of system. 

See December is- 
sue of Kilobaud for full 
page description or 
send for brochure. 



FORTH 



FOR/MAT™ 

SCREEN EDITOR 

A MUST FOR THE SERIOUS FORTH 
PROGRAMMER 

• All code is Forth-79standard. Each line 
of code is fully explained and flow- 
charted (Forth style) for easy 
modification. 

• This editor works just like the popular 
word processors on the market except it 
is written in high level forth and is 
confined to the 1024 byte boundary of a 
forth screen. 

• There are over 20 different commands 
for cursor positioning, text modification, 
tabs, relocating lines, spreading lines, 
and moving lines to other screens. 

• Insert mode is toggled on and off for 
midstream insertions and deletions. Text 
ahead of CP is moved right during 
insertion and left during deletion if insert 
mode is on. 

• Column position is displayed at all 
times. 

• Bomb proof — all unused control 
codes are trapped. 

• Must be used with a CRT that has 
cursor addressing or' with a memory 
mapped video. 

• Send check or money order in the 
amount of $50.00 and receive complete 
source code, flowcharts, documen- 
tation, and instructions for bringing up 
on your system. 

KV33 CORPORATION 

P.O. BOX 27246 

TUCSON. AZ 85726 

(602) 889-5722 




^289 




The NET/82 single board computer from MuSYS Corporation. 



There is also a 26-pin parallel 
output for faster data transfer 
rates. Plug-in sensors for tem- 
perature, light, pH and other 
analog signals eliminate the 
need for building transducer 
circuits. Four input channels 
permit logging of several vari- 
ables at once. Fast conversion 
speed of 100 ^s is sufficient for 
most teaching applications. 
Cambridge Development 



Laboratory, 36 Pleasant St., 
Watertown, MA 02172. Read- 
er Service number 495. 




The Analog Peripheral from 
Cambridge Development 
Laboratory. 






Dual Thermometer 
For Apple II 

Strawberry Tree Com- 
puters, 949 Cascade Drive, 
Sunnyvale, CA 94087. is of- 
fering an Apple II interface 
card with two complete ther- 
mometers and software. The 
system turns an Apple into a 
laboratory tool that measures, 
logs and analyzes tempera- 
ture. It will display time, tem- 
perature, maximum and 
minimum temperatures and 
temperature difference be- 
tween probes. An alarm will 
sound at any preset tempera- 
ture. Just plug in the two ten- 
foot probes to measure tem- 
peratures from - 55 to 125 de- 
grees Celsius. The Dual Ther- 
mometer package costs $260. 
Reader Service number 489. 




This Dual Thermometer package from Strawberry Tree Com- 
puters converts an Apple II into a precision measurement tool. 



192 Microcomputing, January 1982 




The Heath H-25 dot matrix printer. 



the cover open. Automatic 
test printing and status lights 
are built in. Price is $1095. 

Heath Company, Dept. 350- 
315, Benton Harbor, MI 
49022. Reader Service 
number 498. 



Software-Based 
Keyboard Design 

The Maxi-Switch Universal 
Keyboard is based on the 
physical design of one of the 
first microprocessor-based 
keyboards, with a standard 
keyboard typing layout plus 
numeric blocks at either end. 
The basic unit is equipped 
with 103 keyswitch positions, 
and can be expanded at mini- 
mum cost up to 128 positions, 
using a prepunched panel and 
a circuit board with traces al- 
ready in place. Simple prep- 
aration of a control EPROM, 
using existing routines, can 
equip the board to meet vir- 
tually any keyboard specifi- 
cations. Performance options 
are selected by keyboard in- 
put or jumper and diode op- 
tions. Price is $210. 

Maxi-Switch Co.. 9697 E. 
River Road, Minneapolis, MN 
55433. Reader Service 
number 496. 



Single Board for 
Multi-User Systems 

Complete networking capa- 



bility for S-100 users, includ- 
ing bank-switched memory 
and parity checking, is avail- 
able on a single board from 
MuSYS Corporation, 1451 Ir- 
vine Blvd., Suite 11, Tustin, 
CA 92680. NET/82 features a 
Z80A CPU, two serial ports, 
optional floating point proces- 
sor, interrupt controller, shad- 
ow EPROM, real-time clock 
and S-100 parallel port for 
communication with the mas- 
ter CPU. NET/82 is compati- 
ble with MuDOS, CP/M, MP/M 
and CP/NET. Parity checking 
permits easy detection of 
memory malfunctions. The 
128K-byte bank-switched 
memory option allows the 
program to select 48-63K of 
user RAM, controlled through 
an I/O port. Each serial port 
can also be customized for 
other applications, including 
interface with a serial printer. 
Price is $1395; $1995 with 
128K and floating point pro- 
cessor. Reader Service 
number 497. 



Data Acquisition 

The Analog Peripheral is a 
self-contained eight-bit ana- 
log-to-digital converter with 
its own power supply. Its RS- 
232C output line is switch se- 
lectable from 1 10 to 9600 bits 
per second, and can be con- 
nected to virtually any com- 
puter, from Apple to IBM. 




Maxi's Universal Keyboard. 

^See List of Advertisers on page 1 78 



for Applt computer with 
i^ AppUtoft and 



The Versatile, Complete 

PERSONAL BUDGET PROGRAM 



NOW YOU CAN SORT AND SUMMARIZE YOUR 

• Grocery Bills 

• Housing, Utilities, Repairs 

• Car Expenses 

• Tax Deductible items 

• Income 

ANY FACET OF YOUR 
TOTAL BUDGET 
With no rtttrietiont on 
number of key codes 
or length of entry! 



SPECIAL 

FEATURES 

reconciles your 
checkbook 

printout 
capability 

stores over 3000 
records per disk 



automatically 
totals sales tax 
records! 



• OYER ANY TIME PERIOD 
+ BY PAYEE 

• BY CASN OR CHECK... 

• OVER ANY CHECK SERIES 

EVEN SUBCATEGORIZE expenses for 
yourself, your spouse, children, 
each car . . . even the dog ! 

USER TESTED for 2 years 

prior to national marketing! 

MONEY GO* floppy disk program 
with complete) documentation 

Only $45 (includes shipping 



TN r«»id«ntt odd 4'/,*. taltt tax 



KEY SOFTWARE 



Appla and 
Applesoft or* 
is 54 ragistarad trademarks 
of Appla Computtr Co. 



P.O. Box 
3092 

Oak Ridge, 
TN 37830 



' OFFICE 
SYSTEMS 



^ 153 



INCOME TAX 



• • • 



PERSONAL INCOME TAX INTERVIEW PROGRAM written 
in BASIC by a tax attorney as he would conduct a personal inter- 
view to organize taxpayer's data into Federal income tax categories 
for 1981 tax returns. Program leads the user through an extensive 
checklist of personal events which can have income tax consequences, 
giving numerous examples and explanation of tax law for each 
YES answer. 

Covers events such as marriage, divorce, birth, death, employ- 
ment, lay-offs, retirement, travel, change of residence, accidents, 
illness or injuries, business ventures, self-employment, education, 
investments of money or time, prizes, scholarships, insurance recov- 
eries, tax-exempt income, bad debts, etc., as well as the commonly 
known income items and deductible expenses. 

Program also carries out computations for depreciation schedules, 
joint vs. separate returns, itemized vs. standard deductions, depre- 
ciation vs. tax credits, etc., in order to help make important tax 
decisions. Includes 1981 Tax law changes, references to related areas 
such as gift and inheritance taxes, trusts, estates, partnerships, corpo- 
rations, pension and retirement plans, tax-exempt organizations, etc. 
Includes booklet of useful IRS tax forms, other tax publications, 
and toll-free phone number of tax attorney. Available on cassette or 
diskettes for most popular micros. Price $49.95 

OTHER POS PRODUCTS . . . 

• POS-100NRZ1 Tape Drive Controller/Formatter ... . $795.00 

• POS 800/1600 Universal Tape Drive Controller .... $1495.00 
(4K/16K buffer, RS-232 or Parallel Ports to CPU) 

• POS I/O Conversion Kit for IBM Office Selectric . . . $150.00 

• POS ASCII Printer Interface for IBM I/O Selectric . . . $249.95 

• POS IBM ASCII Selectric Printer (Parallel Interface) . $895.00 

• GTE IS Model 560 ASCII Selectric I/O Terminal .... $995.00 

• POS Daisy-Wheel Printer Interface for TRS-80 Model I . $249.95 

• Variable Width FORMS TRACTOR for 15" Selectrics . . $95.00 

PACIFIC OFFICE SYSTEMS 

2265 Old Middlefield Way • Mt. View, CA 94043 • (415) 493-7455 



Microcomputing, January 1982 191 






OSI 



TRS-80 



COLOR-80 



OSI 



GALAXIAN - 4K - One of the fastest and finest 
arcade games ever written for the OSI, this one 
leagues rows of hard-hitting evasive dogfighting 
aliens thirsty for your blood. For those who 
loved tend Vwed of) Alien Invaders. Specify 
system — A bargain at $9.95 OSI 



LABYRINTH - 8K - This has a display back- 
ground similar to MINOS as the action takes 
place in a realistic maze seen from ground level. 
This is, however, a real time monster hunt as you 
track down and shoot mobile monsters on foot. 
Checking out and testing this one was the most 
fun I've had in years! - $13.95. OSI 

THE AARDVARK JOURNAL 
FOR OSI USERS - This is a bi-monthly 
tutorial journal running only articles about OSI 
systems. Every issue contains programs custom- 
ized for OSI, tutorials on how to use and modify 
the system, and reviews of OSI related products. 
In the last two years we have run articles like 

these ! 

1) A tutorial on Machine Code for BASIC 

programmers. 

2) Complete listings of two word processors 
for BASIC IN ROM machines. 

3) Moving the Directory off track 12. 

4) Listings for 20 game programs for the OSI. 

5) How to write high speed BASIC - and 
lots more — 

Vol. 1 (1980) 6 back issues - $9.00 

Vol. 2 (1981) 4 back issues and subscription for 

2 additional issues - $9.00. 

ADVENTURES!!! 

For OSI, TRS-80, and COLOR-80. These 
Adventures are written in BASIC, are full fea- 
tured, fast action, full plotted adventures that 
take 30-50 hours to play. (Adventures are inter- 
active fantasies. It's like reading a book except 
that you are the main character as you give the 
computer commands like "Look in the Coffin" 
and "Light the torch".) 

Adventures require 8K on an OSI and 16K on 
COLOR-80 and TRS-80. They sell for $14.95 
each. 

ESCAPE FROM MARS (by Rodger Olsen) 
This ADVENTURE takes place on the RED 
PLANT. You'll have to explore a Martian city 
and deal with possibly hostile aliens to survive 
this one. A good first adventure. 

PYRAMID (by Rodger Olsen) 
This is our most challenging ADVENTURE. It 
is a treasure hunt in a pyramid full of problems. 
Exciting and tough! 

TREK ADVENTURE (by Bob Retelle) 
This one takes place aboard a familiar starship. 
The crew has left for good reasons - but they for- 
got to take you, and now you are in deep trouble. 

DEATH SHIP (by Rodger Olsen) 
Our first and original ADVENTURE, this one 
takes place aboard a cruise ship - but it ain't the 
Love Boat. 

VAMPIRE CASTLE (by Mike Bassman) 
This is a contest between you and old Drac - 
and it's getting a little dark outside. $14.95 each. 



OSI 



OSI 



NEW-NEW-NEW 
TINY COMPILER 

The easy way to speed in your programs. The 
tiny compiler lets you write and debug your pro- 
gram in Basic and then automatically compiles a 
Machine Code version that runs from 50-150 
times faster. The tiny compiler generates relocat- 
able, native, transportable machine code that can 
be run on any 6502 system. 

It does have some limitations. It is memory 
hungry - 8K is the minimum sized system that 
can run the Compiler. It also handles only a 
limited subset of Basic - about 20 keywords in- 
cluding FOR, NEXT. IF THEN, GOSUB, GOTO, 
RETURN, END, STOP, USR(X), PEEK, POKE, 
- - * I S\ Variable names A-Z, and Integer 

Numbers from 0-64K. 

TINY COMPILER is written in Basic. It can 
be modified and augmented by the user. It comes 
with a 20 page manual. 
TINY COMPILER - $19.95 on tape or disk OSI 

SUPERDISK II 

This disk contains a new BEXEC* that boots 
up with a numbered directory and which allows 
creation, deletion and renaming of files without 
calling other programs. It also contains a slight 
modification to BASIC to allow 14 character 

file names. 

The disk contains a disk manager that con- 
tains a disk packer, a hex/dec calculator and 
several other utilities. 

It also has a full screen editor (in machine 
code on C2P/C4)) that makes corrections a snap. 
We'll also toss in renumbering and program 
search programs - and sell the whole thing for — 
SUPERDISK II $29.95 (5%") OSI 

BARE BOARDS FOR OSI C1P 
MEMORY BOARDS!!! - for the C1P - and they 
contain parallel ports! 

Aardvarks new memory board supports 8K 
of 21 14s and has provision for a PIA to give a 
parallel ports! It sells as a bare board for $29.95. 
When assembled, the board plugs into the expan- 
sion connector on the 600 board. Available now! 

PROM BURNER FOR THE C1P - Burns single 
supply 2716's. Bare board - $24.95. 

MOTHER BOARD - Expand your expansion 
connector from one to five connectors or use it 
to adapt our C1P boards to your C4/8P. - $14.95. 

16K RAM BOARD FOR C1P - This one does 
not have a parallel port, but it does support 16K 
of 2114's. Bare Board $39.95. 




WORD PROCESSING THE EASY WAY- 
WITHMAXI-PROS 

This is a line-oriented word processor de- 
signed for the office that doesn't want to send 
every new girl out for training in how to type a 

letter. , . ... 

It has automatic right and left margin justi- 
fication and lets you vary the width and margins 
during printing. It has automatic pagination and 
automatic page numbering. It will print any text 
single, double or triple spaced and has text cen- 
tering commands. It will make any number of 
multiple copies or chain files together to print an 
entire disk of data at one time. 

MAXI-PROS has both global and line edit 
capability and the polled keyboard versions 
contain a corrected keyboard routine that make 
the OSI keyboard decode as a standard type- 
writer keyboard. 

MAXI-PROS also has sophisticated file 
capabibilities. It can access a file for names and 

addresses, stop for inputs, and print form letters. 

It has file merging capabilities so that it can store 

and combine paragraphs and pages in any order. 
Best of all, it is in BASIC (0S65D 51/4" or 

8" disk) so that it can be easily adapted to any 

printer or printing job and so that it can be sold 

for a measly price. 

MAXI-PROS - $39.95. Specify 5% or 8" disk. 

SUPPORT ROMS FOR BASIC IN ROM MA- 
CHINES - C1S/C2S. This ROM adds line edit 
functions, software selectable scroll windows, 
bell support, choice of OSI or standard keyboard 
routines, two callable screen clears, and software 
support for 32-64 characters per line video. 
Has one character command to switch model 
2 C1P from 24 to 48 character line. When in- 
stalled in C2 or C4 (C2S) requires installation 
of additional chip. C1P requires only a jumper 
change. - $39.95 

C1E/C2E similar to above but with extended 
machine code monitor. — $59.95 OSI 

ARCADE GAMES FOR OSI, COLOR 80 AND 
TRS 80 (8K OSI, 16K TRS-80 AND COLOR-80) 

TIMETREK - A REAL TIME, REAL GRAPHICS 
STARTRECK. See your torpedoes hit and watch 
your instruments work in real time. No more un- 
realistic scrolling displays! $14.95. 

STARFIGHTER - This one man space war game 
pits you against spacecruisers, battlewagons, and 
one man fighters, you have the view from your 
cockpit window, a real time working instrument 
panel, and your wits. Another real time goody. 
$9.95 

BATTLEFLEET - This grown up version of Bat- 
tleship is the toughest thinking game available on 
OSI or 80 computers. There is no luck involved 
as you seek out the computers hidden fleet. A 
topographical toughie. $9.95 

QUEST - A NEW IDEA IN ADVENTURE 
GAMES! Different from all the others. Quest is 
played on a computer generated mape of Alesia. 
Your job is to gather men and supplies by comb- 
bat, bargaining, exploration of ruins and temples 
and outright banditry. When your force is strong 
enough, you attack the Citadel of Moorlock in a 
life or death battle to the finish. Playable in 2 to 
5 hours, this one is different every time. 
16K COLOR-80 OR TRS-80 ONLY. $14.95 




Please specify system on all orders 

This is only a partial listing of what we have to offer. We offer over 120 games ROMS and data sheets for OS. system, 
and many games and utilities for COLOR-80 and TRS-80. Send $1.00 for our catalog. 



OSI 



AARDVARK TECHNICAL SERVICES, LTD. 
2352 S. Commerce, Walled Lake, Ml 48088 

(313)669-3110 




^91 



COLOR-80 



^See List of Advertisers on page 178 



Microcomputing, January 1982 193 



NEW SOFTV/ 



Edited by Linda Stephenson 



Byte Your Way to Good Nutrition 
Apple Statistics 
Make Music with VIC 
Understanding Asian Languages 



Diet Analysis 

Nutri-Calc is a nutritional 
analysis program designed to 
rapidly and accurately assess 
individual nutrient intake. 
Eighteen of the nutrients 
found in 730 common foods 
are included. Nutrient values 
have been taken from stan- 
dard USDA listings. The user 
can modify the food and nu- 
trient database as needed. 
Comparisons of input data to 
the recommended daily al- 
lowances for specific sub- 
groups is provided: calcula- 
tions arc baaed on age and sex, 
and for infants, body weight. 
Nutri-Calc lets the user build 
new food items (over 200) by 
combining components al- 
ready in the foods database. 
Standard menus and special 
recipes can also be stored. 
The program can be used 
with Apple II + , TRS-80 Mod- 
els II and III, and any CP/M or 
UCSD p-System microcom- 
puters with 64K-byte memo- 
ry and eight-inch single-den- 
sity disk drives. Price is $350. 
PCD Systems, Inc., PO Box 
143. Penn Yan, NY 14527. 
Reader Service number 464. 



Statistics 
For the Apple 

Rainbow Computing, 
19517 Business Center Dr.. 
Northridge, CA 91324, offers 
a comprehensive statistics 
package for the Apple II with 
Applesoft and DOS 3.3. Statis- 
tics with Daisy offers a full 
range of statistical capabili- 
ties for business, scientific 
and social science applica- 
tions. It features Help and Info 

194 Microcomputing, January 



functions to simplify opera- 
tion. The system does math 
and time-series transforms, 
hi-resolution plots, basic sta- 
tistics, correlations, multiple 
regression (six different pro- 
cedures), model testing and 
evaluation, nonparametric 
statistics, hypothesis testing 
and analysis of variance. 
Users can add their own pro- 
grams as new Daisy com- 
mands. Data is entered 
through a window view into 
the data table. Statistics with 
Daisy is priced at $79.95. 
Reader Service number 465. 



Music Composer 

Turn your VIC microcom- 
puter into a music machine 
with VIC Piper. This program 
lets you compose, save, recall 
and play back music, using a 
standard VIC without addi- 
tional hardware. You enter 
notes by using alpha notation: 
A, F* C, G, D; rests and note 
duration are also entered at 
the keyboard. You can vary 
the volume and tempo, play 
harmony, print pictures of 
text to accompany your 
music and automatically load 
and run additional composi- 
tions from cassette or disk. 
Price is $25. including man- 
ual and sample compositions. 

Abacus Software, PO Box 
7211, Grand Rapids, MI 
49510. Reader Service num- 
ber 466. 



Professional 
Tax Preparation 

The Income Tax Prepara- 
tion system by Micro-Tax. Mi- 
crocomputer Taxsystems, 

1982 



Inc., 22713 Ventura Blvd.. 
Suite F, Woodland Hills. CA 
9 1 364. is designed to comput- 
erize the tax professional's of- 
fice. The system accepts the 
data, summarizes needed in- 
formation, computes tax and 
prints the required IRS and 
state forms. The tax specialist 
can provide clients with im- 
mediate results. Micro-Tax of- 
fers the system in three levels, 
priced from $250-81000. 
Reader Service number 467. 



Asian Languages 
Program 

Asiagraphics software en- 
ables people using Asian lan- 
guages, with their many thou- 
sands of ideographic charac- 
ters, to use computer technol- 
ogy for word processing, data 
processing, telex and other 
applications. A specific char- 
acter is selected by typing a 
unique code (descriptor) on a 
standard keyboard; the char- 
acter is displayed on the video 
screen. Both traditional and 
simplified characters are 
available. The descriptor con- 
sists of the phonetic represen- 
tation of the character's pro- 
nunciation and a phonetic 
rendering of the radical family 
to which the character be- 
longs. The operator must be- 
literate in the language used 
and know the phonetic sys- 
on which the descriptors are 
based. Using touch typing, 
speeds comparable to western 
language typing speeds can 
be achieved. Descriptors for 
more than 6600 charactors 
currently exist in memory: 
new characters can be en- 
tered at any time by drawing 



the needed character on a grid 
with the character generator 
program. 

China Institute in America. 
Inc.. 125 East 65th St., New 
York. NY 10021. Reader Ser- 
vice number 469. 



Spelling Help for 
Your 6809 

A misspelled word that slips 
by your secretary but is no- 
ticed by a potential custom- 
er will cost you sales; spell- 
ing errors in a manuscript al- 
most guarantee a rejection 
slip. Spell-Test will help you 
find those deadly spelling er- 
rors. Spell-Test, for Flex-based 
6809 microcomputers, is com- 
pletely menu-driven. The pro- 
gram stops and points to all 
invalid words, so you can Ac- 
cept the word as it is. Ac- 
cept and Save it for use in 
an optional dictionary later 
or Replace it. You can do a 
quick check of your prose 
with the basic 11,000-word 
dictionary or a thorough 
check against a comprehen- 
sive 2 1,000- word dictionary. 
Spell -Test on a standard Flex 
disk costs $195. 

Frank Hogg Laboratory. 
130 Midtown Plaza, 700 East 



■Uf+fli+=B . mm 

«: n «? a * £ * ft + * *. je 
bi * i* ± a . 

**»2&«:IItT 

The China Institute in Amer- 
ica has introduced the Asia- 
graphics Software System. 



Water St., Syracuse, NY 
13210. Reader Service num- 
ber 471. 



Computerized 
Ratings 

Media Service Concepts, 
1713 N. North Park Ave., Chi- 
cago, IL 60614, has intro- 
duced Recall, a radio ratings 
analysis package for use on 
the Apple II. Recall lets a ra- 
dio station quickly organize 
and interpret data furnished 
by Arbitron, the major radio 
ratings service. Recall can 
analyze up to four radio sta- 
tions or four rating books si- 
multaneously. The different 
sections provide in-depth un- 
derstanding of radio audience 
flow dynamics and market po- 
sitioning. Recall can help a 
radio station find its strengths 
and weaknesses, and those of 
competitors. Recall is priced 
at $750. Reader Service num- 
ber 468. 

Apple Graphics 

The Superplotter is a pro- 



fessionally-oriented graphics 
package for business, engi- 
neering, education and math 
applications. The program 
features pie graphs, standard 
bar charts, point and line 
graphs, a mathematical func- 
tion plotter, a least squares 
polynomial curve-fit genera- 
tor, automatic graphics disk 
storage and recall, a data file 
editor, overlay modes, a user 
tutorial and keyboard image 
shapes that can be mixed 
with the user's own graphics 
displays. The program runs 
on Apple computers with Ap- 
plesoft. Price is $59.95. 

Dickens Data Systems, 433 
Greenwood Drive, LaPlace, 
LA 70068. Reader Service 
number 472. 

Econometric 
Software 

WITS World Information 
and Technology Systems 
Corp., 235 Yorkland Blvd., 
Suite 901, Willowdale, Ontar- 
io M2J 4W9, has announced 
WITS/Economist, a software 
package that helps business- 
people develop financial and 



marketing strategies. WITS/ 
Economist is used for profit- 
ability and break-even analy- 
sis; capital budgeting, invest- 
ment, pricing and marketing/ 
advertising decisions: and 
competitive and risk analysis. 
To model a business the user 
types in the key business 
parameters that describe an- 
ticipated economic, financial 
and marketing conditions. 
WITS/Economist presents the 
resulting business scenario 
and guides the user interac- 
tively through price-sale op- 
timization and risk analysis. 
WITS/Economist is available 
on Heath/Zenith systems un- 
der CP/M and HDOS. It re- 
quires 48K bytes of memory 
and one disk drive. Price is 
$495 (Canadian). Reader Ser- 
vice number 470. 

Hi-Res Graphics 
For Atari 

Versa Computing, Inc., 
3541 Old Conejo Road, Suite 
104, Newbury Park, CA 
91320, has a complete joy- 
stick/paddle graphics soft- 
ware package for 32K Atari 



400/800 computers. With 
Graphics Composer you can 
use paddles or joystick to 
draw a picture outline on hi- 
res screen Mode 8 or 7. Then 
use color fill-in, color brushes 
and Add Text to complete 
your graphics designs. 
Graphics Composer lets you 
create player/missile shapes 
to use in other programs. The 
geometric figures program 
lets you define circles, tri- 
angles, polygons, parallelo- 
grams and even trigonomet- 
ric curves. Loading routines 
are provided so that pictures 
can be used in other programs 
or traded with friends. Price is 
$39.95, on disk or cassette. 
Reader Service number 474. 

Two Investment 
Broker Systems 

Kate's Komputers offers in- 
vestment programs for North 
Star, Apple and CP/M users. 
The Analy$t is a comprehen- 
sive stock market graphics 
system. It features graphics 
plotting using seven different 
techniques on a screen that 
can be triple split. The Ad- 



Speed Ar >, 

Power L/ol 

Efficiency 65dTsystems 



R- EDIT: Edit any program or text with ease! $40 

e FULL CURSOR control. Innrt. dolott. add anywhere on the screen 
e BASIC. essomblor. ate aditad without reloading RAM resident editor 
e SYSGEN relocates R EDIT and customizes 

SPUL65: Printer Spooler & Virtual Indirect File $95/$1 

e DON'T WAIT for your printer Process words Writ* programs Put multiple 
print jobs in the queue Keep working while tilt printer runs! 

e TWO printers accomodated on ony torts. Multiple copioi with pagination 

e SYSGEN rolocttos SPUL65 and allows extensive customization. 

e VIRTUAL INDIRECT FILES on disk. End space problems when using 

temporary files Now do extensive editing of BASIC with your word processor 



XREF: BASIC Cross Referencer 



$25 



TABULATES: Referenced line numbers, all variable names, and functions 

FAST machine language program. 

DISK baaad to handle tba largaat BASIC source filoa on any driva. 



FBASIC: BASIC Compiler 



$155/$ 10 



FAST mocbino coda now can ba written witb tbo ooso of BASIC. 

SPEED- optimizod. native-cods compiler An integer subset of OSI's BASIC. 

DISK based to allow large source and object files 

EXTENSIONS to BASIC for Eosy interface to system herd were/ software Oirect 

access to 6S02 registers Arrsy initialization and optional absolute location. 

WHILE and otbar structures Interfacing compiler output end interpreter. 

UTILITIES (plua aource). manual, and many useful examples. 

CP/MtoOSI Translation 

Frustreted by ell those good CP/M disks 
tbat won't run on your OSI CP/M system? 
Send us your disk. $15. and we'll send it 
back witb an OSI compatible version 



Ttvare 



• 113 

Data Resource Corporation. Suite 201 

1040 Lunaai St. Kailua. HI 96734 (808) 261-2012 



Manuel orders applied te seftwera 
avrtaases. Preereais sappMed an l-ia. 
eiagle-doasitY. single- sided disks 
Haweii raeideats edd 4% tes. 



DUAL 



THERMOMETER 



COMP 




TWARE 



„.««- va l 


1 /s\ 



e Display temperature, 
maximum, minimum and 
difference. 

• Sound alarm for over/ 
under temperature. 

e Store data on disk or 
printer automatically. 

• Display time with on 

Strawberry Tree Computers 

Dept.M 

949 Cascade Drive / 

Sunnyvale, Ca. 94087 ( ( 

|408) 736-3083 V 



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board timer. 

e Up to 7 boards with 1 4 

probes in one Apple*. 

e -55°Cto 125°C range, 

0.4° accuracy over most of 

range. 

e Requires 48K Apple* 

with Applesoft* and disk. 

$260.00 

If your dealer doesn't 
have it, call or write us. 

TM of Apple Computer, Iric 



J 



• See List of Advertisers on page 178 



Microcomputing, January 1982 195 



vi$or is a stocks and bonds 
portfolio management system 
featuring immediate access to 
all options, stocks, bonds and 
commodities held, and de- 
tailed information about each. 
Both programs have access to 
four on-line quote services, 
with software to automatical- 
ly update. The AnalySt is 
$425: Advi$or is $375: the 
price for both is $750. Add 
$95 for CP/M versions. 

Kate's Komputers, PO Box 
1675, Sausalito, CA 94965. 
Reader Service number 475. 



Multi-Tasking 
Kernel 

The Multi-Tasking Kernel 
from U.S. Software, 5470 NW 
Innisbrook Place, Portland, 
OR 97229, is a tool for inte- 
grating multiple real-time 
software tasks. It is burned in- 
to read-only memory, and ov- 
ersees the selection and exe- 
cution of each task. The ker- 
nel is small, fast and easy to 
use. The Multi-Tasking Ker- 
nel is documented, tested and 
available in source assembly 
form for the 8085, Z-80, 6502, 



6800 and 6809 microproces- 
sors. The package provides 
source code for a basic multi- 
tasking organization (tasks 
self-schedule in a round-robin 
ordering). The user is guided 
through a series of enhance- 
ments for implementing so- 
phisticated interrupt-initi- 
ated, preemptive priority, dy- 
namic task scheduling. Also 
included are descriptions of 
dedicated and shared-re- 
source scheduling, time-slice 
scheduling and intertask 
communication schemes. 
Price is $195 for full internal 
use rights and unlimited 
rights to distribute kernel- 
based products in machine 
form. Reader Service number 
476. 



$$$ 

Level 10 offers a $5000 
reward for the return of the Al- 
kemstone. Their new comput- 
er adventure challenges you 
to recover the missing Alkem- 
stone from the underground 
lair in which it has been con- 
cealed. Unusual messages, 
fragments of words, sketches 



and other clues written on the 
cave walls will lead you to the 
treasure. And the first player 
to describe its exact location 
to Level 10's designated judge 
wins $5000. The game fea- 
tures hi-resolution graphics, 
three-dimensional animation, 
sound effects and an illustrat- 
ed short story. It runs on an 
Apple with 48K and one 
16-sector disk drive. 

Level 10 Division, Dakin5 
Corp., 7475 Dakin St., Suite 
507, Denver. CO 80221. 
Reader Service number 477. 



Software 
Development 

Genesis is a professional 
program generator that ac- 
cepts commands in conversa- 
tional English, has ample 
memory capacity to code diffi- 
cult algorithms and generates 
efficient code faster than four 
lines per second. Genesis runs 
on all CP/M 2.XX systems and 
uses compiled PL/ 1-80, al- 
though PL/ 1-80 is not re- 
quired to run the program. 
Code is generated in CBASIC. 
The program comes with on- 




Genesis program generator 
from Time Management Soft- 
ware. 



line documentation and a 
complete manual. Price is 
$500. 

Time Management Soft- 
ware, 123 E. Broadway, PO 
Box 727, Cushing, OK 74023. 
Reader Service number 478. 



Language Hybrid 

Starside Engineering, PO 
Box 8306. Rochester, NY 
14618, offers the RUNIC 1.0 
threaded interpreted lan- 
guage, on CP/M disk, in vari- 
ous popular microcomputer 
formats. RUNIC has its roots 



IM\ <:<»I!0I MAKES IT ACROSS! 



IK I II 




. . .FROM ONE OPERATING SYSTEM TO ANOTHER! 
A VITAL WAY TO PROTECT YOUR SOFTWARE 
INVESTMENT FOR THE FUTURE!! 

The KM €4MMM< language runs on more different Oper- 
ating Systems and more different-sized computers than 
any other similar language For starters, it runs on NCR 
and TI minicomputers and, in the micro field, on the 
CP/M*, MP/M*. TRSD0S\ OASIS 4 , MOASIS 4 ,and UNIX 5 
( ONYX version ) Operating Systems. . to mention only 
a few. 

Until now, serious business software of the scope and 
flexibility seen in the minicomputer world has not been 
available on micros KM CfMMM. now allows transfer of 
such software with a minimum of fuss. 

We have participated in such a mini-to-micro transfer 
of a major set of general business software. . using KM 
l.'IMMM, as the transfer mechanism, of course. Running on 
literally thousands of minicomputers, these refined, 
enhanced, and proven software packages cover A/R, A/P, 
G/L. P/R, Order Entry (with Invoicing and Inventory 
Control ) as well as Sales Analysis. The packages define a 
new level of achievement for features and flexibility in 
micro applications software and offer top quality at a 
reasonable price 

For immediate information, call 714 848-1922 foryour 
complete product descriptions. 

. . PLUS ALL THE OLD, FAMILIAR FAVORITES that 

we continue to offer, such as: 

General Business Client Accounting (CPA Write-up) 

FMS e ( Financial Modeling System ) 
NAD 7 ( Name and Address System) 



Real Estate— REAP ( Real Estate Acquisition Programs ) 

PMS ( Property Management System ) 

MLS* (Multiple lusting System) 

Health Care— APH a (Automated Patient History) 

Word Processing and System Software— Magic Wand'* 

QSORT 7 
CBASIC2 10 



[KM 



YOU'RE SERIOUS ABOUT 
RUNNING A SKELETON CREW 





HE'S NEW TO THE A 

SYSTEM BUT HE 
CAN BONE UP ON IT. I 



and Cybernetics' unique TRS-80\ Model II CP/M offering 
high performance, hard disk support, and CP/M com- 
patibility. 

Trademarks of: 

1 — Ryan McFarland Corp. 2— Digital Research. Inc., 3— Tandy 
Corp , 4— Phase One Systems. Inc. 5— Bell Telephone Laborator- 
ies. Inc, 6— American Business Systems. Inc, 7— Structured 
Systems Group. Inc. 8— Cybernetics. Inc.. 9— Peachtree Software, 
Inc : 10— Compiler Systems. Inc 



Cs' 



E R N E T I C S 
N 



(714)848-1922 



8041 NEWMAN AVE., SUITE 208 
HUNTINGTON BEACH, CA 92647 



196 Microcomputing, January 1982 



in FORTH, but is more easily 
read and maintained than 
FORTH eode. RUNIC imple- 
ments higher-level data struc- 
tures than FORTH, including 
integers, iloats and character 
strings. RUNIC uses RPN to 
evaluate its expressions, but 
its eontrol structures are 
closer to those of Pascal, 
BASIC and other algebraic 
languages. Price is S52.95. 
Reader Service number 479. 



VisiPeek 

Micro-Sparc. Box 325. Lin- 
coln. MA 01773. has released 
a utility for users of Personal 
Software's VisiCalc on the Ap- 
ple II. Apple VIP (VisiCalc Info 
Printer) reads VisiCalc files 
and produces listings of the 
formats, formulas, variables 
and other VisiCalc grid ele- 
ments. Labels and formulas 
appear in their complete, un- 
truncated form. VIP lets you 
examine individual elements, 
selected areas of the grid or 
the entire VisiCalc sheet . Files 
can be listed in either row or 
column sequence, sorted al- 
phabet ically by column. Ap- 



ple VIP requires Applesoft: 
specify DOS 3.2 or 3.3 ver- 
sion. Price is $23.45. Reader 
Service number 480. 



Space Waste Race 

Storybooks of the Future, 
527-4 1st Ave.. San Francisco. 
CA 94121. has announced 
Space Waste Race, a comput- 
erized storybook for young 
children. This program for the 
TRS-80 includes animated 
graphics, music, sound ef- 
fects and contextual learning 
activities. The learning games 
involve the story's graphics or 
ideas. The story tells about 
the moon getting jealous 
when a giant rocket ship 
brings all the earth's wastes 
into space to form a new gar- 
bage "moon." A silly moon 
race ensues that ends in colli- 
sion—and the fallout can go 
either way. Space Waste Race 
is available on cassette or disk 
for Models I and III. The 32K 
program costs $24.95: the 
slimmer 16K version (story- 
book with three games only) 
is $19.95. Reader Service 
number 481. 



MULL 





is HARD COPY STORAGE a problem? 

KILOBAUD MICROCOMPUTING, as 

thick as it is. is more like a floppy 
when it comes to standing on the 
bookshelf. Tvy the KILOBAUD 
MICROCOMPUTING Library Shelf 
Boxes . . . sturdy corrugated white 
dirt-resistant cardboard boxes 
which will keep them from flopping 
around. We have self-sticking labels 
for the boxes, too. not only for 
KILOBAUD MICROCOMPUTING, but 
also for 73 Magazine, 80 MICRO- 
COMPUTING and for CQ, QST, 

Ham Radio, Personal Computing, Radio Electronics, Inter- 
face Age, and Byte. Ask for whatever stickers you want 
with your box order. They hold a full year of KILOBAUD 
MICROCOMPUTING, 80 MICROCOMPUTING or 73 

Magazine. Your magazine library is your prime reference; 
keep it handy and keep it neat with these strong library 
shelf boxes. One box (BX-1000) is $2.00. 2-7 boxes (BX- 
1001 ) are $ I .50 each, and eight or more boxes (BX- 1002) 
are $ I .25 each. Be sure to specify which labels we should 
send. Have your credit card handy and call our toll-free 
order number 800-258-5473. or use the order card in the 
back of the magazine and mail to: 

kilobaud tm 

MICROCOMPUTING 



Peterborough nh 03458 



Att: Book Sales. 



Shipping & Handling $2 00 per order 

$10 00 foreign airmail 



S-lOO PRODUCTS 

| EXTENDER BOARD WITH LOGIC PROBE $89 assa/ tested 

with these features for use in testing your S-100 boards. 

• Logic probe with display shows; (H) for TTL logic 
high, (L) for low, (0) for open or 3-state, and 
(P) for pulse. 

• Pulse catcher switch latches (P) aids in detecting 
infrequent pulses. 

• Jumper links in +8 and +16 volt lines allow 
current measurement, switching and fusing. 

• Interlaced signal and ground traces reduce noise. 

• Pushbutton reset allows restarting test programs. 

• Formed leads on both sides of the edge connector 
for easy scope probe attachment. 

• Prototyping area and regulated 5 volts allows 
construction of special test circuits on the board. 

• Edge connector label shows signal names and pin numbers. 

• 5 1/2" high, on quality FR-4 material, solder masked 
and gold plated on mating surfaces. 

2 INDUSTRIAL EXTENDER BOARD $99 assa/tested 

saves time where many boards are tested every day. 

• ZERO-INSERTION FORCE edge connector. 

• Switch and indicator light control +8 and +16 volt 
power . 

• Pushbutton reset allows restarting test programs. 

• Fuses in power lines protect test computer. 

• Interlaced signal and ground traces reduce noise. 

• Formed leads on both sides of edge connector for 
easy scope probe attachment. 

• Edge connector labels show signal names and pin numbers 

• 6" high, on quality FR-4 material, solder masked and 
gold plated on mating surfaces. 

3 RELAY OPTO-ISOLATOR CONTROLLER BOARD $219 assa/tested 

for signal switching, or controlling low power devices. 

• 8 reed relays. 

• 8 opto-isolators with input bridge rectifiers, 
series resistors, and filter capacitors. 

• 256 switch selectable port addresses. 

• Removable terminal block for use with up to 
16 AWG wire. 

• LED indicators in relay drive circuits. 
•Socket for input simulation or testing. 

• Quality FR-4 material, solder masked & gold plated 
on bus connector. 

• Instructions include programming examples. 

■TTRIAC OPTO-ISOLATOR CONTROLLER BOARD $219 assa/ tea ted 

for controlling line voltage AC devices. 

• 8 triacs with snubbers for controlling inductive 
loads, and zero crossing isolated drive circuitry. 

•8 opto-isolators with input bridge rectifiers, 
series resistors, and filter capacitors. 

•256 switch selectable port addresses. 

• Removable terminal block for use with up to 
16 AWG wire. 

• LED indicators in triac drive circuits. 

• Socket for input simulation or testing. 

•Quality FR-4 material, solder masked & gold plated 
on bus connector. 

•Instructions include programming examples. 

MULLEN COMPUTER PRODUCTS ^37 
BOX 6214, HAYWARD, CA 94544 

OR PHONE (415) 783-2866 • VISA/MASTERCHARGE ACCEPTED 

INCLUDE $1 50 FOR SHIPPING & HANDLING 

CALIFORNIA RESIDENTS ADD TAX 



sSee List of Advertisers on page 178 



Microcomputing, January 1982 197 




SUPER 
MEMORY SALE 



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Write for Our Full Line Catalog 
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If You've Written 
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INSTANT SOFTWARE. INC. ^75 
Submissions Dept. 
Peterborough. NH 03458 



CONVERSIONS "I" 



Fifteen Puzzle 

This program is a conversion of William L. Colsher's Fifteen Puzzle {Kilobaud Mi- 
crocomputing, February 198 1 , p. 114) from TRS-80 Level I to Level II. It is contributed 
by E. L. Green, 890 Montego Bay Drive, Merritt Island. FL 32952. 

Kilobaud Microcomputing welcomes and encourages such conversions of pro- 
grams that appear in the magazine. 



Program listing. 



10 

20 

err [ r r 
o. 



REM*** FIFTEEN PUZZLE f ROM M I IPUTING FEE 81 PG I I '1 
REM*** B. Will IAN I .C0LSHEF I ISLE, ill 

REM*** MQDII tED B» E.L.'LANt 'GREEN B9< < MONTEGO Bh>' DR, 
[SI ANP.F L 32952 r0 RUN • ill 



M 
PROGRAM FOR TRS 8 



30 

4, 

30 
60 

70 
80 
90 

1 oo 

1 10 

1 20 

1 30 

140 

145 

1 50 

160 

1 70 

1 BO 

190 

200 

999 

4OO0 

4010 

4020 

4030 

4040 

40S0 

50OO 

5005 

50 1 O 
5020 
5030 
5040 
5050 
5060 
5070 
5080 
5090 
5095 

5 1 OO 
5110 
5 1 20 
5 1 30 
6000 
6005 
6010 
60 1 5 
6020 
6025 
6028 
6030 
6038 
60 4 
6050 
6060 
60 70 
7000 
7010 
701 5 
7020 
7025 
7030 
7035 
7040 

45 
7050 
7060 
BOOO 
80 1 
BO 

B030 
804' l 
BOSO 
8060 
BO70 
80PU 



DIMA( 16) 
ri^i INPUT "DO 



nil NEED INSTRUI [ I0N1 i. N=2)"»AiIF A 1 l HEN GOSUB lOOOO 

PUZZLI rAKES A WHILE. PLEASE WAIT." 



CLS : M Oi PR INT" GENE RAT I NG f Ht 
F OR I - 1 TO 16: A < I ) =0l Nfc >' 1 f 
FOR 1-1 TO 16 
R-RND< 16) 

IF A<R)< O THEN 70 
A ( R ) = I 
NEXT I 
GOSUB 5000 
IF F»l THEN 50 
GOSUB 6OO0 

PR I NT " " : I NPUT " YOUR MOVE " ; * 
GOSUB 4000 
GOSUB 7OO0 
IF F O THEN ISO 

PRINT" ILLEGAL MOVE, RE-ENTER"! 
A<X+F)=A<X) : A<X)=16 
GOTO BOOO 
M=M+1: GOTO 130 
END 

REM*** CONVERT NUMBER TO LOCATION 
FOR 1-1 TO 16 
IF A<I)=X THEN 4040 
NEXT I 
X = I 
RETURN 

REM*** VERIFY SOLUTION POSSIBLE 
F=l 
S=0 

FOR 1=1 TO 15 
FOR J-I + l TO 16 

THEN S=S+1 
I 



FOR 1=1 TO 500i NEXT I i GOTO 130 



IN ARRAY 



A<J) 
NE X T 
TO 8 



THEN S=S+1 



:() 



15 



";M 



IF A ( I ) 
NEXT J: 
FOR I»I 
READ X 
IF A(X)=0 
NEXT I 
RESTORE 
A-INTCS/2) 
IF A*2=S THEN 
RETURN 

DATA 2, 4, 5, 7, 10, 12, 13 
REM*** DISPLAY GAME BOARD 
CLS: L = 339: PRINT 5)21 7, "MOVE 
FOR 1=1 TO 4 
PR I NT .01 . " "; 
FOR J-l TO 4 
N~A< ( 1-1 ) *4+J> 
IF N=16 THEN N=0 

IF N lO THENPR1NT" ";N;:GOTO 6O40 
IF (N=10)0R(N 16) THEN PRINTN; 
NEXT J 
L=L+64 
NEXT I 
RETURN 

REM*** CHECK FOR LEGAL MOVE 
F-0 
IF X4| 16 THEN 7025 

A(X+n = 16 THEN F=l 

X-l =U THEN 7035 

A(X-1)=16 THEN F = -1 

X+4 16 THEN 7045 

A(X+-4)=16 THEN F=4 

X-4 =0 THEN 7060 

A(X-4)=16 THEN F"-4 
RETURN 

REM*** CHECK 
FOR 1=1 TO 16 
IF A( I ) I THEN200 
NE X I [ 
GOSUB 6000 
PRINT" ": PRINT" 
PRINT"CONGRATULAT IONS 
PRINT" ": INPUT "TM PLAY AGAIN. 
GOTO 10 



IF 
IF 
IF 
IF 
IF 
IF 
IF 



FOR A WIN 



you 



D I D I T I N ONL'r " ; M ; " MOVES ! ! " 
HIT 'ENTER' . "; 




198 Microcomputing, January 1982 






Listing continued. 



10000 REM*** INSTRUCTIONS 

10010 CLS:PRINT5>18, "F IFTEEN PUZZLE" 

10020 PR I NTS) 128, "THE OBJECT OF THE FIFTEEN PUZZLE IS TO MOVE THE" 

10030 PR I NT "NUMBERS AROUND SO THAT THEY ARE IN ORDER FROM 1 TO 15." 

10040 PR I NT "A MOVE IS MADE BY TYPING IN THE NUMBER (WHICH MUST BE " 

10050 PR I NT "ADJACENT TO THE ZERO) YOU WISH TO MOVE. THAT NUMBER IS" 

10060 PR I NT "THEN EXCHANGED WITH THE ZERO. YOU WIN WHEN THE BOARD" 

10065 PR I NT "LOOKS LIKE THIS:" 

10070 PRINT" "-.PRINT" ":PRINT"1 2 3 4":PRINT"5 6 7 8":PRINT"9 

10080 PRINT" 13 14 15 O" 

\0090 PRINT" "•. INPUT "HIT 'ENTER' TO PLAY"; AS 

10100 RETURN 



10 11 12" 



CONVERSIONS "II" 



A "Personable" Calendar 

This conversion of G.R. Boyntons Personable Calendar program for the PET (Aug. 
1980, p. 168) is written in Applesoft BASIC. The author has added one-key inputs and 
a printer prompt for a printed calendar of appointments. The printed sheet can list for 
a specific day or for a full month. To print out a monthly calendar when prompted to 
enter the date, simply enter the month only. (Contributed by Kenneth M. Jenkins, 915 
S. 12th St., Gadsden, AL 35901.) 



Program listing. 



5 


HOME : 


VTAB 5 




10 


PRINT 


"PLEASE TYPE IN YOUR GREETING •»»" 


20 


VTAB 20 




21 


INPUT 


'HERE 


»:"tC$ 


30 


FOR I i 


= 1 TO 


LEN (G$> 


40 


IF MID* <G$ 


»It LEN ("KEN")) = "KEN" THEN NA* * "KEN" 


50 


NEXT I 






60 


IF NA* 


= "KEN" THEN GOTO 1010 


70 


home : 


INPUT 


"MY NAME IS 'ISAAC. WHAT IS YOUR NAME? "?NA$ 


90 


GOSUB . 


1110 




?2 


PRINT 






95 


HOME : 


VTAB 


12 


97 


PRINT ■ 


ENTER 


DATE AS (EX. AUGUST 01)": PRINT 


100 


INPUT 


"WHAT 


IS THE DATE TODAY? "tD$ 


120 


GOTO 2010 




890 


HOME 






900 


PRINT 


"THE 1 


PROGRAM IS MADE UP OF THE FOLLOWING" 


902 


PRINT 


"COMPONENTS:" 


903 


PRINT 


: PRINT : PRINT 


904 


PRINT 


TAB( 


5)"1 - CONTROL FOR HELLO" 


906 


PRINT 


TAB( 


5)"10-120" 


908 


PRINT 


TAB( 


5)" 2 - GREETINGS KEN" 


910 


PRINT 


TAB( 


5)" 1000-1099" 


912 


PRINT 


TAB( 


5)" 3 - GREETINGS OTHER" 


914 


PRINT 


TAB< 


5)" 1100-1199" 


916 


PRINT 


TAB( 


5)' 4 - READ DATA FOR CALENDAR" 


918 


PRINT 


TAB( 


5)" 2000-2140" 


P2G 


PRINT 


TAB( 


5)" 5 - ROUTE FOR CALANDAR SUBR'S" 


922 


PRINT 


TAB( 


5)" 2145-2299" 


924 


PRINT 


TAB< 


5)" 6 - TODAY'S EVENTS" 


926 


PRINT 


TAB( 


5 >" 2300-2330" 


928 


PRINT 


: PRINT "HIT 'RETURN' TO GET THE REST" 


930 


GET A1 


►: HOME : IF A$ = "" THEN 930 


932 


VTAB 10 




936 


PRINT 


TAB( 


5)" 7 - OTHER DATES" 


938 


PRINT 


TAB( 


5)" 2400-2450" 


940 


PRINT 


TAB( 


5)"8 - UNFINISHED ITEMS" 


942 


PRINT 


TAB( 


5 )" 2500-2599" 


944 


PRINT 


TAB( 


5)" 9 - CHANGE STATUS OF ITEMS" 


946 


PRINT 


TAB( 


5)" 2600-2699" 


948 


PRINT 


TAB( 


5)" 10- ADD ITEMS TO CALENDAR" 


950 


PRINT 


TAB< 


5 >" 2700-2799" 


956 


PRINT 


TAB( 


5)"11- HRITE TO DISK" 


958 


PRINT 


TAB( 


5 )" 2800-2898" 


960 


PRINT 


TAB( 


5)" 12- SEARCH BY DATE - 


962 


PRINT 


TAB( 


5)" 2900-2999" 


968 


PRINT 


: PRINT "HIT 'RETURN' FOR CALENDAR ■ 


970 


GET A$ 


: HOME : IF A$ = " THEN 970 


979 


GOTO 2190 




980 


IF FRE (0) 


> 200 THEN 987 


981 


HONE 






982 


VTAB 12t PRINT "THERE IS VERY LITTLE SPACE LEFT IN MEMORY- 


983 


PRINT 


: INPUT "DO YOU HANT TO DELETE ALL OF THE ITEMS THAT 




HED7-? 


A* 





ARE FINIS 




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I 6K... $149.95 
32K...S 199.95 

48K... $249.95 
64K . . . $299.95 




New JAWS-IB 

The Ultrabyte Memory Board 

Due to the tremendous success of our JAWS I, we 
were able to make a special purchase of first-quality 
components at below-cost prices for JAWS-IB. And 
we are sharing our cost saving with you. But don't be 
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and get the best memory on the market at the best 
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solder mask on both sides of board . . . phantom line 
. . . designed for 8080, 8085, and Z80 bus signals . . . 
works in Explorer, Sol, Horizon, as well as all other 
well-designed SlOO computers. 



► 



I0-D4Y MONKY BM k TRIAL: TYv * fully wired 
and tested board lor todays then either keep 
it. return II lor kit. or simply return II In working 
condition. 






KB8 



Continental U.S.A. Cradil Card Buyers Outside Connecticut: 
TO ORDER CALL TOLL FREE 800-243-7428 

From Connect icvit Or Fur Assistance 
(203) 354-9375 

Please send the items cheeked below: 

JAWS-IB kit: 

D 16K $149.95* 

D 32K $199.95* 

□ 48K $249.95* 

□ 64K $299.95* 

JAWS-IB Fully Assembled, Wired & Tested: 

□ 16K $179.95* 

D 32K $239.95* 

□ 48K $299.95* 

□ 64K $359.95* 

D EXPANSION KIT, 16K RAM Module, to expand 
JAWS-IB in 16K blocks up to 64K. $59.95 

*A\i prices p/tis $2 postogc and insurtinee ($4(M) Canada). 
Connec t icut mkJmti tuhl suits lax. 

Total enclosed: $ 

D Personal Check D Money Order or Cashier's Check 

n VISA G Master Card (Bank No. ) 



Acct. No. 

Signature 
Print 
Name 



Exp. Date 



Address 
City 



State 



Zip 



lib 



NETRONICS R&D Lid. 

333 Litchfield Road, New Milford, CT 06776 



• See List of Advertisers on page 178 



Microcomputing, January 1982 199 



v* °° l 




We've 
got great 
products for you! 



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complete with cross reference listing, fully com- 

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Write or c a// (or free product catalog and 



• 213 



< 



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the computer room ^ 74 

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v 



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Lata Rant Report 
Vacancy Report 
Income Report 
Auto Late Charge 
Returned Checks 



• Ownership Files 
Building Reports 
Utilities Report 

■ Tax Expense Report 

• Prints Checks 

• Prints Receipts 



• PROPERTY LISTINGS ( OMPARABI.F.S: $325 



-SCREEN BY- 

• 22 Items/Listing 

• 1000 Listing/Disk 

• Listing Memo Field 



Max/Mm Price 
Units/Zone/City 
Max Price/Income 
Max Pnce/Sq Foot 
Mm Cashflow 



• REAL ESTATE ANALYSIS MODULES: S40 Module 

• Home Purchase • Tax Deterred Exchange 

• Income Prop Analysis • APR Loan Analysis 

• Property Sales • Loan Amortization 

• Construction Cost/Protit • Depreciation Analysis 

• WORD PROCESSOR MAGIC WAND: 1185 



At Computer Stores Everywhere 

or Order COO Direct 
Cai Residents add 6% Sales Tax 




ompany 



(213) 372 9419 



Suit© F, Dopt K i 116-8tti St.. Manhattan Beach. CA 90266 



Listing continued. 



985 
986 
987 
988 

98? 

990 

995 

996 

998 

99? 

1000 

1010 

1020 

1025 

1030 

103S 

1040 

1045 

1050 

1055 

1060 

1065 

1070 

1100 

1110 

1120 

1130 

1135 

1140 

1150 

1160 

1170 

1180 

2000 

2005 

2010 

2015 

2016 

2017 

2020 

2021 

2023 

2025 

2040 

2045 
2050 
2060 
2065 
2070 
2080 
2090 
2100 
2110 
2130 
2140 
2150 
2155 
2160 
2165 
2180 
21?0 

21?5 
2200 
2210 
2220 
2230 
2240 
2245 
2250 
2252 
2260 
2265 
2270 
2275 
2280 
2283 
2285 
2290 
22?5 
2300 
2310 
2320 
2330 
2400 
2402 
2404 

2410 
2430 
2440 
2450 
25O0 
2510 
2515 
2520 



Y" THEN E = i: GGSUB 2510 



■ WR THEN 
"THERE ARE 



995 
ONE 



OR MORE CHANCES THAT HAVE NOT BEEN REC 



IF A$ ■ 
GOTO 996 
H0HE : IF CH < 
VTAB 12: PRINT 
0RDED." 

INPUT "DO YOU yANT TO WRITE THEN TO DISK?" r A* 
IF A$ ■ "Y" THEN G0SUB 2810 
HONE 

VTAB 12: PRINT TAB( 20 )" GOODBYE ! "" "NA$ 
PRINT TAB< 20)"GLAD I COULD HELP YOU." 
FOR I = 1 TO 3000: NEXT It HOME : PRINT 
REM HELLO KEN 

LET N * INT <( RND (1) * 10) / 2.5) x 1 
ON N G0SUB 1035t 1045» 1055» 1065 
FOR K = 1 TO 1500 : NEXT K 
GOTO 92 

HOME : VTAB 12: HTAB 30 
PRINT "HELLO DESIGNER": 
: VTAB 12: HTAB 30 
"BACK TO UORKf EH?": 

VTAB 12: HTAB 30 
"Hie KEN": RETURN 
VTAB 12: HTAB 30 
" HOWDY r KEN": RETURN 
OTHERS 

: VTAB 12: PRINT NA*" 
"TO BE DONE." 

"I HELP KEN KEEP UP WITH HIS WORK." 
= 1 TO 1500: NEXT K 

"HE TELLS ME WHAT HE HAS TO DO ON EACH" 
"DAY, AND I REMIND HIM ABOUT WHAT IS ON" 
"FOR TODAY, AND WHAT HE HAS NOT FINISHED." 
* 1 TO 6500 : NEXT 



CHR* (4)» "RUN DISK #21' 



RETURN 



HOME 

PRINT 

HOME 

PRINT 

HOME 

PRINT 

REM 

HOME ; 

PRINT 

PRINT 

FOR K 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 



RETURN 



I AM A CALENDAR OF THINGS" 



FOR K 

RETURN 

REM CALENDAR 



ROUTINE 



= 1 TO 2000*. 

VTAB 12 
"FIRST I HAVE 



NEXT I 



FOR I 
HOME 
PRINT 
PRINT 
HTAB 25 

PRINT "CAN YOU WAIT? 
HOME 

IF A* = "Y" THEN 
HOME : VTAB 12 
IF LEFT* (A*»l) < > 
T READING THE DISK-FILE 
HOME : VTAB 12 

l = i:d = i:c = o:f* = 



TO READ THE CALENDAR— "NA* 



-;: 



GET A* 



GOTO 2045 



Y" THEN 
FIRST 



»•: 



PRINT 
GOTO 



-NOTHING 
2000 



HAPPENS "NA*" WITHOU 



(4>5"OPEN 
(4>*"READ 



"MEMOS* 
"JF* 



*F* 



CHR* (4)t 

VTAB 12 
"WOULD YOU 
"TODAY? "$: 

VTAB 12 
* "Y" THEN 



CLOSE "*F* 



LIKE 
GET 



TO 
A* 



PRINT CHR* 

PRINT CHR* 

INPUT N 
J = N + 10 

DIM DA*( J)»IT*( J)tST*( J) 

FOR K * 1 TO N 
: INPUT DA*(K)fIT*(K)fST*(K> 

NEXT K 

PRINT 

HOME ! 

PRINT 

PRINT 

HOME 

IF A$ 

PRINT 

PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
IF A* 



SEE WHAT IS ON FOR " i 



GOSUB 2310 



WHAT'S NEXT "»NA*"? (TYPE FIRST WORD OF SELECTION). 



IF 
IF 
IF 
IF 
IF 
IF 
ON 



! PRINT 

TAB< 10)"0THER DATES" 
TAB< 10)"PAST ITEMS NOT COMPLETE 
TAB< 10)"STATUS UPDATE" 
TAB( 10)" ADDITIONS" 
TAB< 10)"T0DAY" 

TAB( 10)"C0MP0NENTS OF PROGRAM" 
TAB( 10)"D0NE WITH CALENDAR" 
\ PRINT : PRINT "WHICH? »:•? 
■■ "0" THEN RO " 1 

2: REM 2510 

3: REM 2605 

4: REM 2705 

REM 2310 

890 



GET A* 



II p H 

"S" 
"A" 

NTH 

"C" 
"D" 



THEN 
THEN 
THEN 
THEN 
THEN 
THEN 



RO 
RO 
RO 
RO 






A$ 
A* 
A* 
At 

A* = "C" THEN GOSUB 

A$ = "D" THEN 980 

RO GOSUB 2400,2500,2600,2700,2300,900 

GOTO 2190 
REM TODAY 
SE$ ■ D$ 

GOSUB 2900 
RETURN 



HOME 

PRINT 

PRINT 



VTAB 12 

FOR SPECIFIC DATE.. TYPE MONTH 1 

FOR FULL MONTH'S SCHEDULE. . TYPE 



DAY (EX .JUNE 23)" 
MONTH ONLY 



(EX. JUNE)".* PRINT 



INPUT "WHICH DATE ARE 
HOME :SE$ ■ DB$ 
GOSUB 2900 
RETURN 



YOU LOOKING F0R?"tDBt 



HOME 
PRINT 
PRINT 
FOR K 
IF E ' 



VTAB 
"HERE 

= 1 TO 

■■ 1 AND 



12 
IS 

N 



WHAT'S HANGING OVER YOUR HEAD! 



ST*(K) ■ "NOT FINISHED" THEN NN = NN t 1 




More 



200 Microcomputing, January 1982 



Listing continued. 



2530 

2535 

2540 

254 5 

2550 

2560 

2565 

2570 

2575 

2580 

2590 

2600 

2605 

2610 

2620 

2630 

2633 

2635 

2640 

2650 

2660 

2665 

2670 

2675 

2677 

2680 



2685 

2690 

2695 

27O0 

2705 

2710 

2715 

2717 

2720 

2725 

2727 

2730 

2735 

2737 

2740 

2742 

2745 

2750 

2755 

2757 

2760 

2765 

2767 

2770 

2775 

2800 

2810 

2820 

2822 

2825 

2830 

2840 

2845 

2850 

2830 

2890 

2898 

2899 

2900 

2905 

2906 

2910 

2920 

2930 

294 

2945 

2950 

2960 

2961 

2962 

2963 

2965 

2967 

2969 

2970 

2975 

2980 

2982 

2984 

2985 

2990 

2995 

3000 

3010 

3020 

3030 

3040 

3050 

22570 



K 
K 



) = 

) ■ 



MID$ 
"ITEM 
IT$<K 



( DA$< K >,1, 
♦ " RIGHTS 



) 



IF ST*< 

IF ST$( 

NEXT K 

IF E = 1 THEN 2810 
RETURN 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
FOR Z 
GOTO 
HOHE 
PRINT 
INPUT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
HOME 
IF A* 
INPUT 
PRINT 
INPUT 
FOR K 
IF DIt 
NEXT K 
HOME : 
CH = CH 
HER CHANGE?" 
HOME 

IF AS = "Y" 
RETURN 

REM ADDITIONS 
HOME : VTAB 12 
INPUT "WHAT IS 
VTAB 10 



"FINISHED" THEN GOTO 2540 
"NOT FINISHED" THEN GOTO 2560 



LEN (DA$(K>) - 
(DA$(K)r2) 



2) 



OF THE ITEM YOU WANT' 



= 1 TO 1500: NEXT Z 
2540 

: VTAB 12 
"WHAT IS THE DATE 
"TO CHANGE?" tDB* 
: PRINT "DO YOU WANT 
"THAT DATE FIRST?" J : 
12 

THEN GOSUB 2430 
IS DATE AND ITEM NUMBER 
t PRINT "IS THE NEW STATUS TO 
M/ NOT FINISHED' ?"5ST$ 
= 1 TO N 
= DA$<K> THEN STt( K ) = ST$ 



VTAB 

— ii y M 

"WHAT 



TO LOOK 
GET A* 



AT THE ITEMS FOR" 



TO BE CHANGED?" i DIt 
BE 'FINISHED' OR" 



VTAB 
+ It 



If 



12 

PRINT 
GET 



"0K» 
A* 



THE CHANCE IS MADE. DO YOU WANT TO MAKE AHOT 



THEN 2605 



"SINCE YOU HAVE TO GIVE AN ITEM NUMBER" 
"AS WELL AS THE DATE DO YOU WANT TO" 
"LOOK AT THE ITEMS FOR THAT DATE?";: GET 

12 

THEN GOSUB 2430 

IS THE DATE AND ITEM NUMBER?" rDAt< N 



I VTAB 
= "Y" 
"WHAT 

: VTAB 

"WHAT 

VTAB 

"WHAT 

i:ch 



10 

IS THE ITEM TO BE ENTERED?" JIT$< N + 1) 

10 

IS THE 

= CH 4 



"DO YOU WANT 
: VTAB 10 
= "Y" THEN 2705 
"ARE YOU READY TO 

VTAB 10 
= "Y" THEN GOSUB 



STATUS? 

1 

TO ADD ANOTHER 



ITEM?"? : 



THE DATE OF NEW ENTRY?" »DB$ 
HOME 

PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
HOME 
IF A* 
INPUT 
HOME 
INPUT 
HOME 
INPUT 
N = N 4 
PRINT 
HOME 
IF A* 
PRINT 
HOME : 
IF AS 
RETURN 
REM WRITE TO DISK 

l = i:d = i:c = i:f$ = 

PRINT CHR$ (4 

PRINT CHRS (4 

IF E = 1 THEN 

PRINT N 

FOR K = 1 TO N 

IF E = 1 AND ST$(K) = "FINISHED" THEN 2880 

PRINT DA$(K>: PRINT IT$(K): PRINT ST*< K ) 

NEXT K 

CHR$ (4)»"CL0SE"F*:WR = WR 4 KCH * 
RETURN 
DATE AND PRINT 



At 



4 1) 



FINISHED OR NOT FINISHED?" IST»(N 4 1) 



GET A* 



WRITE ALL THIS TO DISK?"?: GET A$ 
2810 



"MEMOS" 
)»"OPEN "JFt 
)r"WRITE "»F$ 
PRINT HHi GOTO 2840 



PRINT : PRINT : 

REM SEARCH FOR 
CO = 
W = LEN <SE») 

GOSUB 3000 

FOR K = 1 TO N 

IF LEFTf (DA$(K)rW) = SE$ THEN 2960 

NEXT K 

HOME : VTAB 12: IF CO = 

PRINT " PR#0": PRINT 

RETURN 

IF CO 

HOHE 

PRINT 

FOR I 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 



WR 



THEN PRINT "NOTHING FOR "SEt: PRINT : PRINT 



> THEN 2969 

HTAB 25 
"APPOINTMENTS FOR 
= 1 TO 80: PRINT 
"THE ITEMS ON THE 
: PRINT 

MJD$ (DAUK)flf 
"ITEM * " RICHTf 

TAB( 20)IT$<K) 
FINISHED" 



** 



•SE$"t 1980 
NEXT I 
CALENDAR ARE:" 



*t 



II 



LEN <DAt<K>> - 
<DA*(K>f2> 



2) 



THEN PRINT "COMPLETED' 



IF ST$<K) = 

IF ST$<K) = "NOT FINISHED" THEN PRINT "NOT COMPLETED" 
PRINT : PRINT 
CO = CO 4 1 
FOR Z = 1 TO 3000 : NEXT Z 
PRINT J GOTO 2930 
REM PRINTER 
HOME : VTAB 12 

PRINT "PRINTER ? (Y/N) "?: GET P» 
HOME 

IF P* = "Y" THEN PRINT " PRtl" 
RETURN 
PRINT "ITEM * " RIGHT* (DA$<K)t2) 



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Microcomputing, January 1982 201 



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S 345 



bered d. Default values are 10 for a and b, 
and the beginning and end of the pro- 
gram for c and d. 

TRACE [xxl.print list]). Traces the logic 
flow of a program. After each statement is 
executed, its line number is printed in 
square brackets. The run begins at line 
xx if the parameter is included. The print 
list may be anything normally found 
after a PRINT command, so that variable 
values may be traced as the program exe- 
cutes. I find it helpful in some cases to in- 
clude a CHR$(17) (i.e., HOME) in the 
print list so that the changing values stay 
in a fixed position at the top of the screen 
rather than scrolling. 

HELP xx. This command is used to find 
a non-obvious error in a line. The line is 
executed in command mode until the er- 
ror is found, and then the line displayed 
in EDIT mode with the cursor over or 
near the error. Note that there are some 
errors HELP cant detect, and also that 
any GOTO encountered will be executed. 
Still, I have found this to work, though I 
can envisage situations where it could be 
tricked by changed variable values, etc. 
FIND ["] string. Lists all program lines 
containing the string. If it is anticipated 
within PRINT or REM statements, the 
quote should be included. A wildcard 
character £ can be used within the 
string to represent any single character. 
DEFx. Defines a function key, where x 
is any single-digit number. Enter any 
function (series of commands to be exe- 
cuted) from one to 1000 characters long. 
Up to ten functions may be defined or re- 
defined. Graphics RAM is used as the buf- 
fer, starting at FFFF and going down. To 
terminate a definition input, CTRL-C is 
used. To use the defined function x, just 
use CTRL-x. A special input character i 
may be used in the definition to pause for 
keyboard input, similar to the BASIC in- 
put statement. 

VAR. Lists the values of any scalar 
numeric or string variables currently de- 
fined. This is helpful to find out why an 
error has occurred. No array variables are 
listed, and the list is in order of creation 
as the program is executed. 

LiST I'xxf.yy/J. Lists the program— the 
usual graphic shortform can be used. 
The listing is from line xx to yy. If the 
parameters are omitted, they default to 
program start and end, and if yy is omit- 
ted, it defaults to xx (i.e., LIST 100 lists 
line 100). 

DEL lxx[,yylJ. Deletes lines from the 
program. Parameter defaults are as for 
LIST. 

CLOSE. Eliminates all blanks other 
than those in REM statements or within 
quotes. This is used to reduce the 
amount of memory required to store the 
program. 

OLD. May recover your program after a 
goof— accidental RESET, DEL or NEW, 
or a failure in CLOAD. If RESET was hit, 
System 3 must be restarted first by exit- 
ing to the Monitor and typing GO F070. 



CTRL-P. Starts or stops output to the 
printer. It does not work while a program 
is running, but you can temporarily halt 
the program with the RUN/STOP key to 
allow CRTL-P to be used. It works in 
BASIC or the Monitor. The system is set 
up to drive the Centronics output, but it 
can be changed to another driver by in- 
serting its address in locations F074 and 
F075. 

CLOAD?. Verifies a program on tape 
by reading it to check for CRC errors, 
similar to the Monitor Files command. 
This ensures that there is no corruption 
of memory if a CRC error does occur. This 
command is handy if you want to be sure 
that the program you just saved can be 
reread. 

MERGE. Merges a tape program onto 
the end of the current one. All the line 
numbers in the second program must be 
larger than the last line number in the 
first program. Care must be taken that no 
duplication or overlap of line numbers 
occurs. Any failure to observe this will 
lead to unpredictable results. The pro- 
gram will only be merged if the tape read 
is successful. 

Evaluation 

As you can see, quite an impressive ar- 
ray of commands is available with this 
program. System Software guarantees 
that it will cut programming and debug- 
ging time by half, and offers total satisfac- 
tion or your money back. Is their faith